died at Dresden, June 19, 1884. His oil pictures
are few, and mostly belong to his early period.
The following may be named :
Berlin. Museum. Landscape (Riesengebirge).
Dresden. Gallery. Landscape with a Wedding.
Leipsic. Museum. Five landscapes.
He produced many water-colour drawings and
designs for illustration ; he also etched no less
than 238 plates, among which a series of 70 views
in the neighbourhood of Dresden may be named
as perhaps the best.
RICHTER, ALBERT, German animal painter ;
born July 29, 1845, at Dresden ; studied at the
Dresden Academy, and subsequently under A.
Zimmermann at Vienna and Munich. His studies
of stags and horses, such as 'Abgekampft' and
'Schreiender Hirsch,' became popular by means of
reproductions ; a great traveller and an enthusiastic
sportsman. He died at Langehriick near Dresden,
June 23, 1898.
RICHTER, AUGUST, painter, born at Dresden,
1801. In 1824 he was practising at Dusseldorf,
and associated himself with Cornelius, one of
whose designs he carried out in fresco at Helldorf.
Towards the end of his life he became insane. He
died at Pirna in 1873. His best-known works are
engraved, and represent Biblical subjects.
RICHTER, CAROLINE THERESE, flower and genre
painter, born at Dresden in 1777, was a pupil of
Caroline Friedrich. In the Dresden Gallery are two
pictures by her : ' A Carp with a Vase of Flowers,'
and 'Two Squirrels, a branch of a Nut Tree,
Stag's Horns,' &c. She died at Dresden in 1865.
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
RICHTER, CHRISTIAN, was a native of Stock-
nolm, and came to England in 1702, where he
painted portraits both in oil and in miniature ;
chiefly studying the works of Michael Dahl, from
which he learned a vigorous manner of colouring.
In the latter part of his life he turned to enamel-
ling, but died in 1732 before he had made much
progress in that branch of art.
RICHTER, DAVID, a Swedish painter, born 1661.
He practised at Vienna. There are two landscapes
by him in the Gallery of that city, and at Stock-
holm a portrait of the sculptor Casanova (?). He
RICHTER, EMIL THEODOK, landscape painter,
born at Berlin in 1801, painted landscapes, ill-
drawn but bright in. colour, among which were a
' Woodland Scene with Deer,' and pictures of Italian
scenery. He died at Munich in 1878.
RICHTER GUSTAV, painter, born at Berlin,
August 31, 1823. He studied first at Berlin, and
in 1844 1846 was the pupil of Cogniet in Paris.
He made numerous journeys to France and Italy,
and in 1861 was commissioned by the King of
Bavaria to visit Egypt, to make sketches for
pictures of the Pyramids, which were destined for
the ' Maximilianeum ' at Munich. He had pre-
viously to this attracted considerable attention by
his 'Raising of Jairus' Daughter' (1856), and by
his decoration in stereo-chrome, at the New
Museum of Berlin, ' Baldur and the Valkyri.' He
was member, and later professor, of the Berlin
Academy, and member of the Academies of Munich
and Vienna, and received medals at Berlin, Vienna,
Paris, Brussels, and Philadelphia. His works,
which are very popular, have become widely
known both in Europe and America, by chromos.
He executed a few lithographs. He died on April
3, 1884. The following are good examples of his
Jairus' Daughter. (Berlin National Gallery.) 1850.
The Egyptian Maiden.
The Neapolitan Fisher-Boy.
Gipsies of the Crimea.
Two portraits of the Emperor \Villiam. 1877.
Portrait of the Empress Augusta. 1878.
Portrait of the Princess Karolath. 1872.
Portrait of Queen Louisa of Prussia. (Painted in 1879
for the Cologne Hfuseum.)
Portrait of the Duchess of Edinburgh.
Portrait of Sultan Abdul Medschid.
His own Family.
