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NEWMAN, ALFRED. He was a pupil of George
Hawkins, and drew architectural subjects on stone,
illustrating a valuable series of works, principally
on Gothic Architecture. Among these are ' Bever-
ley Minster,' ' Johnson's Relics of English Archi-
tecture,' ' W. E. Nesfield's Mediaeval Architecture,"
&c. Alfred Newman died in London, 13th March,
1866, aged 39.

NEWTON, ALFRED P., painter in water-colours.
He was born in 1830. In 1858 he was elected an
associate, and in 1879 a full member of the Royal
Society of Painters in Water-colours. He died in
1883 at Rock Ferry. He was a prolific exhibitor
in the rooms in Pall Mall East, sending in the last
year of his life no less than sixteen drawings, tbe
records of a visit to Greece. His work was re-
markable for its delicacy, and for a certain poetry
of expression rather than for its vigour.

NEWTON, EDWARD, is the name of an engraver
affixed to a portrait of William Tansur, the musi-
cian, published with his ' Melodia Sacra."

NEWTON, FRANCIS MILNER, was born in Lon-
don in 1720, and was a pupil of Marcus Tuscher.
He confined himself to portrait painting, in which
he was considerably employed, though by no means
an able artist. At the foundation of the Royal
Academy he was chosen a member, and was ap-
pointed the first secretary to that institution, which
situation he filled until 1788, when he resigned.
He held for some time the office of ' Muster Mas-
ter" for England, and generally wore the Windsor
uniform. He died in 1794, upon an estate which
had been left him, ne:ir Taunton.

NEWTON, GILBERT STDART, was born at Halifax,
in Nova Scotia, in 1795. He commenced his studies


[Collection of Lady Banbury
MR. T. B. BEALE, 1824


with Gilbert Stuart, who was his maternal uncle,
at Boston. He made a tour in Italy in 1817, and
then visited Paris, and in the course of the same
year he came to England and entered as a student
of the Royal Academy. He at first adopted Wat-
teau as his model, and produced several small
pictures much in the style of that master. His
first works that attracted notice were ' The For-
saken,' exhibited at the British Institution in 1821,
and ' The Lovers' Quarrel,' engraved for the
'Literary Souvenir' of 1826. The 'Prince of
Spain's Visit to Catalina ' was engraved in the
same annual in 1831, and he received 500 guineas
from the Duke of Bedford for the picture. His
other works, best known to the public by the
engravings, are ' Shyloek and Jessica,' ' Yorick and
the Grisette,' in the National Gallery ; ' The Abbot
Boniface,' 'Portia and Bassanio,' in the South
Kensington Museum ; and ' Lear attended by Cor-
delia and the Physician.' He also painted a small
picture of ' Abelard in his Study,' which he de-
posited as his diploma work on his election as
R.A. ; ' The Vicar of Wakefield restoring his
Daughter to her Mother ; ' ' The Poet, reading his
Verses to an impatient Gallant,' a piece of genuine
humour ; ' Macheath,' and a few portraits. The
' Macheath ' was purchased by the Marquis of
Lansdowne for 500 guineas. His last picture,
' Abelard ' was exhibited at the Royal Academy
in 1833, and it was about this time that he evinced
signs of aberration of mind, and these were fol-
lowed by unequivocal insanity, from which he
recovered only four days before his death. This
occurred on the 5th of August, 1835, at Chelsea.
He was a member of the Royal Academy from
1832. It is said that he was irritable and capricious ;
but lie enjoyed the steady friendship and esteem
of Washington Irving and Charles R. Leslie. His
pictures are weak in drawing, but many of them
are very fine in colour.

NEWTON, JAMES, an engraver, resided in Lon-
don about the year 1778. He was the son of an
engraver, EDWARD NEWTON, of whom nothing is
known. We have, among others, the following
prints by him :


Sidney Parkinson, Draughtsman on board of the En-
deavour, Capt. Cook.

