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tatis insignia.' The principal figures are all repre-
sented on horseback, completely armed, with the
arms of their respective families on their shields.

RHENI, REMI VAN, a history painter, born at
Brussels in 1560, travelled through Germany, and
then became a pensioner of the Count de Volfes.
He died in 1619.

RHODEN, JOHANN MARTIN VON, landscape
painter, born at Cassel in 1778 (1782), went to
Rome in very early life, but returned in 1827 to
his own country as court painter. After a stay of
six years he returned to Rome, where he remained
for the rest of his life. In his landscapes of Italian
scenery he portrayed the vegetation in its full
splendour. He also painted ' The Villa of Hadrian '
and 'The Cloister of St. Benedict.' He died at
Rome in 1868.

RHODES, JOHN N., landscape and animal painter,
born at Leeds in 1809, son of JOSEPH RHODES, a
self-taught artist, who died in 1854. He was
brought up by his father, and painted rustic scenes
and groups of cattle. He went to London, where
he settled and, between 1832 and 1842, exhibited
at the Royal Academy and the British Institution,
but suffering from ill health, he returned to Leeds,
where he died in December, 1842.

RHODES, RICHARD, an English line-engraver,
born in 1765. He worked for many years for
Charles Heath, and died in London in 1838. Speci-
mens of his work are to be found in ' Ancient Terra-
Cottas in the British Museum ' (1810).

RHOMBERG, HANNO, still-life painter, born at
Munich in 1820, was the son of the historical
painter, Joseph Anton Rhomberg, and received
his first instruction from his father. He then entered
the Munich Academy, and studied under Julius
Sclmorr. He did not remain there long, but took
to painting portraits under Bernhardt, until a
fourth master, Enhuber, induced him to try genre
painting. The following pictures by him may be
cited ' The Watchmaker,' in the Berlin National



Gallery ; < The Boys going to School,' ' The Tight
Boot ; ' and in the Pinakothek at Munich, ' The
Sledge-Maker,' ' Two Boys trying to Smoke,' ' A
Boy purchasing a Bird.' He died in 1869.

RHOMBERG, JOSEPH ANTON, an historical
painter, born at Dornbirn in the Tyrol in 1786.
Till he was twenty-two years of age he was
employed in farming, but in 1808 he went to the
Academy at Munich, and studied under Langer. In
1814, with his picture of 'The Sacrifice of Noah'
he gained the first prize. He settled in Munich, and
in 1827 was appointed professor of drawing at the
Polytechnic School. His works show very plainly
the influence of Langer. Among them may be
named, 'Rebecca at the Well," 'Abraham enter-
taining the Angels,' ' The Zither-Player.' He died
at Munich in 1853.

EIBALTA, FRANCISCO DE, a Spanish painter,
born at Castellon de la Plana between 1550 and
1560, was one of the greatest historical painters
of Spain. He studied first in Valencia. His life
affords a parallel to the courtship of Quentin Matsys.
While a student he fell in love with his master's
daughter, and demanded her in marriage, but her
father refused his consent, alleging that he was
not sufficiently advanced in his profession. Eibalta
and his mistress, however, agreed privately to
wait three or four years, and he immediately
departed for Italy, with the determination of per-
fecting himself by the study of the works of the
great masters there. He applied himself with
great assiduity to those of Raphael, Sebastiano del
Piombo, and the Carracci, and copied many of their
pictures, particularly those of Sebastiano. He
returned to his own country after an absence of
three years, and the first place he visited was
the atelier of his former master, the father of his
mistress. Finding the sketch of a picture on the
easel, he finished it and withdrew. On the return
of the old painter he expressed much surprise at
the excellence of the performance, and said to his
daughter, " How readily would I give you to a
painter of such ability as this, instead of that
dauber Ribalta." " My father," replied the lady,
"it is Ribalta that did it."

