From a list which he kept, specifying each portrait
which he painted and the sum received for it, it
appears that he produced, on an average, between
thirty and forty portraits per annum. It is said,
too, that Rigaud did not intrust the accessories
to other hands, but painted them himself. After
a long and prosperous career he was practising
for no less than sixty-two years Rigaud died in
Paris in 1743. He painted five kings, all the
French Princes of the Blood, and most of the
distinguished men of his time.
There are many portraits by Eigaud in the
French provincial galleries and private collections.
The following is a list of his paintings in the chief
public galleries in Europe :
Bale. Museum. Chevalier Luke Schaub.
Berlin. Museum. The Sculptor Bogaert.
Cassel. Gallery. Portrait of himself.
Dresden. Gallery. Augustus III. of Poland. 1 715.
Florence. Uffi:i. Bossuet.
, t Portrait of himself.
Geneva. Rath Museum. Duchess of Orleans.
Karlsruhe. Gallery. Louis XIV.
Portrait of himself.
Lausanne. Artaud \ Augustus II. of Poland.
Museum. J Augustus III. of Poland.
Portrait of himself.
Two other portraits.
Lisbon. Academy. Cardinal Polignac.
Portrait of a Cardinal.
London. Nat. Gal. Cardinal Fleury.
,, Nat. For. Gal. Viscount Bolingbroke.
Dulicich Gallery. Louis XIV.
Madrid. Museum. Louis XIV.
Munich. Pinakothek. Duke Christian III., of Zwei-
Paris. Louvre. The Presentation in the
St. Andrew. 1700.
Philip V. of Spain.
Louis XIV. 1701.
Maria Serre, the Painter's
Mother (a double portrait).
n The Sculptor Martin van den
Le Brun and Mignard.
The Architect J. H. Mausart.
Two unidentified portrait
Petersburg. Hermitage. Fontenelle.
Stockholm. Gallery. Charles XII. of Sweden.
Versailles. Gallery. Mignard.
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
Versailles. Gallery. Portrait of himself.
i, Louis XV.
i. The Dauphin Louis, &c.,&c.
Vienna. Gallery. Duchess Elizabeth Caroline of
>, An Ecclesiastic.
RIGAUD, JOHN FRANCIS, an historical and por-
trait painter, born at Turin in 1742, was descended
from a French Protestant family. He, however,
came in 1772 to England, after travelling through
Italy and France, where he practised his art. He
was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in
1772, and in 1784 a full member. His admission
picture, which represented ' Samson breaking his
bonds,' was much admired. He was employed by
Boydell for the Shakespeare Gallery, and he also
painted several sacred and historical subjects. But
besides this he decorated several ceilings, among
which was that of the Court Room in the Trinity
House, Tower Hill. He also painted two altar-
pieces, one for the parish church at Packington,
and another for the church of St. Martin-Outwich
in London. He translated into English and pub-
lished Leonardo da Vinci's Treatise on Painting,'
with illustrative copper plates. He was found
dead in his bed at Packington Hall, the residence
of Lord Aylesford, his patron, on December 6th
RIGAUD, JEAN, a relation of Hyacinthe Rigaud,
born in Paris about the year 1700, painted land-
scapes, which, if we may judge by his prints,
must have possessed considerable merit. He
appears to have passed some time in England, as
he has etched some views in the environs of
London. We have several plates by him, executed
in a spirited and masterly style, and the figures
correctly and neatly drawn. The following are
his principal prints :
A pair of Views of Marseilles, at the time of the Plague
A set of six Views of the Chateau and Gardens of Marly
The Garden of the Tuilleries.
A View of the Palace of the Luxembourg.
A View of Hampton Court.
St. James's Park.
A set of six Landscapes, with 6gures.
A set of six Views in France, with rural amusements.
Twelve marine subjects.