William Newton, Clerk of the "Works at Greenwich

Edward Sargeant, Secretary to the Protestant Associa-
tion in 1780.


Two Views in Italy ; after Marco Ricci.

A Landscape, with Cattle passing a Kiver ; after Claude.

The Herdsman, a pastoral Landscape ; after Zuccarelli.

the daughter of Joseph Severn, the artist and
H.M. Consul at Rome, and studied figure painting
under Mr. G. Richmond, R.A. She was born at
Rome in 1832, and was taught drawing by her
father, who set her to copy old master drawings
and celebrated engravings. She became in later
years a pupil of Ary Scheffer, and was highly
praised by that artist. Her earlier works are in
crayons and water-colours, her later in oils. Her
contributions to the Exhibitions of the Royal
Academy include pictures named 'Chess,' dated
1855; 'Summer' and 'Winter,' 1864; and the
portrait of herself in 1863. She married, in 1861,
Mr. C. T. Newton (afterwards Sir Charles), super-
intendent of Greek and Roman Antiquities at the

British Museum, and turned her attention to paint-
ing from the sculptures, vases, &c., in that institu-
tion. In that branch of art she attained remarkable
skill. Very much of her time was given up to
preparing drawings for the illujtrations of her
husband's books, but some of her sketches of
scenery in Greece, near Smyrna, and on the
Euphrates and Tigris, were of remarkable beauty
and excellence. She died in London in 1866.

NEWTON, RICHARD, a caricaturist, and painter
in miniature. His works generally represent con-
vivial scenes. ' The Blue Devils,' 1795, drawn and
etched by himself, is perhaps his best production.
He died in London when only 21, the 9th December,

NEWTON, Sir WILLIAM JOHN, Kt., was the son
of James Newton the engraver, and was born in
London in 1785. He was a successful painter in
miniature, and exhibited at the Royal Academy in
1808, and subsequently. He was miniature painter
to Queen Adelaide, and was knighted in 1837. He
died in London the 22nd January, 1869.


NEYTS, JiGiDias or GILLIS, a Flemish painter,
who flourished at Antwerp from about 1647, in
which year he was named a master of the Painters'
Guild, to 1690. He was a disciple of Lucas van
Leyden, but next to nothing is known of his life.
In the Dresden Gallery there are two pictures
by him, a ' Mountain Landscape with Figures,"
signed jffl. Neyts,f. 1681 ; and a 'Mountain Land-
scape with Ruins,' signed G- Nevis f. He has left
the following etchings :

The Wooden Bridge.
Man and Dog.
View of Lille.
A Peasant's Cottage.

Besides the above signatures he also made use of
the annexed monogram :

NIBBS, RICHARD HENRY, was a popular painter
of marine subjects. His first picture, 'Lord Mayor's
Day,' appeared at the Academy of 1841, but next
year he sent a sea-piece, and to that branch of
art he afterwards remained constant. He died at
Brighton in 1893, in the seventy-eighth year of his

NICAISE, a French painter, who flourished at
Cambrai in 1448. He was commissioned by the
Duke of Burgundy to write the verses and paint
the scenery for an ' Histoire morale sur la Danse
Macabre,' which was performed in 1449 before the
Ducal court.

NICAISE, JEAN, a French miniaturist, who
worked in 1375-6, for Jeanne, Duchesse de Brabant.

NICANOR, a painter of Paros, who flourished
411 B. C. He is mentioned by Pliny.

NICCOLO Dl SEGNA, is thought to have been
the son of Segna di Buenaventura, and is the
author of a ' Crucifix,' signed and dated 1345, in
the Academy of Siena.





NICCOLO, GELAPIO PI, was an unimportant Fer-
rarese painter of the 13th century, who imitated
the style of Giotto. j-






NICERON, JEAN FRANQOIS, a French monk, who
painted the walls of his convent in fresco, in 1643.