RICHTER, HENRY J., a 'subject painter in water-
colours, born in 1772. He was of German extrac-
tion, and practised in London, where he occasion-
ally exhibited at the Academy from 1788. His
works chiefly appeared at the Water-Colour Society,
of which he was a member, intermittently, from
1813 to his death. In 1813 his picture of ' Christ
giving sight to the Blind' was bought by the
British Institution for 500 guineas. He published
a work on the application to art of Kant's philo-
sophy ; it was entitled ' Daylight, a Recent Dis-
covery in the Art of Painting, with hints on the
Philosophy of the Fine Arts and on that of the
Human Mind, as first dissected by Emanuel Kant.'
He died in London in 1857. Some of his pictures
attained considerable popularity. Amongst them
The Tight Shoe.
School in an Uproar.
A Brute of a Husbaud.
RICHTER, JOHANN HEINRICH, painter, born at
Coblentz, 1803. He began his career as a gold-
smith, but soon devoted himself to painting, and
after studying in Paris under Girodet-Trioson and
Gerard, he established himself as a portrait painter
at Munich. In 1832 he went to Italy, where he
remained for three years, and during that period
painted several scenes from Italian life. Returning
to Munich he resumed the practice of portrait
painting. He died at Coblentz in 1845. Among
his works we may mention :
Portrait of King Otho of Greece.
Portrait of the Hereditary Grand Duchess Matilda of
Eoman Girl in a Landscape.
RICHTER, KARL AUGUST, a German draughts-
man and engraver, was born at Dresden in 1776.
He was a pupil of Zingg, whose style he followed
faithfully. Many of Richter's productions were
published under Zingg's name, when the latter
became enfeebled by age, and unable to fulfil his
commissions. Richter was the first teacher of his
son, Adrian Ludwig. Among his works we may
Landscape ; after Euisdael.
Landscape ; after Swanevelt.
Dresden from the Bautzeuer Strasse.
A Series of Views in the Neighbourhood of Dresden.
RICKARDS, SAMUEL, a miniature painter, who
practised in London in the latter part of the 18th
century, and exhibited with the Society of Artists,
the Free Society, and the Royal Academy between
1768 and 1781.
RICKE. See RYCKE, VAN.
RICO, ANDREA, a Greek painter, of the island of
Candia, practising in the first years of the 12th
century. He was one of the first artists who sent
works into Italy. At Florence, in the Uffizi, there
is a ' Virgin and Infant Christ surrounded by
Angels holding the Emblems of the Passion,' by
him. It is signed Andreas Rico di Candia pinxit
RICOIS, FRANQOIS EDMB, painter, born at
Courtalin. He was a pupil of J. V. Bertin, and
painted landscapes in the early years of the
present century, amongst which we may mention
a ' View in the Bernese Oberland,' and a ' View of
RIDINGER, JOHAN ELIAS, (RIEDINGER,) animal
painter and engraver, born at Ulm in Suabia in
1695 or 1698, received his first instruction from
Christopher Resch, in Ulm, and then studied under
Falk and Rugendas in Augsburg. He had been
brought up a huntsman, and applied himself to
the illustration of animal life and of the modes
of the chase. In 1759 he became director of
the Art Academy in Augsburg, where he estab-
lished himself. His works as a painter are few,
and but little known ; but in his etchings from
his own pictures he displays ability of an un-
common kind. His sons, MARTIN ELIAS and JO-
HANN JAKOB, assisted him in his work. The
number of his prints is very great ; they are very
unequal in quality. He died at Augsburg in
1767. The following are among the best of his
A set of twelve plates of the Creation.
A set of Heads of Wolves and Foxes.
Four plates of Boar-hunts.
A set of sixteen plates representing the mode of hunting
different animals in Germany, with inscriptions in
German and French.
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP
Eighteen plates of Horsemanship.
Thirteen plates of various Wild Beasts.
A Lion-hunt ; after Rubens ; for the Dresden Gallery.
EIDLEY, MATTHEW WHITE, landscape painter
and etcher. He exhibited frequently with the
Society of British Artists, the British Institution,
and the Royal Academy, between 1857 and 1880.
He died June 2, 1888.
RIDLEY, WILLIAM, an English engraver, born
in 1764. He had a considerable practice in illus-
trations for books, and some of his best work is
to be found in the 'Evangelical Magazine.' He
retired to Addlestone, where he died in 1838.