Ribalta acquired great reputation not only in
Valencia, where his best works are to be found,
but all over Spain. The College of Corpus Christi
is a perfect Museum of Ribaltas, the gem of which
is a ' Last Supper.' Ribalta also painted largely for
the different churches and museums throughout
Valencia. The Madrid Museum possesses by him
'The Body of Jesus Christ borne by two angels,'
and a ' San Francisco de Assisi.' Besides these we
may cite a ' Crucifixion,' the altar-piece in the
chapel of Magdalen College, Oxford, a 'Concep-
tion' in S. Felipe Neri, and ' S. Antonius.' He
died at Valencia in 1628.

RIBALTA, JUAN DE, the son of Francisco
Ribalta, born at Valencia in 1597, was instructed
by his father, and at the age of eighteen he painted
a ' Crucifixion ' which he inscribed "Joannes Ribalta
pingebat et invenit 18 (etatis siue anno 1615,"
a fine picture in composition, drawing, and colour.
He painted for Don Diego de Vich above thirty
portraits of illustrious persons in Valencia, which
De Vich at his death bequeathed to the Monastery
of St. Jerome. Of his other works we may name,
a ' St. Cecilia ' for the Monastery of La Murta, a
' Christ on the Cross ' for the Dominicans of S.
Catalina de Sena in Valencia. The Madrid Museum
possesses pictures of SS. John, Matthew, Mark.

223



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



and Luke, and a ' Singer with Music in his hand.'
Juan di Ribalta died in 1628, the same year as
his father.

RIBAULT, ATHALIE, was born in Paris 1781.
She was a pupil of Lafitte, and practised portrait
painting.

RIBAULT, JDLIE, was born at Fresnay, France,
in 1789, and was a pupil of Lafitte. She
painted portraits and genre pictures, among which
we may mention : ' Mignard painting Madame
de Maintenon,' ' Piron at the Porte d'Auteuil.'

RIBAULT, J F , an historical engraver,

was born in Paris in 1767. He was a scholar of
Ingouf, and engraved ' Christ crowned with Thorns,'
after Titian ; ' Marcus Sextus,' after Guerin ; also
' Paris and CEnone,' after Vander-Werff ; ' A Young
Lady playing on the Guitar,' after Metzu, besides
several other plates for the ' Collection du Musee
Napoleon,' published by Laurent and Robillard.
He also engraved the heads of Bernardin de St.
Pierre, the poet Le Brun, the Empress Marie
Louise ; and a set of the costumes of the grand func-
tionaries of the French court. Ribaultdied in 1820.

RIBERA, Luiz A., painter, was practising at
Seville in the second part of the 17th century.
He was one of the artists who contributed in 1668
to the formation of the Seville Academy.

RIBERA Y FERNANDEZ, D. JUAN ANTONIO,
painter, born at Madrid in 1779, first studied under
Bayeu, and in the Academy of S. Fernando, but
afterwards went to Paris and become the pupil of
David. There he painted his ' Cincinnatus,' which
is now in the Museum at Madrid. In course of
time he went to Borne, and in 1811 was appointed
painter to Carlos IV., and member of the Academy
of St. Luke ; and in 1820 honorary member of
the Academy of S. Fernando. In 1838 he was
made professor, and two years afterwards Director
of the Madrid Museum. He died at Madrid in
1860. Of his pictures we may cite :

Aranjuez. Palace. Christ crowned with Thorns.

The Resurrection.

Madrid. Gallery. Wamba.

Allegory of Summer.

Allegory of Autumn.

Afternoon.

Night.

Palace. S. Fernando surrounded by

distinguished Spaniards (ceil-
ing).
Toledo. Cathedral. Portrait of Cardinal Ingranzo.

RIBERA, JOSEF or JDSEPE DE, called Lo SPAG-
NOLETTO, painter and engraver, born January 12,
1588, at Xativa (now San Felipe), near Valencia,
was the son of Luiz Ribera and of his wife Mar-
garita. The Italians have claimed him as a com-
patriot, stating him to have been a native of Lecce
in the kingdom of Naples. The fact of his true
nationality lias, however, long been established.
On the 'Bacchus,' one of the finest of the few
engravings by him still extant, is the following
inscription : Joseph & Ribera, Hispan'' Valenti'
Setab. f. Partenop: 1628. His parents designed
him for the profession of letters, and with this idea
sent him to Valencia to acquire classical learning,
but he there became acquainted with Francisco
Ribalta, and abandoning all less congenial pursuits,
devoted himself to the study of art under that
master, with whom he made rapid progress. He
then determined to visit Italy, and to become
acquainted with the works of the great Italians.
He arrived in Rome entirely without resource",
and for a time endured many hardships, out was