NICHOLLS, SUTTON, an English engraver, re-
sided in London early in the 18th century. He was
chiefly employed by the booksellers, for whom
he executed a considerable number of plates. His
best prints are slight etchings of shells, arid other
trifling subjects; when be made use of the burin,
his productions were very poor. In 1725 he pub-
lished 'Prospects of the most considerable Buildings
about London ; ' he also engraved the metropolitan
views for Stowe's ' Survey.'

NICHOLS, JOSEPH, an English painter, who is
remembered by two pictures painted in 1738, ' A
View of the Fountain in the Temple,' and ' The
Stocks' Market in the City.' The latter is an ex-
cellent work, and was for some time attributed to

NICHOLSON, ALFRED, an English landscape
painter in water-oolours, born at Whitby in 1788.
He was the son of Francis Nicholson, and passed
his early years in the navy. Devoting himself to
art, he went to Ireland in 1813, and spent some
years in sketching there. He settled in London
as a teacher of drawing about 1818. The greater
part of 1821 and 1822 were spent by him in
sketching tours, He died in London in 1833.

NICHOLSON, FRANCIS, an English landscape
painter in water-colours, born at Pickering in
Yorkshire in 1753. His art instruction was con-
fined to a few lessons from an artist at Scarborough.
He settled at Whitby in 1783, where he married,
and practised painting animals, birds, &c., and
taught. In 1792 he went to Knaresborough, Ripon,
Weybridge, finally settling in London. He had
exhibited for the fiist time at the Royal Academy
in 1789, and in 1804 he became one of the original
members of the Water-colour Society, where he
exhibited till 1815. In his later years he devoted
his time to lithography, made above 800 drawings
on stone, and did much to advance that art.
After he retired from the practice of his art, he
amused himself with experiments on colours, &c.
In 1820 he published ' The Practice of Drawing
and Painting Landscape from Nature.' He died
in London in 1844. There are several of his water-
colour drawings at the Kensington Museum.

NICHOLSON, GEORGE, was born in 1795,
probably at Liverpool, where he afterwards lived.
His mother, Mrs. Isabella Nicholson, was notable for
skilful copies in fine needlework of noted pictures.
Several other members of the family practised art.
In combination with his brother SAMDEL (a draw-
ing-master) George Nicholson in 1821 published
in folio twenty-six lithographs of subjects in the
vicinity of Liverpool. This was followed in 1824
by ' Plas Newydd and Valle Crucis Abbey ' (4to).
George Nicholson exhibited at the Liverpool
Academy, from 1827 to 1834, numerous landscapa
"compositions" in water-colour or lead pencil.
He did nut exhibit again until 1838, when he sent
one drawing, ' Langdale Pikes.' It may be inferred
that he died about 1839 of phthisis, from the fact
that his sister ISABELLA exhibited in 1840 a drawing,
'Mrs. Bridgman's Boarding-House, Madiera, from
the last sketch by the late George Nicholson.'
Miss Nicholson, who usually painted birds or

flowers, was an exhibitor at the Liverpool Academy
from 1828 to 1847. Samuel, already mentioned,
died about 1825 from the effects of a mad dog's
bite. E.R.D.

NICHOLSON, ISAAC, an English wood engraver,
born at Melmerby, Cumberland, in 1789. He was
one of Bewick's apprentices, and imbibed a large
share of his master's style. He died in 1848.
Specimens of his work will be found in :

Sharp's ' History of the Rebellion.'

Flower and Grover's ' Visitation of Durham.' 1820.

' Robinson Crusoe.'

Watts's ' Hymns,' &c., &c.

NICHOLSON, JAMES, glass painter, was one of
the four who contracted to execute eighteen
windows for King's College Chapel, Cambridge,
in the reign of Henry VIII.