He had a son, JEAN BAPTISTS RIGAUD, who
engraved a view of the Palais Bourbon, after his
RIGAUD, STEPHEN FRANCIS D., son of John
Francis Rigaud, and an English water-colour
painter, was born in 1777. He studied in the
schools of the Academy, where he first exhibited in
1797, and in 1801 gained the gold medal by his
' Clytemnestra and Agamemnon.' In 1804 he
became one of the original members of the Water-
Colour Society, where he exhibited till 1813, when
he, Chalon, and others seceded. But little is known
of his subsequent life, though it appears that he
exhibited at the Society of British Artists as late
as 1851, and died in 1861. There is a water-colour
picture by him at the Kensington Museum of
'Telemachus discovering the Priest of Apollo.'
We may also name :
Satan in the Bower of Adam and Eye. 1805.
Martha and Mary. 1806.
Sin and Death. 1807.
Invasion of France in 1813. 1814.
David sallying out against Goliath. 1815.
RIGHETTI, MARIO. This painter was born at
Bologna about the year 1590, and was a scholar of
Lucio Massari. He painted several pictures for the
churches of his native city, which are noticed in
| Le Pitture di Bologna.' The best are the follow-
ing : ' The Archangel Michael,' in the church of
S. Guglielmo ; ' Christ appearing to the Magdalen,'
m S. Giacomo Maggiore ; ' The Adoration of the
Magi, m S. Agnese; and the 'Nativity, 1 in S.
RIGOT, JEAN, a friar of the Abbey of St. Pierre
de Melun, was an illuminator and miniaturist of
the 15th century. In the 'Bibliotheque Nationale '
there is a Latin missal of the year 1489 attributed
RIGOULDTS, or RIGHOLZ. See THIELEN.
RIJCKAERT, DAVID, the first, was born in 1560,
and died about 1607. He was received into the
Antwerp Academy of St. Luke in 1585, and in
1589 was married to one Catherine Rem. He was
mostly employed in painting figures in the pictures
of other men.
RIJCKAERT, DAVID, the second, son of David
the first, was born at Antwerp, 1589. He excelled
in painting mountain scenery. His eldest daughter
married Gonzalez Coques. He died in 1642.
Vienna. Freyberg. A kitchen with three persons,
and still-life. (Signed O.K.)
RIJCKAERT, DAVID, the third, the son of David
Rijckaert the second, was born at Antwerp in 1612,
and instructed in landscape painting by his father ;
but the high estimation in which the works of
Brouwer and Teniers were then held, induced him
to attempt similar subjects, in which he was soon
very successful. The Archduke Leopold, a great
encourager of art, favoured him with his particular
protection. In 1651 he was appointed director of
the Academy at Antwerp, and his pictures were so
much admired, that it was with difficulty he could
keep pace with the demand for his works. He
usually painted assemblies of peasants regaling,
musical parties, and the interiors of chemists' labor-
atories ; though he occasionally attempted subjects
of a more elevated character. Towards the latter
part of his life he represented grotesque subjects,
which were very common at that time. His prin-
cipal pictures are : 'A Family Concert,' in the
Liechtenstein Gallery at Vienna; 'A Peasant's
dwelling,' at Berlin; 'A Shoemaker,' at Amster-
dam. He died in 1661. He left a son, an obscure
painter and a fourth DAVID RIJCKAERT, who was
born in 1649, and died after 1698.
RIJCKAERT, FEIEDRIK, painter, was a member
of the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp, 1550. About
1570 he painted a large altar-piece for the church
of St. Jacques.
RIJCKAERT, MARTIN, painter, son of David the
first, was born at Antwerp in 1587, and was for a
time a disciple of Tobias Verhaecht, an artist of
considerable celebrity. Martin had only one arm.
On leaving Verhaecht he went to Italy, where he
studied several years, and returned to his native
country with a great variety of drawings from the
nost remarkable views in the vicinity of Rome.
With these resources, he distinguished himself as
one of the ablest landscape painters of his time.
ie was fond of ruins, rocks, mountains, and water-
alls. His works are occasionally decorated with
igures by Jan Brueghel. He lived in habits of
ntimacy with Vandyck, who painted his portrait
n his series of eminent artists. Rijckaert died at
Antwerp in 1631 or 1632.
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
Florence. Fffizi. Waterfall near Tivoli. 1610.
Hanover. Gallery. Mountain Landscape. 1624.
