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But his most successful imitations were those of
Paolo Veronese, many of which he is said to have
sold as by that master. He is said to have de-
ceived the French painter, La Fosse, who avenged
himself by the sarcastic rebuke : " For the future,"
said he, " take my advice, paint no more Riccis.''
Sebastiano possessed a fertile invention, and a
commanding facility. Although his design is often
incorrect, his figures are graceful, and his colour,
though sometimes feeble and cold, is often silvery
and agreeable. Some of his very best productions
are at Hampton Court. He died at Belluno in
1734. The following are his best pictures :

Bordeaux. Jfuseum. Love and Fidelity.

Dresden. Gallery. The Ascension.

,, A Sacrifice.

Florence. Uffi:i. His own Portrait.

Hampton Court. Palace. The Continence of Scipio.

The Dinner at Simon's House.

London. JVat. Gall. VenusandSatyrs(im/wr<aH().

Modena. TJhe taking down from the

Cross.

Paris. Louvre. Allegorical subject. France as

Minerva trampling Ignorance
*" underfoot.

The Delivery of the Keys.

Polyxena sacrificed to the

Manes of Achilles.

The Continence of Scipio.

Venice. Due Pal. The Venetian Magistrates re-

vering the Body of St. Mark.

RICCI, UBALDO, an historical painter of some
merit, a native of Fermo, practising in Italy in
the 18th century. He was a pupil of C. Maratti.

RICCIANTI, ANTONIO, an obscure Italian his-
torical painter of the 17th century. He practised
in Florence and its neighbourhood, and was a pupil
of V. Dandini.

RICCIARDELLI, GABRIELE, marine and land-
scape painter, practising in Italy about 1743. He
was a pupil of J. F. Van Bloemen (called Oriz-
zonte), and -was employed at Naples, at the court
of Charles de Bourbon.

RICCIARELLI, DANIELE, commonly called
DANIELE DA VOLTERBA, born at Volterra in 1509,
was first a pupil of Giovanni Antonio Bazzi, called
II Sodoma, but afterwards studied under Baldas-
sare Peruzzi. Not meeting with the encourage-
ment he expected in his native city, he went to
Rome, and at first found employment as assistant to
Pierino del Vaga, in the Vatican, and in the Capella
Massirni, in the church of La Trinita, de Monti.
He was, however, chiefly indebted for the reputa-
tion he afterwards acquired to the friendship and
instruction of Michelangelo Buonarroti, who assisted
him with designs for work he executed for Agos-
tino Chigi, in the Farnesina, and for others of his
more important productions. But the chief sup-
port of his fame is the series of frescoes in the
Capella Orsini, in the Trinita de Monti, which
occupied him seven years. In these he was
also aided by Buonarroti. The principal picture
of the series is the famous ' Descent from the
Cross,' which used to be considered the finest
picture in Rome after Raphael's ' Transfiguration '
ad Domenichino's ' St. Jerome. 1 In another chapel
of the same church are the 'Assumption of the Vir-
Q 2



gin' and the 'Presentation in the Temple,' painted
from the designs of Ricciarelli by his disciples
Gio. Paolo Rossetti and Michele Alberti. After
the death of Pierino del Vaga, in 1547, Daniele
was appointed by Pope Paul III., on the recom-
mendation of Michelangelo, Superintendent over
the works at the Vatican, and commissioned to
finish the ornaments of the Sala Regia, which had
been begun by Pierino. His last great work as a
painter was his ' Murder of the Innocents," for the
church of St. Peter, at Volterra, which was after-
wards purchased by the Grand Duke Leopold, and
placed in the tribune at Florence. On the death
of Pope Paul III., in 1549, Julius III. deprived
Daniele of his post as Superintendent and of his
pension, and it appears that the latter part of his
life was chiefly devoted to sculpture. Daniele
earned the nickname of II Bragghetone, or the
Breeches-maker, through being employed by Pope
Paul IV. to put draperies on some of the nude
figures in Michelangelo's 'Last Judgment.'
Daniele died at Rome in 1566. His principal
pictures are :

Florence. Uffi~i Gall. Massacre of the Innocents.