Cupar, Fife, in 1856. Educated at the Universities
of St. Andrews and Edinburgh, he intended to
follow his father's profession of law, but his tastes
inclined strongly to art, and in 1878 he resolved
to be a painter. He received his art training at
the School of Art, Edinburgh ; the Slade School,
Oxford ; and Bonnat's studio in Paris. He stayed
for a time at Barbizon, and returned in 1882, work-
ing on happily thereafter in Fife, Edinburgh, and
the Highlands until his accidental death by drown-
ing at Nigg, Crotnarty, in 1885. He had genuine
literary aptitude, as his published essay on D. G.
Rossetti (Round Table Series) attests. In 1835 he
began to exhibit at the Royal Scottish Academy
Exhibition, and in all he exhibited fifteen pictures
(all but one in water-colour). ' Burning Weeds,'
' In the Orchard,' and ' In the Summer Wood?,' are
bis important works figure studies of every-day
country life, with a tender and harmonious land-
scape setting. An illustrated memorial volume by
Prof. H. B. Baildon and J. M. Gray was privately
issued at Edinburgh in 1886. J.H.W.L.

NICHOLSON, T. (?) H., was popular as a book-
illustrator in the first half of the present century.
He produced a series of designs for a Shakespeare,
and was said to be the real author of Count
D'Orsay's statuette of Wellington.

NICHOLSON, WILJJAM, a portrait painter and
etcher, born at Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1784. He
first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1813.
About 1820 he removed to Edinburgh, where he
obtained a good practice, and had a great share in
the foundation of the Royal Scottish Academy, of
which he was an original member, and afterwards
secretary. His forte was in water-colour portraits,
and he also etched a series of portraits. He died at
Edinburgh in 1844. There is a portrait by him
of ' Grecian ' Williams in the Scottish National
Gallery. In 1816 he painted the portrait of W.
Bewickj which was exhibited at the Academy. A
series of his portraits was published with short
Biographical Notices.

NICIAS, an ancient Greek painter, mostly in
encaustic, was a native of Athens, and flourished
from 348 to 308 before Christ. He was instructed
by Antidotus, and bis works were distinguished
for their excellent light and shade. Praxiteles,
whose statues he painted, declared that those
were the best upon which Nicias had rendered as-
sistance. He particularly insisted upon nobility in
the choice of subjects for pictures. He painted
women with great success, as well as dogs ! One
of his admired works represented ' Ulysses invok-
ing the Shades erf the Dead,' from the Odyssey.


For this picture, Attalus, King of Pergamua, offered
him sixty talents, but such was the patriotism of
the painter, that he refused the offer, and presented
the picture to his country. The liberality of his
fellow-citizens had, however, enabled him thus to
indulge his patriotism, as he had become extremely
rich by the bountiful remuneration he received for
his works. In the time of Pliny, a picture of Bacchus,
by Nicias, was preserved in the Temple of Concord
at Rome.

NICOLAI, G. D. C., resided at Vienna in 1720.
Conjointly with A. J. Prenner, he executed part of
the plates from the pictures in the Grand Gallery at
Vienna, which were published in four sets in folio.
NICOLAS, ADRIEN, a painter of the French
school, who was by birth a Belgian. He was
bom at Antwerp early in the 16th century,
but, migrating to France in his youth, was
naturalized by Francis I. He established himself
at Orleans, where he died at an advanced age.

NICOLAS, Louis, a French miniaturist of the
13th century. He was at work in Paris in 1293.

NICOLAS LE LOBRAIN, a painter on glass, who

was employed in the ducal palace at Nancy in 1515.

NICOLAS LE PICARD, a French painter and

native of Amiens, who was at work at Avignon,

in the church of St. Agricol, in the year 1509.

NICOLAUS, a native of Friuli, who was at
work at Gemona in 1332. He painted the facade
of the cathedral, and a martyrdom which he
PINTOR HE FECIT. To him some writers have
ascribed a large picture of the ' Presentation in
the Temple,' in the cathedral of Vengone.

NICOLAY, FRERE, was a Jesuit, and pupil of
Rubens. He excelled in making copies of pictures
by Rubens and Van Dyck. He also painted small
figures in the landscapes of Nayo.