Madrid. Prado. The Alchemist. 1616. (Signed.)
There is a portrait of him by Van Dyck at
Madrid in the Padro Gallery.
RIJCKAERT, PAUL, painter, born at Antwerp,
1592, another son of David Rijckaert the first.
Nothing; is known of his life or works.
RUN, REMBRANDT HARMENSZ VAN, was certainly
born at Leyden, and on July 15, but the exact year
is still a matter of debate. Orlers, a burgomaster
of the town, writing in 1641, states that the year
was 1606. Various documents, however,discovered
of late years, have been utilized to throw doubt on
his assertion, but as these are inconsistent with
one another, indicating respectively 1603, 1604,
1605, 1606 or 1607, too much reliance cannot be
placed on them, and as Orlers was indisputably in
a position to know the facts, there seems no good
reason for discrediting his authority. He was the
son of a miller named Harrnen or Hermann Ger-
ritsz, who assumed the affix van Rijn, and of his
wife Neeltje, the daughter of a baker, Willems of
Suydtbroeck. The paternal home stood close to
the " White," the western, gate of Leyden, and
immediately behind the mill of which Rembrandt's
father was half owner. In Vosmaer's ' Life of
Rembrandt ' the details of his family tree and of
his parents' condition in the world are elaborately
eet out. He was the fifth of six children, but his
parents were comfortably off, and, determined that
lie should have a good education, entered him on
May 25, 1620, as a student in the Faculty of
Letters at the Leyden University, in order that, as
Orlers puts it, " he might in the fulness of time be
able to serve his native city and the Republic with
his knowledge.'' But such studies as these were
not at all to the boy's tastes, and, before he had
been long aux prises with Latin, his father became
convinced that his inclination for art would have
to be allowed its way. The lad was accordingly
placed in the studio of Jacob von Swanenburch, a
respectable painter and a member of an old Leyden
family. With him Rembrandt stayed three years,
and made good progress, giving such promise of
future excellence that in 1624 he was allowed to
remove to the more famous studio of Pieter Last-
man at Amsterdam. This step was probably due
to the suggestion of Jan Lievensz. a fellow-aspirant
to art, and an intimate friend of Rembrandt's, who
had already spent two years under Lastman. Six
months of his instruction, however, proved more
than enough for Rembrandt. His new teacher
had visited Rome, and acquired the artificial
Italianate manner with which Rembrandt, the
earnest seeker after truth in nature, could have no
sympathy. In the course of the same year he
returned to Leyden and set himself " to study and
practise painting alone and in his own way,'' ac-
cording to Orlers. His earliest known pictures
date from three years later, ' St. Paul in Prison,' at
Stuttgart, signed both Bembrand fecit and B. f.
1627, and the 'Money-changer,' at Berlin, signed
-R. H. 1627. In 1628 Rembrandt received Gerard
Dou as his pupil, who remained with him until in
1631 he migrated to Amsterdam, where he lived
for the rest of his life. There, in the following
year, be painted his first corporation picture, the
famous 'Lesson in Anatomy,' and on June 22,
1634, he married at t'Bildt, Saskia van Uylenborch.
The Uylenborchs were a good Friesland family,
one or two of whose members had already married
into art and literature. At the time of her mar-
riage Saskia was twenty-two years of age, and her
husband twenty-seven. In 1635 their first child,
a son, christened Rombertus, was born, but did
not long survive, and a daughter Cornelia, born in
1638, was equally short-lived, as was a second
daughter, also named Cornelia, who was born in
July, but died in August 1640. In September
1641 their last child, Titus, was born, and in June
1642 Saskia died, and was buried on the 19th in
the Oudekerk. By her will this son Titus was
made ostensibly her heir, but the absolute com-
mand of her property was secured to Rembrandt
during his life, unless he married again. In that
case half of the joint estate at the time of her
death was to be placed in trust for Titus, though
Rembrandt was still to enjoy the interest. The
will also directed that if Rembrandt became owner
through the decease of his son, and should then
marry again, he should cede one half of Saskia's
property to her sister Hiskia. For the due per-
formance of these provisions Saskia expressly
forbade any legal security to be taken from Rem-
brandt, " because she had confidence that he would
behave in the matter in exact obedience to his
conscience." The same year saw the completion
of ' The Night Watch,' as the sortie of the Company
of Banning Cocq has long been called, and about
the same time, probably, began the friendship
between the painter and Jan Six, afterwards, but
not until Rembrandt had been twenty-two years in
his grave, Burgomaster of Amsterdam. Six was
born in 1618, and was therefore twenty -four in 1642.