RIDOLFI, CAVALIERE CARLO, born at Vicenza
in 1602, was instructed in art by Antonio Vassil-
acchi, called 1'Aliense, but afterwards studied the
works of the best masters at Verona and Vicenza.
Little is known of his work as a painter, but
Lanzi mentions, as his best performance, the
' Visitation of the Virgin ' in the church of the
Ognissanti at Venice. He also painted portraits
and easel pictures for private collections. He is
more distinguished as a writer on art than as a
painter, and was the author of the well-known two
volumes, published at Venice in 1648, entitled, ' Le
Maraviglie dell' arte, ovvero le Vite degl' illustri
pittori Veneti, e dello Stato.' These are written
with a directness and simplicity which was very
rare in the literature of the time, and form a
valuable contribution to art history. The good
sense and freedom from manner they display
were also the ruling notes of Ridolfi's works as a
painter. He died in 1658, according to an epitaph
quoted by Zanetti in his ' Guide to Venice ' (1723),
but 1660 is the date more usually given.
RIDOLFI, CLAUDIO, was born at Verona in 1560,
and was for some time a scholar of Dario Pozzo, a
painter of little celebrity ; but he afterwards entered
the school of Paolo Veronese. As Venice was at
that time the residence of a great number of eminent
artists, he went to Rome in search of employment.
Not meeting with the success he expected in that
capital, he visited Urbino, where the works of Fede-
rigo Baroccio were then held in the highest estima-
tion. He formed an intimacy with that artist, and,
with the advantage of his instruction and advice,
acquired the graceful style by which he was after-
wards distinguished. Ridolfi resided several years
at Corinaldo, in the March of Ancona, where he
painted many pictures for the churches of that
town and its vicinity. Of his works at Urbino, the
most esteemed are the ' Birth of St. John the Bap-
tist,' in S. Lucia ; and the ' Presentation in the
Temple,' in Spirito Santo. At Rimini there is a
fine ' Deposition from the Cross ' by Ridolfi. He
also painted portraits. He died in 1644.
RIDOLFI, MICHELE, painter, born in Lucca in
1795. Studied in Rome in 1813 and following
years, helped and encouraged by the German
artists, principally Cornelius and Overbeck, who
taught him to respect the masters of the 15th
century, as well as the works of Raphael. His
principal picture, the 'First Council of the Apostles
under the Presidency of St. Peter,' shows much
breadth and power of characterization. For his
' Enthroned Madonna' he received two gold medals
and a crown of laurel from the Pope. He restored
Aspertini's frescoes in a chapel of S. Frediano at
Lucca with great skill. Ridolfi was an honorary
member of the Dresden Academy. He died at
Lucca in 1854.
RIDOLFI, PIETRO, an Italian engraver, who
flourished about the year 1710, is known fora fron-
tispiece which he engraved from a design by C. N.
Lamparel, affixed to a volume containing views of
ancient and modern Rome, published at Venice in
1716. It is executed in a style resembling that
of Cornells Bloemaert, though very inferior in
RIEBENSTEIN. See RUBINSTEIN.
RIEDEL, ANTON HEINRICH, painter, son of
Johann Anton Riedel, was born at Dresden in
1763. He painted portraits, and was also, like his
father, an engraver. Died after 1809.
RIEDEL, AUGUST HEINRICH, (or JOSEPH,) painter,
born atBayreuth, Dec. 27, 1802. His father, KAEL
CHRISTIAN, was an architect, who, however, occa-
sionally practised painting. The younger Riedel
studied for a time under Langer, at the Munich
Academy, but in 1828 he went to Rome, where
he settled, and became a member of the Academy
of St. Luke. From this time he adopted a very-
different style of painting. He was one of the
first of the modern Germans to concern himself
with colour. His works are also distinguished by
various effects of light and sunshine, with which
lie was very successful. Riedel died at Rome on
the 8th of August, 1883. The following are among
his best-known pictures:
Sakuntala, A Roman Woman (in the possession of the
King of Wurtembei'y) ; Women of Albano, Girls Bathing
(Berlin National Gallery} ; Judith, A Mother and
Daughter, Mariuccia Joli, Felice Beraldi, Pellegrini the
Singtr, Siguora Pellegrini, Neapolitan Fisher-Family,
The Fortune-Teller, Nazarena Trombetti (all in the New
Pinacothek, Munich); Medea (in the Stuttgart Gallery).