NICOLAY, JAN HENDRIK, was born at Leeu-
warden in 1766. He was the son of a carriage
painter, and for a time followed the same trade.
He was also a great ornithologist, and delighted
in painting dead birds. He was a frequent ex-
hibitor at Amsterdam, and his works are much
esteemed in Holland. He died in 1826.

ANTON, (NICOLLET, NIKOLET, &c.,) was a Swiss en-
graver, born at St. Immier, in the bishopric of
Basle, in 1740. He went, when he was young,
to Paris, where hie first performances, after study-
ing under Poilly and Cochin, were some plates,
engraved in conjunction with Longueil, after the
marines of Vernet. He also engraved four of the
plates which embellish the ' Voyage Pittoresque
du Royaume de Naples,' by the Abbe de St. Nori.
He died in 1807. The following are esteemed his
best prints :


Noel HallS, Painter to the King. 1775 ; after Cochin.
Thomas Le Sueur, Professor of Mathematics at Rome ;

after the same.
Fran9ois de Paul Jacquier, Professor of Mathematics

after the same.


St. Apollonia ; after the picture by Gitido ; in the Or-
leans Collection.

Milo of Crotona ; after Gioryione ; the same.
Susannah and the Elders ; after Deshais.
A. View of Naples ; after Vernet.
A Shipwreck ; after the same.

C -2

A View of the Interior of the Church of San Gennaro
at Naples, at the moment when the miracle of St.
Januarius occurs; after Debrets ; etched by Martini
and Germain, and finished with the graver by Nicolet.

of Lorenzo Costa, who is said to have made an
attack on his master with a knife, in revenge for
a supposed caricature in one of Costa 's pictures.

NICOMACHUS, a painter of about 400 B.C.,
was a native of Thebes, and the brother of Arist-
eides. He was instructed by his father Aristisus.
Of all the painters of antiquity, he was the most
remarkable for the extraordinary facility of his
pencil, a promptness which did not, however,
diminish the beauty of his productions ; and PI utarch
compares the readiness with which he worked to
that of Homer in the composition of his verses.
Aristratus, the tyrant of Sicyon, having engaged
him to decorate with his paintings a monument he
intended to consecrate to the memory of the poet
Telestus, a particular day was fixed when it was
expected to be finished. The period had nearly
elapsed before the painter had commenced his
work, when Aristratus, irritated by his apparent
neglect, threatened to punish him severely ; but
Nicomachus satisfactorily accomplished his under-
taking within the limit of time. Among his prin-
cipal works was a picture of the ' Rape of
Proserpine,' which was for a long time preserved
in the Capitol at Rome. At the time of his death
he left imperfect a picture of Helen.

NICOPHANES, a painter of the school of
Sicyon, who is reckoned by Pliny among the most
eminent of his time. He lived about 316 B.C.,
and studied under Pausias. He was called ' The
Courtesan Painter,' for his models were usually
members of the class of hetairce.

NICOTERA, MARCANTONIO, a painter of the
school of Naples, scholar of P. Crisnolo, flourished
about 1590-1600. In the church of S. Nicola alia
Dogana at Naples, there is a picture by him
representing ' The Virgin and Child, St. Jerome,
and St. Blaise.' The title-page of 0. Boldoni's
' Epigraphica,' Augusto Perusia 1600, signed II
NIC M. and containing the portrait of Cosmo de'
Medici, is said to be by him.

NIEMANN, EDMUND JOHN, a landscape painter
of German extraction, born at Islington in 1813.
In his early years he was employed at Lloyds,
where he remained till 1839. He then devoted
himself to art, settling in High Wycombe, in the
neighbourhood of which he found many subjects
for his brush. His works first appeared at the
Royal Academy in 1844. About 1850 he spent
a few years in London, through his connection
with the short-lived National Institution, of which
he was Secretary and Trustee. He then lived in
England Lane, near Hampstead, on a site now
swarming with artists. He died of apoplexy at
Brixton in 1876. A collection of forty-one of his
works was exhibited at Nottingham Castle in 1878.
Specimens of his art are to be seen in the Kensing-
ton Museum and the Liverpool Gallery.