Lxicca. Duomo. S. Petromlla. (A graceful

figure, ascribed to Riccia-
relli in. his first maturity.)

Paris. Louvre. David's Victory over Go-

liath. (A double picture,
on the two sides of a slate ;
it was long ascribed to
Michelangelo.)
Rome. <S. Trinita de' Monti. Scenes from the Life of

the Virgin.

The Descent from the

Cross. (Fresco transfer-
red to canvas.)

Farnesina. The Triumph of Bacchus.

Frescoes. The Punic Wars.

St. Pietro in Montorio. The Baptism of Christ.

RICCIO; ANTONELLO, the son, and probably the
pupil, of Mariano Riccio, whose manner he followed.
He was still living in 1576.

RICCIO (BRUSASORCI). See DEL RICCIO.

RICCIO, IL. See NERONI.

RICCIO, MARIANO, historical painter, born at
Messina, 1510. He was a pupil of Franco, and
afterwards of Polidoro, whose style he successfully
imitated.

RICCIO, PIETRO. See PEDRINI, GIOVANNI.

RICCIOLINI, NICCOLA, painter, born at Rome,
1637, was a pupil of P. de Cortona. He competed
against Franceschini with cartoons for the Vatican
mosaics. At Rome there are by him a ' Crucifixion
of St. Peter ' (in mosaic) and a ' Descent from the
Cross.'

RICCIOLINO, MICHELANGELO, was born at Rome
in 1654, and is noticed by Abate Titi, who mentions
some of his works in the public places at Rome,
particularly in the church of S. Lorenzo in Pisci-
bus, and a ceiling in S. Maria in Campitelli. His
portrait painted by himself is in the Florentine
Gallery. He died at Rome in 1715.

RICCO, BERNARDO. See RICCA, BERNARDO.

RICHARD, CHARLOTTE JOSEPHINE, a painter of
portraits and subject pictures, born in Paris, 1791,
was a pupil of Chaudet and of Ducq.

RICHARD, ERNST, German painter ; born
February 28, 1819, at Carlsruhe ; studied here,
and also at Mannheim and at Munich ; appointed
Baden Court painter in 1846, and in 1893 Director
of the Carlsruhe Gallery. Painted genre subjects,
such as ' Der Ruhende Ackersmann, 1 'Morgen auf
einer Hochalpe,' &c. Obtained the Ritterkreuz

227



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



of the first class. Died at Carlsruhe, June 12,

1899.

RICHARD, FLEDRY FRANQOIS, painter of his-
torical and genre pictures, born at Lyons, 25th
February, 1777, was a pupil of David, and after-
wards founded a school of his own at Lyons, where
he died, 1842. By him we have the following:

Vert-vert (in the Museum of Lyons).

Valentina of Milan bewailing the Death of her Husband.

King Francis and his Sister, Margaret of Navarre

(engraved by Boucher Desnoyer).

Charles VII. writing his last Farewell to Agnes Sorel.
Tasso in Prison.

RICHARD, Monsieur. See TAURINI.

RICHARD, , painter upon glass, executed,
in 1270, the fine paintings upon glass for the choir
of the cathedral at Tours.

RICHARD, THEODORE, landscape painter, born
at Milhau, 1782, was a pupil of Victor Bertin. He
was appointed chief of the lands department in
Cantal in 1802, and filled similar offices until 1819,
in which year he was at Bordeaux. There he made
the acquaintance of the young Brascassat, and
painted in his company with such success that in
1823 he resigned his appointments as an engineer,
and set up as a painter at Toulouse. Thence he
sent his pictures yearly to the Salon. He passed
through the various degrees of honour up to the
Cross of the Legion. He died in 1859 at Toulouse,
where the following works by him are to be found
in the Museum :

View of the Pic du Midi.
The Woodcutters.
The Drinking Place.
A Study of Oaks.