224



fortunate enough to attract the attention of a
cardinal, who, admiring his talent, received him
into his house. At Rome Ribera remained for
some time studying under Caravaggio, whose
system of chiaroscuro had peculiar attractions for
him, and became one of the most distinguished
disciples of that master. A rupture with his patron
caused him to quit Rome, and he is said to have
become a soldier, and to have experienced many
strange vicissitudes, amongst others a period of
captivity as a galley-slave in Algeria. At Parma
he studied for some time, and in his early works
we may distinctly trace the influence of Correggio,
and of other northern masters ; but the rugged
naturalism of Caravaggio was the element in which
he truly delighted, and, abandoning the softer
manner of his early efforts, he finally become the
leader of the ' Naturalist!,' the eccentric school of
realistic painters most sharply opposed to the
graceful eclecticism of the Carracci.

From Rome and Parma Ribera passed to Naples,
the scene of his greatest activity and of his highest
fortunes. He became acquainted with a rich picture-
dealer of the city, whose daughter he married, and
thus he found himself relieved from all pecuniary
embarrassments. At this period the ' Naturalist! '
enjoyed an almost undisputed supremacy in Naples,
would tolerate no intruders in their stronghold,
and waged war against every follower of the
Carracci who came within their reach. Ribera, to
his discredit, took an active part in the persecution
with which his party assailed the eclectics, Guido
Reni, Domenico, and Gessi, resulting in the expul-
sion of these artists from the city. The rulers of
Naples in the early part of the 17th century being
Spanish, Ribera naturally enjoyed a large share
of favour ; he was appointed court painter to the
Viceroy, the Duke of Osuna, and, on a second visit,
was patronized by his successor, the Count de
Monterey, who recommended him to Philip IV.
In 1630 he became a member of the Academy of
St. Luke, and in 1644 he received the decoration
of the Order of Christ from the Pope.

The final abandonment of his early style may
be broadly said to date from his establishment
at Naples. His conceptions became gradually
more and more marked by a wild extravagance
of fancy and by a stern vigour of execution. His
skill in managing violent contrasts of light and
shade is very remarkable, but as a colourist he
is forceful rather than fine. His large historical
pictures, in spite of great merits in execution, are
generally terrible and repulsive, and his rendering
of mythological subjects is deficient in beauty
and dignity. He delighted in the delineation of
emaciated figures, of flayings and scourgings, of
scenes of torture and death. He was much patron-
ized by the clergy, especially by the Jesuits, and
painted many important works for churches and
religious houses. The Madrid Gallery contains
a large number of his works, and there are good
examples in the most important public collections,
the 'Pieta' in the National Gallery being excellent
in quality. His colour darkens very much with
age. Ribera had many pupils, among the more
famous of whom are Salvator Rosa, Giordano, Fal-
cone, and Giovanni Do. His daughter, MAEIA
BLASCA, who was frequently his model, also prac-
tised painting. It has been asserted that her father's
death was caused by grief at her seduction by
Don John of Austria, but there seems to be no
solid ground for the statement. Ribera died at



JOSEF DE RIBERA,

CALLED

LO SPAGNOLETTO




\\1unich Gallery



AN OLD WOMAN WITH A HEN



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Dresden. Gallery.



Glasgow. Gallery.
Hampton Court.
London. .ZVar. Gal.



Naples in 1656. The following is a list of his
principal works :

Berlin. lHusemn. St. erome.

., .. A Holy Family.

St. Sebastian.

Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew.
St. Mary of Egypt at prayer be-
fore her own grave ; an Angel
winding her shroud about her.
The Deliverance of St. Peter.
St. Francis of Assisi lying naked
on a bed of Thorns ; an Angel
appearing to him.
Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew.
Martyrdom of St. Lawrence.
The Hermit Paul fed by the

Raven.
St. Andrew.