Many of the above have been rendered popular
by engravings and lithographs.
RIEDEL, GOTTFRIED FRIEDRICH, born at Dres-
den, 1724. Painted portraits and history, and
engraved a few plates. He was the son of Johann
Gottfried Riedel. He died at Augsburg in 1784.
RIEDEL, JOHANN ANTON, a German designer
and engraver, son of Johann Gottfried Riedel, born
at Prague in 1733, was keeper of the Dresden
Gallery, and engraved several plates after pictures
in that collection, in which he imitated the style
of Rembrandt. Among them we may name the
The Virgin aud Infant Christ ; after Barorrio.
The Seven Sacraments ; after Gio. Maria Crespi.
A Portrait of Rembrandt ; after +- ''jrandt.
A Warrior, with a cap and feather ; after the same.
Sixteen other plates ; after the same.
A Portrait of a Lady holding a Letter ; after Vandyck.
Twenty-one Portraits ; after Both, Dietrich, FlincK,
Riedel died at Dresden in 1816.
RIEDEL, JOHANN GOTTFRIED, painter and
engraver, born at Talken in Bohemia in 1691,
was a pupil of Mannl in Vienna, and afterwards of
Solimena. He went in 1739 as court painter to
Dresden, and in 1742 he was appointed keeper
of the Dresden Gallery. He died at Dresden in
RIEDER, GEORG, an obscure historical painter
of Ulm, who was received into the freedom of that
city in 1550. He was still living in 1570.
RIEDER, WILHELM AUGUST, painter, born at
Dobling in 1796. In 1825 he became professor of
figure-drawing at the Academy of Vienna. In 1835
he went to Italy to study, and on his return to
Vienna in 1857 was made keeper of the Belve-
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
dere Gallery. His works are mainly religious, but
he occasionally painted portraits in water-colour,
of which we may mention that of Franz Schubert ;
and he made some drawings for the Archduke
Ludwig, and the Archduchess Maria Elizabeth.
His best known works in oil are :
Christ on the Mount of Olives.
Portraits of Prince Ferdinand and of Prince Augustus
Portrait of the Frau von Sonnenfels.
Effie Deans in Prison. ( Vienna.)
Rieder died at Vienna in 1880.
RIEDINGER. See EIDINGER.
RIEFSTAHL, LUDWIG FRIEDBIOH WILHELM,
landscape and genre painter, was born the 15th
of August, 1827, at Neu-Strelitz. Failing to be-
come the pupil of Gropius and Gerst, as he had
wished, he studied under W. Schirmer at the
Berlin Academy. In 1848 he made the archi-
tectural illustrations for Kugler's ' History of Art.'
This commission started him in life. He travelled
through the most picturesque parts of Germany,
and the impressions he received had a strong
influence upon his after work. In 1869 he visited
Rome, and a year later became professor at the
art school in Carlsruhe. This post he resigned
in order to revisit Rome, but two years afterwards,
in 1875, he was appointed director of the school
in question. His works are mainly landscapes
with figures. He died in 1878. Works :
Berlin. National Gallery. Passeyer Shepherds at Prayer.
,. All Souls' Day at Bregeuz.
Procession of Mourners, Bregenz.
A Northern Heath.
Seashore at Eiigen.
Village Church in Westphalia.
Procession of Capuchiu Monks.
Bridal Procession in the Passeyer Thai.
The Return from the Baptism.
Funeral Procession before the Pantheon.
Funeral at Appenzel.
In the Refectory.
RIEPENHAUSEN, ERNST LUDWIG, draughts-
man and engraver, born at Gottingen, 1765. He
engraved a number of plates in the manner of
Chodowiecki, but is best known as the author of
some engravings after Hogarth in the ' Gottingen
Almanack,' and as the father of Franz and Johann
Riepenhausen. He died at Gottingen. 28th January,
RIEPENHAUSEN, FRANZ and JOHANN, born
at Gottingen; Franz in 1786, and Johann in 1789.