RICHARDS, JOHN INIGO, an English landscape
painter, born in the first half of the 18th century.
On the foundation of the Royal Academy, he be-
came one of the original members, and in 1788 was
appointed its secretary. He contributed to its ex-
hibitions from 1769 to 1809. His pictures were
chiefly representations of English mediaeval ruins.
He was best known as a scene-painter, working at
Covent Garden Theatre, and in this branch of art
he obtained a great reputation. Hearne and
McArdell both worked after him, and one of his
scenes for the ' Maid of the Mill ' was engraved by
Woollett, and won great popularity. Richards
repaired the famous cartoon of a ' Holy Family,'
by Leonardo da Vinci, which belongs to the Royal
Academy. He died in his rooms at the Academy
in 1810.

RICHARDSON, CHARLES JAMES, architect and
draughtsman, was born in 1806. He was a pupil
of Sir J. Soane, and interested himself specially in
architecture of the Elizabethan period. He was a
skilful draughtsman, and his work is characterized
by singular accuracy and taste. He was the
author of several important architectural works,
illustrated with engravings after his own drawings.
Among these may be mentioned : ' Pencil Rubbings
of Old English Ornament,' 1830-58 ; ' Observations
on the Architecture of England during the reigns
of Queen Elizabeth and James I.,' 1837; 'A
popular Treatise on the Warming and Ventilation
of Buildings,' 1837 ; ' Architectural Remains of
the reigns of Elizabeth and James I.,' 1840 ;
' Workman's Guide to the study of Old English
Architecture,' 1845 ; ' Studies from Old English
Mansions,' 1841^18; 'Studies in Ornament,' 1848;
'Studies of Ornamental Design,' 1851; 'Design
for economically and effectually raising Holborn

228



Valley,' 1863; 'The Englishman's House from a
Cottage to a Mansion,' and ' Picturesque Designs
for Mansions, Villas, &c.,' both in 1870. Richard-
son died in London on November 20, 1871. JI. H.

RICHARDSON, JONATHAN, portrait painter, born
in 1665. His father dying when he was only five
years of age, his mother married a second time, and
he was, contrary to his inclination, articled to his
father-in-law, who was a scrivener ; but the death
of the latter enabled him, in the sixth year of his
apprenticeship, to indulge an inclination he had
long felt for painting, and to become a pupil of
John Riley, under whom he studied four years.
Having made considerable progress in art, he
married the niece of his instructor, and established
himself as a portrait painter. Though Kneller
and Dahl were then in great vogue, Richardson
possessed sufficient merit to secure a share of the
public favour even during their lives, and after
their death he was considered at the head of his
profession. He continued in enjoyment of his popu-
larity for many years, and was enabled to retire
long before his death. But Richardson is best
known as a writer upon art. He published the
following works: 1. ' The Theory of Painting.'
2. 'The Connoisseur, an Essay on the whole Art
of Criticism, as it relates to Painting.' And, 3.
'An account of some of the Statues, Bas-reliefs,
Drawings, and Pictures in Italy, &c., with remarks
by Mr. Richardson, sen. and jun.' The son made
the journey, and from his notes, letters, and observ-
ations the two, on his return, compiled the work.
In 1734 they also published ' Explanatory Notes
and Remarks on Milton's Paradise Lost, with the
Life of the Author, and a Discourse on the Poem.'
Richardson died in London in 1745. His pictures
are of the solid, steady-going, heavy-handed kind,
and scarcely deserve the oblivion into which they
have sunk. A head, apparently of Gay, in the
National Gallery, seems to be a more than usually
excellent work by Richardson. Works :

London. Nat. Port. Gall. Portrait of Mr. Oldfield.
.. Alexander Pope.

.. ,. Matthew Prior.

SirK. Steele.
Lord Chancellor

Talbot.
George Vertue.

RICHARDSON, JONATHAN, the only son of the
last named, was born in 1694. He painted only as
an amateur, but. having been blessed with a good
education, he assisted his father in his literary
productions. His portrait of Matthew Prior has
been engraved. He died in London in 1771.