The Hermit Paul with a Cross.
St. Jerome.

Jacob tending Labau's Sheep.
Diogenes with a Lantern.
A Philosopher in deep medita-
tion.

>, ,, Portrait of a man in black clothes.

Dublin. Nat. Gal. St. Joseph.

Dulwich. Gallery. A Locksmith.

Edinburgh. 3~at. Gal. A Mathematician.
Florence. Uffi:i. St. Jerome.

Pitti. St. Bartholomew.
St. Francis.

Portrait of Simone Pagauucci
Portrait of an Old Man.
Duns Scotus writing.
A Pieta. The Dead Christ and
the Virgin, with St. John anj
Mary Magdalene.

Shepherd with a Lamb.

Madrid. Gallery. The Martyrdom of St. Bartholo-

mew.
Mary Magdalen.

St. Mary of Egypt.
St. Paul the Hermit.

St. Jerome praying.

Jacob's Ladder.

Prometheus.

,, St. Sebastian.

A Priest of Bacchus.

Head of a Sibyl.

,, The Conception.

The Holy Trinity.

The Saviour.

The Twelve Apostles.

An Anchorite.

The Blind Man.

St. Roch.

St. Francis of Assisi in ecstasy.

St. Christopher.

St. Joseph and the Child Jesus.

Isaac's Blessing.

,. Ixion.

Archimedes.

St. Augustine.

Women fighting in a Circus.

Munich. Gallery. Deposition of St. Andrew.

' The Dying Seneca.

The Penitent Peter.

St. Bartholomew.

St. Onuphrius.

And two more.

Paris. Louvre. Adoration of the Shepherds.

Christ in the Tomb.

St. Paul the Hermit.
Martyrdom of St. Sebastian.
St. Jerome in the Desert.
St. Procopius.

And three more.

Vienna. Gallery. Christ disputing with the Doc-

tors.

Christ on the way to Calvary.

The Penitent Peter.

And two more.

RIBERA, JUAN VICENTE, a Spanish painter,

VOL. IV. Q



Petersburg. Hermitage.



practising at Madrid in the early part of the 18th
century. He was one of the artists appointed
by the Council of Castile in 1725 to tax pictures.
He painted the pendentives of the cupola in the
church of S. Felipe el Real, and is further known
by two scenes from the life of S. Francis de Paul
in the church of la Victoria, and a ' Martyrdom of
S. Justus.'

RIBET, JEAN CONSTANTIN, marine painter,
practised in France in the early part of the 19th
century. He was a pupil of Forestier. There is
by him a picture representing the taking of the
two English frigates the 'Fox' and the ' Pied-
montese ' by the French vessels ' Venus ' and
' Bellona.'

RIBOLT, WILHELM WILKEN, a Danish painter,
practising in Germany about 1700. At Copen-
hagen there is by him a ' Group of Warriors seated
and preparing to drink.'

RIBON, FK. M., painter, was born in Paris,
1790. He was a pupil of Baltz, and painted prin-
cipally upon china.

KIBOT, ADGTJSTIN TH^ODULE, French painter
and engraver ; born at Breteuil (Eure), August 8,
1823; reached Paris in 1851 ; was a pupil of Glaize
the elder ; began to copy Watteaus in the Louvre
and in private collections. Frangois Bouvin be-
friended him, but for a long while the Salon
refused to recognize his talent. His debut there
in 1861 was with the 'Cuisiniers,' which, like his
' Grande Douleur,' has been admirably etched and
still maintains its reputation. Several of his
pictures are in the Luxembourg, including ' Jesus
et les Docteurs,' ' St. Sebastien,' and ' Le Bon
Samaritain.' In 1870 he left Paris for Brittany ;
during the siege his studio was burned and almost
all his property destroyed. He then retired to
Colombes, where he continued to work until his
death. He obtained medals in 1864 and 1865, and a
medal at the Exhibition of 1878, when he became
a Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. His style
earned for him the title of the French Ribera. He
died at Colombes, September 11, 1891.

RICAMATORE, IL. See NANNI.