NIEULANDT, ADRIAEN VAN, painter, was born
at Antwerp in 1590. It has often been said that
the date of this painter's birth is unknown; but
underneath a portrait of Nieulandt, published in
1649, we find this inscription: "A very good
painter of small figures and landscapes ; he has
also painted many scenes from the Old Testament ;



he is a native of Antwerp ; he began ns an artist
at Amsterdam under Pieter Isaacsz and Franz
Baderis, and is still established in that city. He
is fifty-nine years of age." Adriaen was possibly
the brother of William van Nieulandt, who acquired
a reputation as a playwright. Adriaen passed most
of his life at Amsterdam, but from the picture
mentioned below as in the Brussels Gallery, he
seems to have revisited his native town at least
once. The date of his death is unknown, but he
was still living in 1657. Works :
Brunswick. Gallery. Diana and nymphs in a land-
Diaua and Callisto.

Landscape with Hunters.


Brussels. Gallery. A carnival scene at Antwerp.

,, (Skaters on the ice in the town

ditch.) At Madrid a replica

of this picture, with some

variations, is ascribed to

Denis van Alsloot.

Copenhagen. Gallery. Entry of Christ into Jerusalem.

Triumph of Bacchus.

NIEULANT, JOHN, born at Antwerp in 1560,
painted historical pictures and landscapes, of small
dimensions, often on marble. He died in 1628.

NIEULANT, WILLIAM VAN, was born at Antwerp
in 1584. After being instructed in the first prin-
ciples of art by James Savery of Courtrai, he went
to Eome, where he became the scholar of Paul
Bril, under whom he studied three years, and for
some time followed the style of that master ; but
he afterwards adopted one more bold and ex-
peditious. On his return he was admitted free
master into the Guild of St. Luke, 1605. Hemarried
Anne Huystaert, and settled about 1628 at Am-
sterdam, where he was much employed in painting
views of the ruins of ancient architecture in the
vicinity of Rome, from the designs he had made
during his residence in Italy. He was still alive
in July 1635. The following paintings remain
from his hand :

Antwerp. Museum. View of the Campo Vaccino at

Rome. (Signed G. V. Nim-
lant. 1611.)
Copenhagen. Museum. View of the Campo Vaccino,

Rome. 1609.

Vienna. Museum. View of the Campo Vacciuo,

Rome, with more than fifty
figures. (Signed GVILHO VAN


William van Nieulant etched about sixty plates of
landscapes and ruins, from his own designs, and
from those of Paul Bril ; they are occasionally
strengthened by the burin. Among others, we
have the following by him :

A Landscape, with ruins, and figures representing the

Good Samaritan ; P. Bril inf. G. Nieulant fecit.
A Mountainous Landscape, with Tobit end the Angel ;

the same.

Two Views of the Sea Coast ; the same.
Three Views of Ruins in and near Home ; Guil. Nieu-

A large Print representing three Bridges on the Tiber,
and a part of the City of Rome; in three sheets,
inscribed, Guilielmus van Xieulant fecit et excud.
Anti-erpite. 1600.
Nieulant also wrote several tragedies.

in 1747, copied with the pen with most surprising
accuracy several engravings and etchings after
Callot and Rembrandt.

Flemish painter, who was inscribed in the Guild
register at Bruges in 1480.

NIGHTINGALE, ROBERT, was born in 1815, and
devoted himself to animal painting. His first work
appeared in the Royal Academy Exhibition of 1846,
a portrait of ' Frolic and her Pups,' and thereafter
he exhibited frequently at the Royal Academy and
the Royal Institution of British Artists, his work
beinw popular and well known. He died in 1895.

J. H.W.I,

tectural painter, was born at Haarlem in the 17th

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