They first learned engraving from their father,
Ernst Ludwig. In 1804 they studied in Cassel
under Tischbein, and the following year in Dresden.
In 1807 they both went to Rome to study the old
masters, and till the death of Franz they worked
so well together that it was impossible to dis-
tinguish their hands. Franz died in Rome in 1831,
and Johann in the same city in 1860. Works :
Der ganger (in illustration of Goethe's poem).
Madchen aus der Fremde (in illustration of Schiller's
View of Rome. 1820.
Legend of St. Elizabeth (painted for the Duke of Cam-
Copy of Raphael's ' Transfiguration.'
Conradin receiving sentence of death.
Barbarossa protected by Henry the Lion as he left St.
Peter's (in the Guelfen Saal, Hanover).
PAINTED BY JOHANN ALONE AFTER THE DEATH
Eric of Brunswick.
Amor listening to Music.
A ' Madonna. '
The Destruction of the Cenci Family. 1839.
In 1810 the brothers published the ' History of
Painting in Italy ' (' Die Geschichte der Malerei in
Italien nach ihrer Entwickelung'), with twelve
plates by themselves. They also made a series of
designs for Goethe's 'Faust,' for Schiller's 'Taucher,'
and for a life of Charlemagne. They also etched
115 plates, among which we may name :
Thirteen plates from the Life of Raphael.
Sixteen plates from ' Polygnotus at Delphi.'
Fourteen plates from Tieck's 'Genovefa.'
Sixteen plates after ancient classical monuments.
RIESENER, HENRI FRANCOIS, painter, born in
Paris in 1767, studied under Vincent and David.
His father was the famous cabinet-maker to Louis
XVI. On the outbreak of the Revolution he
abandoned his artistic career for that of a soldier.
On resuming his brush, he employed it in paint-
ing portraits. A portrait of Napoleon I. was so
successful that he had to supply more than fifty
replicas. From 1816 to 1823 he worked in Russia,
both in Moscow and Petersburg, where he was
patronized by the Grand Duke Constantine and
the Empress-mother, and painted portraits of the
Emperor Alexander and other notabilities. He
contributed to the Salons between 1793 and 1827.
In 1823 he returned to Paris, where he died in
1828. In the Louvre there is a portrait of M.
Ravrio by him.
_ RIESENER, Louis ANTOINE LON, a French
historical and decorative painter, born in Paris in
1808. He was the son of Henri Fran$ois Riesener.
Though he studied under Gros, he was a great
admirer and follower of Delacroix. He painted
many studies from the nude, of a rather voluptuous
character, but excellent in technique. His attention
was largely devoted to decoration, and there are
works by him in the Luxembourg Palace, in St.
Eustache, and at the Charenton Hospital. Those
in the old Hotel de Ville perished when the build-
ing was burnt by the commune. His daughter
is a successful portrait painter. Riesener died in
1878. Amongst his chief pictures we may name
A Bacchante playing with a Panther.
Egyptian Child and Nurse.
Erigone. 1864. (Paris; Luxembourg Gallery.)
RIETER, HEINRICH, painter and etcher, born
at Winterthur in 1751, learned his art of Schellen-
burg, and afterwards studied under Graf in Dresden,
also landscape painting in Bern under Staberli.
On the death of the latter he inherited his plates,
and added to the series with plates of his own.
These were superior to those of his master. His
best plates are, ' The Waterfall of Reichenbach,'
' The Giessbach,' ' The Peak of the Jungfrau.' Of
his oil paintings the chief were landscape views
of Italian and Swiss scenery. Rieter died in 1818
at Bern, where he had taught drawing at the
Ecole Publique for thirty-seven years.
RIETHOORN, JEAN ALBERTZ VAN DEN. See
VAN DEN RIETHOORN.
RIETSCHOOF, HENDRIK, the son and pupil of
Jan Claasze Rietschoof, was born at Hoorn in 1678.