He acquired some repute as a savant and poet at
a very early age, and married the daughter of
Nicholas Tulp, the central figure in ' The Anatomy
Lesson. 1 His friendship for Rembrandt remained
unshaken till the latter's death. In 1645 the artist
did the etching from the window of his country
house known as 'Six's Bridge,' in 1647 he etched
the celebrated dry-point 'Portrait of Six,' and in
1656 he began, but never finished, a portrait of him
in oils. With the death of Saskia and the failure
of the ' Night Watch ' to satisfy the subscribers,
Rembrandt's prosperity began to wane. In 1647
Saskia's relations deemed it necessary to have the
value of the estate at her death put on record, and
thenceforward financial and domestic troubles
thickened around the unfortunate artist. In 1649
one Geertje Dircz, who had been acting as nurse
to the infant Titus, brought against him the
equivalent of an action for breach of promise of
marriage, though without success. Between 1650
and 1652 he found himself reduced to the necessity
of selling a pearl necklace which had been Saskia's,
and in 1653 he was borrowing money right and
left. In 1654 his servant, Hendrickje Stoffels, who
had already borne him a child in 1652, was sum-
moned before the Consistory of her church and
severely reprimanded on account of her notorious
relations with him. Soon afterwards a second
child was born, and christened Cornelia, and from
this and other circumstances, slight in themselves,
there is some faint reason to infer that he may
have married Hendrickje about that time, though
this remains at present mere conjecture. On May
17, 1656, another guardian to Titus was legally
appointed in Rembrandt's place, and this was
speedily followed by the declaration of his bank-
ruptcy, and the making of an inventory of all his
REMBRANDT H. VAN RIJN
PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST, 1640
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
possessions, and in September 1658 these were
sold by auction. His patrons in the meantime
seem to a large extent to have deserted him,
although in 1661 he painted one of his finest works,
' The Syndics of the Drapers,' at Amsterdam. In or
about 1662 died Hendrickje Stoffels, who, whether
his wife or no, had done all that lay in her power
to avert his ruin, and when, in spite of her efforts,
that was accomplished, remained faithful to him
in adversity. The lawyers all this time had been
busy with his affairs, but it was not until 1665
that the courts finally decided that Titus was
entitled to take possession of his share of the
estate, of which, however, less than one-third
remained available. The house in the Breestraat
which, in his days of prosperity, he had bought,
had been sold long before, and after residing for a
time in the Bloemgracht he had removed to the
Lauriergracht. The settlement of his affairs
probably facilitated his return to the Rozengracht.
In 1668 Titus married his cousin Magdalena, but
his happiness was brief, for on September 4 of the
same year his burial in the Westerkerk is recorded.
In March of the following year his widow gave
birth to a daughter who was christened Titia, and
in October we find the last fact of Rembrandt's
troubled career in the Doelboek, or registry of
deaths, of the Westerkerk " Tuesday, October 8,
1669, Rembrandt van Rijn, painter, on the Rozen-
gracht, opposite the Doolhof. Leaves two children."
To whom these last words apply has been made
the subject of a somewhat unnecessary discussion.
It has even been suggested that they were the
offspring of an entirely imaginary marriage with
a Catherina van Wijck, but there can be no
reasonable doubt that one was his daughter
Cornelia, while in all probability his daughter-in-
law was meant by the second.
Rembrandt's pupils were numerous. In his early
period they included Gerard Dou, Ferdinand Bol,
Flinck, Backer, De Wet, and De Poorter. Some
few years later this list was increased by the names
of Victors, Van den Eeckhout, and Philips de
Koninck. About 1840 Lavecq, Ovens, Paudiss,
Verdoel, Heerschop, Drost, Carel Fabritius, and
Hoogstraten were the principal occupants of the
little rooms at the top of the house in the Bree-
straat which the painter filled with his scholars.