RICARD, Louis GUSTAVE, portrait painter, was
born at Marseilles in 1824, studied at Marseilles
under Auber until 1844, but afterwards in Paris
under Coignet. In the same year he exhibited a
portrait of Mme. Sabatier at the Salon, which
made a considerable sensation. He copied much
in the Louvre. In 1847 he visited Rome, Florence,
and Venice, where he studied and copied Titian.
Later on he came to England. In 1850 he
painted a ' Gipsy Girl with a Cat,' which attracted
attention at the Salon, and for the next nine years
Ricard was a constant exhibitor. After 1861, how-
ever, he appeared no more until 1872, when he
sent a portrait of Paul de Musset. His art, how-
ever, was unfitted to the crowd and glare of the
Salon. Quiet and refined in effect, almost to excess,
it had much affinity, technically, with that of
Prud'hon. His portraits were popular. In 1863
the Cross of the Legion was offered him ; " It is
too late," he replied, and remained undecorated
till his death, which took place in 1873, in Paris.
Among his works we may name :

Paris. Luxembourg. Portrait of Paul de Musset.

t, .. ., himself.

Portrait of Mme. Szarvady.

Mme. Paul Boul.

M. Heilbuth (painter).

M. Anatole de la Forge

M. Ziem (painter).

225



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Portrait of M. Chaplin (do).

Eugene Fromentin (<&>).

., M. Chenavard.

Mme. von Kalergis.

., Mme. de Calonne.
The German Student.

RICCA, BERNARDO, painter, a native of Cremona,
where he was painting in the cathedral about 1512.

RICCARDI, LUIGI, a marine painter, born in
1807, whose pictures were painted rather for arti-
ficial effects than with a due regard for truth to
nature. He was a professor at the Brera. He
died at Milan in 1877.

RICCHI, PIETRO, called IL LUOCHESE, painter,
born at Lucca in 1606, was first a scholar of Pas-
signano, but afterwards studied under Guido Reni.
He imitated the grace of the latter, though his
colouring resembles that of Passignano. In the
church of St. Francesco, at Lucca, there are two
altar-pieces, which evince the fertility of his in-
vention and his readiness of hand. He also painted
several pictures for the churches at Udine. There
is a picture of his in the Dresden Gallery repre-
senting the ' Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine.'
He painted in France, and in the Milanese and
Venetian states, and was very rapid and inde-
fatigable in execution. Ricchi died at Udine in
1675.

RICCHIEDEO, MARCO, was born at Brescia,
but it is not known in what year, nor under whom
he studied. He was, however, a very reputable
historical painter. In the church of St. Thomas,
in his native city, there is a fine picture of the
Incredulity of that saint by him.

RICCHINO, FRANCESCO, painter, a native of
Brescia. He flourished about 1568. He imitated
the style of Moretto, but was also greatly in-
fluenced by Titian.

RICCI, ANTONIO, called BARBALUNGA, painter,
born at Messina in 1600, studied under Domenico
Zampieri, and was reckoned among the best painters
of his country. Among his pictures are, ' St.
Gregory,' in San Gregorio, and an 'Assumption,'
in S. Michele in Messina, and an altar-piece in
the church of S. Sylvestro in Capite in Rome.
He died at Messina in 1649.

RICCI, CAMILLO, born at Ferrara in 1580, was
the best pupil of Ippolito Scarsella, called Lo
Scarsellino. Such was his progress that Barufialdi
reports Scarsellino to have declared that if Camillo
had preceded him in the art, he would have chosen
him for his instructor. The style of Ricci is very
like that of his master, but with less freedom and
breadth. In the general harmony of his colouring,
however, he has perhaps surpassed him. The
churches of Ferrara abound in his works, of
which Barotti gives a particular account in his
' Pitture di Ferrara.' His best productions are his
' S. Vincenzo ' and ' S. Margherita,' in the cathe-
dral ; an ' Annunciation,' in Spirito Santo ; and his
ceiling in the church of S. Niccolo, representing,
in eighty-four compartments, the life and miracles
of that saint. Ricci died at Ferrara in 1618.