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
He painted similar subjects to those of his father,
whose skill, however, he failed to rival. He died
at Koog, a village in North Holland, about 1746.
RIETSCHOOF, JAN CLAESZ, (perhaps CLAES
JANSZ), born at Hoorn in 1652, was a scholar of
Abr. Liedts and Ludolf Backhuysen, under whose
tuition he became an eminent artist, and painted
sea-pieces and storms so much in the style of his
instructor, that his pictures are sometimes mistaken
for those of Backhuysen. He particularly excelled
in painting storms, which he reproduced with much
fidelity. He died in 1719. Works :
Amsterdam. R. Hfuseum. A Calm.
EIETSTAP, ANTHONIS R., a Dutch landscape
painter, born at the Hague, 1814. He was a pupil
of A. Schelfout. He died in 1837.
RIEOE, JEHAN, (DRIEUX, DEBUS,) a native of
Bruges, who worked as an illuminator in the 15th
century. In 1439 he illuminated a 'Book of
Hours ' for the Duke of Burgundy, and in 1449-50
he was attached to Philippe-le-Bon as valet-de
chambre and illuminator. He was still alive in
RIFFLA.ERT, ALEXANDBE VICTOR, a Belgian
painter of little note, born at Brussels. He painted
historical and genre pictures, and was still alive in
RIGA, JEAN, a Belgian painter, probably of the
same family as N. J. Riga. He was born at Liege
in 1680, and was employed at the Hotel de Ville.
He also painted sacred subjects for the churches of
his native town, but none of his works have been
preserved. He died in 1725.
RIGA, MiJLLER VON. See MULLEB, JOHANN
RIGA, N. J., a Belgian painter, born in 1653, at
Liege. There are pictures by him in several
churches of his native town. He died in 1717.
RIGAUD, GASPABD, portrait painter, was a
younger brother of the famous Hyacinths Rigaud,
but of greatly inferior talent. He was appointed
one of the painters to the king, and became an
associate of the Academy in 1701. He died in
RIGAUD-Y-ROS, HYACINTHE FBANQOIS Ho-
NOBAT MATHIAS PIERBE-LE-MAETYB ANDRE JEAN,
a French portrait painter, was born at Perpignan
the 20th of July, 1659. Both his father, whom he
lost when he was but eight years old, and his
grandfather, were artists. At the early age of
fourteen, his mother, for whom he had a great
affection, sent him to study at Montpellier. Here
lie received instruction for some time from the
local painters Pezet, Verdier, and Ranc. After a
stay of four years at Montpellier, he migrated to
Lyons, and afterwards to Paris, where he arrived
in 1681, and began to study in the Academy.
In the following year he gained the first prize
for painting for his version of ' Cain building the
city of Enoch.' At this critical period of his
career he attracted the notice of Le Brun, who
strongly advised him to continue the work at
portraits, which he had already commenced, and
to abandon the idea of studying in Italy. Rigaud
took this advice, and, to improve his style,
applied himself to a diligent study of the works
of Van Dyck, whose disciple he always pro-
fessed to be. At first his sitters came from
the bourgeoisie. His firm establishment as the
fashionable painter of the upper classes may
be said to date from 1688, when the brother of
Louis XIV. sat to him. Notwithstanding that his
career was thus definitely marked out, he had the
ambition, not uncommon amongst French artists,
of being received into the Academy in the highest
class, that of historical painters. With this view
he submitted a ' Nativity ' as his reception picture
in 1687. But the Academy was obdurate, and he
was only admitted as a portrait painter. It waa
not till 1700, when he had risen to the first rank
in his profession, that he was received as an his-
torical painter, on the completion of ' St. Andrew,'
now in the Louvre. He became assistant professor
in the Academy in 1702, professor in 1710, and
assistant rector and rector in 1733. Other honours
were freely bestowed on him : he was ennobled in
1709, and as he had the misfortune to lose his
savings through the schemes of Law, the king
granted him a pension. There are but few other
events in his career to record. His large practice,
and the industry with which he worked, left him
but little time for any pursuit but that of art.