Later still their places were taken by Maes,
Renesse, Dullaert, Willemans, Mayr, Wulfhagen,
Uylenborch, and, last of all, Aert de Gelder.
Rembrandt was the greatest artistic individuality
of the 17th century. He excelled in every branch
of painting to which he seriously turned his hand,
while he took up an art, that of etching, which
before his time had been humble and insignificant,
and set it upon a pedestal round which artists have
been crowding, in hopeless emulation, ever since.
As a painter lie was equally great in conception
and execution ; his hand was the skilful, sym-
pathetic servant of a commanding imagination.
It is the same with his etchings. Technically they
are still unapproached, while in vigorous dramatic
expression no man has yet surpassed them. Yet
we find Rembrandt often at his most characteristic,
sometimes at his best in the numberless marvellous
drawings, sketches, and studies which he left
behind. The following list of his chief dated
pictures, arranged in chronological order, has been
compiled from the best authorities.
1625 ? Portrait of a Young Girl. (Signed EEM DT .)
1627. The Money-Changer. (Siyned R. H.) Berlin.
St. Paul in Prison. (Signed Eemlirand fecit Rf.)
1628. Samson captured by the Philistines. (Siyned
R. H. L.) Berlin.
The Denial of St. Peter. (Signed B. H.l.) Private.
1629. Portrait of himself. (Siyned B. H. L.) Gotha.
1630. Portrait of Maurice Huyghens. (Signed E. H. L.)
Portrait of himself. (Signed.) Private.
Portrait of himself. (Signed R. H. L.) Private.
Portrait of an Old Man. (Siyned R. H. L.) Cassel.
Portrait of his Father, called Philon the Jew.
(Signed R. H. L.) Innsbruck.
Joseph interpreting his Dreams. (Signed Rem-
brandt.} Six Collection, Amsterdam..
A Philosopher in Meditation. (Siyned E. H. L.)
1631. A Bust of his Father. (Siyned R. H. L.) Private.
Portrait of a Young Man (? Gerard Dou.) (Siyned
E. H. L.) Windsor Castle.
St. Anastasius. (Signed Rembrant.) Stockholm.
The Holy Family. (Signed Rembrandt f.)
The Presentation in the Temple. (Signed R. H.)
Portrait of an Old Woman, called the Prophetess
Anna. (Signed R. H. L.) Oldenburg.
Portrait of a Merchant. (Signed R. H. L.) St.
St. Peter in Prison. (Signed E. H. L.) Private.
Portrait of Nicholas Ruts. (Siyned R. H.L.) Private.
Portrait of himself. (Signed.) Private.
Portrait called Hugo Grotius. (Signed Rembrandt
1632. Portrait of a Young Woman. (Signed R. H. t.)
Portrait of Saskia. (Signed R. van Rijn.) Liechten-
stein Collection, Vienna.
The Jewish Fiancee. (Signed Rembrandt f.)
Liechtenstein Collection, Vienna.
Portrait of a Jew. (Signed Remlirandt.) Private.
Portrait of a Young Man. (Signed R. H. L. van
Rijnf.) Dulu-ich College.
Portrait of Martin Looten. (Signed R. H. L.)
Portrait of Rembrandt's Mother. (Signed Rem-
brandt.) Wallace Collection.
Portrait of himself. (Signed R. H. L. van Rijn.)
Portrait of his sister ? (Signed R. H. L. van Rijn.)
Portrait of Lysbeth van Rijn. (Signed Rembrandt
H. L. van Rijn.) Private.
Portrait of a Man. (Signed Rembrandt f.) Private.
Portrait of an Old Woman. (Signed R. van Rijn.)
Head of an Old Man. (Signed R. H. L.) Cassel.
Study of an Old Man. (Signed R. H. L. van Rijn.)
Portrait of an Old Man. (Signed R. H. L. van
The Anatomy Lesson. (Signed Rembrandt fe.)