RICCI, DOMENICO DEL. See DEL RICCIO.

RICCI, FELICE DEL. See DEL RICCIO.

RICCI, GIOVANNI BATISTA, called DA NOVARRA,
born at Novarra in 1545, went to Rome when
young, and became a scholar and imitator of
Raffaellino da Reggio. According to Baglione, he
was employed by Sixtus V. in the palace of S.
Giovanni Laterano, and in the library of the
Vatican. He was afterwards appointed by that

226



pontiff superintendent of paintings in the palace
of Monte Cavallo. He was also much employed
by Clement VIII. Of his own productions in the
public edifices of Rome, the following are the most
considerable : in the nave of the church of S.
Maria Maggiore, he painted in fresco the ' Visita-
tion,' the ' Ascension,' and the ' Assumption of the
Virgin ' ; in S. Marcello, a series of frescoes from
the Life of the Virgin and the Passion of our
Saviour ; but his best work is the ' Consecration
of the Basilica of San Giovanni Laterano by S.
Silvestro,' in that church. Giambattista Ricci is
mentioned in the Abecedario by Orlandi, as an
engraver, but none of his works are specified. He
died in 1620.

RICCI, MARCO, the nephew of Sebastiano Ricci,
was born at Belluno in 1680. After receiving his
first instruction in art from his uncle, he visited
Rome, where he was for some years occupied in
drawing the most picturesque views in the neigh-
bourhood, and the most remarkable fragments of
ancient architecture. From these designs he
painted perspective views, which were greatly
admired. In 1710 he came to England, and his
talents soon excited attention. His landscapes,
with ruins and architecture, are to be found in
many collections. There are several landscapes
of his in the Dresden Gallery. Marco Ricci
etched several plates from his own designs, con-
sisting of views and landscapes, with ruins and
figures, of which the most deserving of notice are
those in a set of twenty-three prints, entitled
' Varia Marci Ricci Pictoris prsestantissimi experi-
nnenta ab ipsoinet auctore inventa, delineata atque
incisa, et a me Carolo Orsolini Veneto incisore in
unum collecta, &c. Anno 1730, Venetiis.'

RICCI, NATALE, painter, a pupil of Maratti,
and a native of Fermo. He practised in Italy in
the 18th century.

RICCI, PIETRO, painter of portraits and historical
pictures, a pupil of Leonardo da Vinci. He prac-
tised at Milan in the 16th century.

RICCI, SEBASTIANO, (Rizzi,) born at Belluno, in
the Venetian state, in 1662, was placed when he
was young under Federigo Cervelli, at Venice,
with whom he studied till he was twenty years of
age. On leaving that master he went to Bologna,
where he resided a short time, and was taken
under the protection of the Duke of Parma, who
employed him for some time at Piacenza, and then
sent him to Rome for improvement. On the death
of his patron Ricci left Rome, and visited Florence,
Modena, and Parma, studying the great masters
of the Lombard school. He was soon afterwards
invited to the court of Vienna by the King of
Rome, where he was employed in decorating the
imperial palace of Schoenbrunn. On his return
to Venice from Germany, his nephew, Marco Ricci,
who was at that time in London, encouraged him
to visit England, which he did, and met with the
most flattering encouragement. He painted the
chapel at Bulstrode, for the Duke of Portland ; and
in the altar-piece, representing the Last Supper,
he introduced his own portrait in modern dress.
The hall of Burlington House, and some of the
ceilings, and the altar-piece in the chapel of Chelsea
Hospital, were also painted by him. During a
residence of ten years in this country, he executed
several other considerable works for the mansions
of the nobility, and is said to have left England in
disgust, on finding that it was determined that Sir
James Thornhill should paint the cupola of St



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Paul's. Like Luca Giordano, Ricci had a great
facility in imitating the styles of other masters.
His picture of the 'Apostles adoring the Sacrament,'
in the church of S. Giustina, at Padua, is painted
in imitation of the cupola of S. Giovanni, at Parma,
by Correggio ; and his ' S. Gregorio,' in S. Ales-
sandro, at Bergamo, recalls the works of Guercino.



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