RICHARDSON, THOMAS MILES, an English
landscape painter in oil and water-colours, born at
Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1784. His father was
master of the St. Andrew's Grammar School. His
early years were passed in a variety of occupations :
engraving, cabinet-making, and teaching (in 1806
he was named successor to his father at the school)
occupied him successively till 1813, when he de-
voted himself entirely to art. In the following
year he commenced exhibiting at the Academy,
and his works also appeared at the British Institu-
tion. Subsequently he joined the New Water-
Colour Society. The subjects of his pictures were
mainly taken from the northern counties, and won
him a wide reputation. In 1816 he began to pub-
lish, in conjunction with a partner, a work on
Newcastle and its neighbourhood, with illustrations
in aquatint, but only a few numbers were issued.



JONATHAN RICHARDSON




1 1 ",;/&r and CMkcrell f/ui/u] \_N.itional Portrait Gallery

THE ARTIST, BY HIMSELF



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



In 1833 he began, in partnership with his brother,
the publication of The Castles of the English and
Scottish Borders,' with mezzotint plates engraved
by himself. This enterprise also stopped short of
completion. His work in water-colour shows very
great talent. His life was chiefly spent at New-
castle, where he died in 1848. Amongst his works
are:

Dublin. National Gallery. River Scene.

Liverpool. Corporation Gall. Scene between Chamouni

and the Tete Noire.

,. ,, ., Laeo Maggiore.

Newcastle. Town Hall. View of Newcastle.

South Kensington. Museum. Ben Lomond.

RICHARDSON, THOMAS MILES, jun., son of the
above, was bora at Newcastle in 1813, and
becoming a painter, worked for a time with his
father at 53, Blackett Street. Between 1832 and
1848 he used oils as well as water-colour, exhibit-
ing six works at the Royal Academy, three at the
British Institution, and five at Suffolk Street.
In 1837 he published ' Sketches in Italy, Switzer-
land, France, &c.,' with twenty-six plates, eleven
lithographed by himself; and in 1839, along with
his father, ' Sketches at Shotley Bridge Spa and on
the Derwent,' seven plates, two lithographed by
himself, three by his father, and two by G. Richard-
son. He became an Associate of the Old Water-
Colour Society in 1843, and was elected a member
on June 9, 1851. He was married at Frankfort to
Miss Mary Green in 1845, and came to live in
London, residing from 1856 till his death at 12,
Porchester Terrace, Bayswater. From the time of
his becoming an Associate there was no summer or
winter Exhibition of the Water-Colour Society at
which he was unrepresented, the number of his
exhibits from 1843 to his death exceeding the large
total of eight hundred. The majority of these were
Scotch and Italian landscapes, with occasional
views in the northern counties of England and in
Switzerland. " The works of T. M. Richardson,"
writes Mr. Roget, " are specially characterized by
clever drawing and workmanlike skill in manipu-
lation of material. They are rendered attractive
by bright contrasts of colour, and a deftness of
handling which is particularly apparent in his
sketches. As might be expected from so prolific
a painter, there is much similarity of treatment in
his many landscapes. In his finished drawings
the pictorial arrangement conforms to a settled
system of construction, the effort being commonly
enhanced by the introduction of telling groups
of figures and cattle in the foreground." After
some years of feeble health, Richardson died on
Jan. 5, 1890, his remaining drawings and sketches
being sold at Christie's in June of the same

vear - M H.

RICHART. See DK LA MARE-RICHART.

RICHARTE, ANTONIO, born at Yecla in 1690,
was educated for a learned profession, but he pre-
ferred painting, which he studied under Senen Vila
at Morcia, and afterwards at Madrid with one of
the Menendez. He was very popular at Valencia,
where he was much employed in painting pro-
cessional banners for the Guild of that city. He
died in 1764.

RICHAUD, JOSEPH, French painter; born in
1812 at Aix ; studied in Paris with Paul Delaroche;
painted historical subjects and portraits ; also
religious subjects ; obtained second-class medal
in 1848. He died in Paris, December 1869.

R1CHE, ADELE, bora in Paris, 1791. She was a



pupil of G. Van Spaendonck and of Van Dael, and
painted flowers in water-colour.