Portrait of a Young Woman. (Signed R. H. L. van
Rijn. ) Milan.
Portrait of Saskia. (Signed R. H. L. van Rijn.)
Study of an Old Man. (Signed R. H. L. van Rijn.)
Portrait of a Young Man. (Signed R. H. L. van
Portrait of Beeresteyn. (Signed K. H.) Private.
Portrait of his Wife. (Signed R. H.) Private.
St. John. (Signed Rembrandt f.) Private.
Portrait called Matthys Kalkoen. (Signed.)
Portrait of Joris de Caulery. (Signed R. H. L.vrm
Portrait of a Young Man called Tulp. (Signed
R. H. L.) Private.
1633. Portrait of Saskia. (Signed Rembrandt f.) Private.
Portrait of Saskia. (Signed Rembrandt.) Private.
The Shipbuilder and his Wife. (Signed Rem-
brandt f.) Buckingham Palace.
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
Portrait of a Lady and Gentleman. (Signed Rem-
Portrait of a Boy. (Signed Rembrandt f.) Wallace
Portrait of his Sister, or Saskia. (Signed R. H. L.)
A Philosopher in Meditation. (Signed R.van Rijn.)
Portrait of Rembrandt. (Signed Rembrandt f.)
Portrait of Cornelia Pronck. (Signed Rembrandt f.)
Portrait of a Young Man rising from a Chair.
(Signed Rembrandt f.) Private.
Portrait of a Boy. (Signed Rembrandt f.) Private.
Portrait of himself laughing. (Signed Rembrandt
Portrait of a Woman. (Signed Rembrandt f.)
Portrait of Jan Herman Krul. (Signed.} Cassel.
Portrait of Saskia. (Signed Rembrandt ft.) Dresden.
Portrait of Willem Burchgraeff. (Signed Rem-
brandt f it.) Dresden.
Portrait of Margaretha van Biderbeecq. (Signed
Rembrandt fct.) Frankf&rt.
Study of an Old Man. (Signed Rembrandt f.) Metz.
Portrait of a Turk. (Signed Rembrandt f.)
Head of a Child. (Signed Rembrandt.) Private.
1634. Portrait of a Young Woman. (Signed.) Private.
Portrait of an Old Woman. (Signed Rembrandt f.)
Head of a Boy (Signed Rembrandt ft.) Private.
Portrait of himself . (Signed Rembrandt f.) Louvre.
Portrait of Martin Daey. (Signed Rembrandt ft.)
Portrait of Machteld van Doom. (Signed.) Private.
Portrait of Hans Alenson. (Signed Rembrandt.)
Portrait of his Wife. (Signed Rembrandt.) Private.
Portrait of himself. (Signed Rtmbrandtf.) Berlin.
Portrait of himself. (Signed Rembrandt f.) Cassel.
Portrait of himself. Turin.
The Descent from the Cross. (Signed Rembrandt
f.) St. Petersburg.
The Incredulity of St. Thomas. (Signed Rem-
brandt f.) St. Petersburg.
The Jewish Bride. (Signed Rembrandt.) St.
Portrait of a Young Man. (Signed Rembrandt f.)
Queen Artemisia viewing the ashes of Mausolus.
(Signed Rembrandt f.) Madrid.
Portrait of a Young Woman. (Signed.) Private.
Portrait of Saskia. (Signed.) Private.
1035. An Old Man. (Signed Rembrandt f.) Private.
Portrait of himself. (Signed Rembrandt.) Liech-
Portrait of a Rabbi. (Signed Rembrandt.) Private.
Portraitof an Old Woman. (Signed Rembrandt f.)
Portrait of a Rabbi. (Signed Rembrandt) Hampton
Portrait of Rembrandt. (Signed Rembrandt.)
The Ship of St. Peter. (Signed Rembrandt ft.)
Portrait of an Old Man. (Signed Rembrandt f.)
Portrait of an Old Woman. (Signed.) Private.
Portrait of a Man. (Signed Rembrandt f.) National
Portraitof a Lady. (Signed Rembrandt f.) Private.
Portrait of Anthoni Copal. (S gned Rembrandt f.)