RICHE, , probably RENIER LA RICHE,

a French painter, practising at the Hague at the
beginning of the 18th century. He was a pupil
of Tli. Van der Schuur.

RICHIER, DIDIER, or DIDIER DE VIE, painter,
practising in Lorraine in the latter part of the 16th
century. He studied in Italy, and finally established
himself at Nancy, where he became known chiefly
as a skilful painter of armour. His son, PIERRE,
was also a painter.

RICHIERI, ANTONIO, a native of Ferrara, born
in 1600, was brought up in the school of Giovanni
Lanfranco. According to Passeri, he followed that
master to Naples and Rome, and painted some
frescoes at the Teatini from the designs of .Lan-
franco. He is said to have etched some plates
from the designs of his master.
RICHMANS. See RYKMAN.
RICHMOND, GEORGE, R.A., LL.D., D.C.L., was
born on March 28, 1809, at what was at that time
the suburban village of Brompton. His father,
Thomas, was a well-known miniature painter, and
a frequent contributor to the Exhibitions of the
Royal Academy, and from him George Richmond
obtained his first lessons in art. In 1824 he
obtained admission to the Royal Academy school*,
where he worked under that extraordinary artist
Fuseli, who was Keeper at that period, and in 1825
he exhibited for the first time at the Royal Academy,
'Abel.' About the same time he made the ac-
quaintance of the still more eccentric genius
William Blake, and became one of a small circle
of devoted admirers and followers which was only
broken up by the death of its hero in 1827. His
influence on Richmond, though brief, was strong,
and is clearly marked in his picture, ' Christ and
the Woman of Samaria,' which was exhibited at
the Royal Academy in 1828, and is now in the
Tate Gallery. In 1830 he was represented by
two more subject pictures, and in 1831 by one,
but thenceforward for many years his contribu-
tions were portraits, either in oil, water-colours, or
crayons. His sitters at this period already in-
cluded men of note, William Wilberforce (1833),
Viscount Sidmouth, and the Bishop of Chester
(1834), being among them. In 1831 he married
Miss Tatham, and in 1837 went to Italy, his health
having broken down, where he spent two years in
Florence, Venice, and Rome. Another of his rare
religious subjects, ' Our Saviour and two Disciples,'
was exhibited in 1840, and a portrait, among
others, of John Ruskin, junior, in 1842. In 1847
he was appointed by Mr. Gladstone a member
of the council of the Government Schools of Design,
and in 1856, by Sir G. Cornwall Lewis, one of a
Royal Commission for arranging various matters
in connection with the National Gallery, while in
1857 he was elected an Associate of the Royal
Academy. He was engaged in 1860 to execute a
monument to Bishop Blomfield in St. Paul's
Cathedral, which was completed in 1865. Two
years later the University of Oxford conferred
upon him the honorary degree of D.C.L. In the
meantime, at irregular intervals, he contributed
portraits to the Academy, including many people
of importance, and in especial a notable number of
dignitaries of the Church. His name first appears
among the Royal Academicians in 1867, and the
following year he exhibited as his diploma picture
a portrait of the then Bishop of Oxford, who was

229



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



chaplain to that body. The last oil-paintings ex-
hibited by him were portraits of the Archbishop
of Canterbury and Canon Liddon in 1880, though
lie was represented by a marble bust of Pusey in
1884, and remained a full member of the Academy
till 1887, in which year his name appears among
the retired members. His profound knowledge of
the history of art had secured for him on the death
of Sir William Boxall an offer of the Directorship
of the National Gallery from Mr. Gladstone, which,
however, owing perhaps to his advanced age, he
declined. In 1890 he received the honorary degree
of LL.D. from Cambridge University, an honour
which he enjoyed for six years, dying in London
on March 19, 1896, at the age of 87. jf B

RICHMOND, THOMAS, an English miniature
painter, born at Kew in 1771. He studied under
G. Engleheart, and at the St. Martin's Lane
Academy. Many of his works appeared at the
Royal Academy between 1795 and 1825, and were
held in some repute. He died in London in 1837.
He was the father of Mr. George Richmond, R.A.,
and of Thomas Richmond, junior.

RICHMOND, THOMAS, the son of the last-named,
was born in London, 16th September, 1802. He
acquired the rudiments of art from his father, and
in 1820 entered as a student of the Royal Academy,
where he distinguished himself by the refinement
of his drawings from the antique. After a period
of study in Paris he established himself as a
portraitist in oil and water-colour in the north of
England. In 1841 he went to Rome, where he
became the close friend of Joseph Severn and John
Ruskin. Returning to England, he continued to
paint portraits for a time in London, but finally
migrated to Cumberland, where he purchased a
small property. He died at Keswick on November
13th, 1874. From 1822 to 1860 he was an exhibitor
at the Academy and with the Society of British
Artists.

RICHOMME, JOSEPH THEODORE, a very eminent
engraver, was born in Paris in 1785, and was first
a scholar of Regnault, the painter, and afterwards
of J. J. Coiny, the engraver. He obtained the
grand prix of the Institute for the best engraving
in 1806, and his later career did not falsify the
promise then given. Richomme died in 1849. His
works class with those of the best modern engravers
of Italy. Among them may be specified.

The Triumph of Galatea ; after Raphael

The Five Saints ; after the same.

The Holy Family ; after the same.

Adam ami Eve ; after the same.

Neptune and Ampbitrite ; after Gii'h'o Romano.

Venus at the Bath ; after the antique.

Andromache ; after Guerin.

Thetis crowning Vasco de Gama ; after Gerard.

RICHOMME, JDLES. This artist was born in
Paris in 1818. He was the son of a well-known
engraver, Joseph Theodore Richomme. He studied
under Drolling, and first exhibited at the Salon in
1833. For many years he was a constant exhibitor
of portraits and of pictures inspired by Biblical
subjects. To the Salon of 1902 he sent two works,
' L'Attente ' and ' Jeune Femme regardant des
Estampes.' One of his pictures, 'Saint Pierre
d' Alcantara guerissant un Enfant Malade,' is in
the Luxembourg ; and another, ' La Decollation de
Saint Jean Baptiste,' is at Besangon. He assisted
in the artistic decoration of several French churches,
and died in 1903.

RICHTER, ADOLPH, painter, born at Thorn in

230



1816, studied at the Academy in Diisseldorf from
1835 to 1843, in which city he established himself.
His paintings are simple, but show the effects of
careful study. The best are, 'Christmas Eve,'
' The Return of the Reservist,' ' The Village School.'
He died at Dusseldorf in 1852.

RICHTER, ADRIAN LUDWIG, painter and en-
graver, was born at Dresden, September 28, 1803.
His education in art was received from his father,
Karl August, who meant his son to be an engraver,
like himself. Adrian's inclination towards painting
was, however, very strong, and he would have
indulged it from the first had his domestic sur-
roundings been less unfavourable. He was also
much attracted by the works of Chodowieeki,
which had some influence on his after practice.
He helped his father for a time in his engraving,
particularly on a series of views in Dresden and the
neighbourhood ; but a wider horizon was opened
to him by his acquaintance with Dahl, Friedrich,
and Carus, and by a journey through France to
Nice, in company with Prince Narischkin, in 1820.
Shortly afterwards he made a tour among the Alps,
and with the money he obtained from the resulting
sketches, he contrived to visit Italy. This was in
1823. In Rome he made many useful friends, and
painted his first oil picture. In 1826 he was again
at Dresden, and soon after became a master in the
drawing school attached to the porcelain factory
at Meissen. In 1836 he was appointed professor
at the Dresden 'Academic,' where he introduced
the fashion of combining genre with landscape.
The first thing to make his name popular, however,
was the series of illustrations from German life,
scenery, and literature, which he furnished to the
wood engravers from 1835 onwards. During his
later years he was troubled by a weakness of the
eyes, and in 1876 he retired from his official duties,
being granted a pension by the emperor. Richter



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