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Harp,' and his illustrations of Joshua Malei^s
' Gutjahr fur alle Christen,' are well known. They
are marked with a cipher composed of the letters
G. R. Ringly died in 1635.

RIOU, EDODARD, French painter, born December
2, 1833, at Saint Servan (Ille et Vilaine) ; devoted
himself to landscape ; painted various scenes from
the Fontainebleau district produced successful
pastels of Egyptian scenery. He was well known
as an illustrator of Jules Verne's tales. He died in
Paris, January 27, 1900.

RIOULT, Louis EDODARD, painter, born at Mont-
didier, October 26, 1780. He was a pupil of
Regnault and of David, and painted classical and
historical subjects, but he was particularly suc-
cessful in studies of girls bathing, &c., of which
he painted a large number. Among his works are
the following :

Girl playing with a Zephyr.

Siege of Ostend. (At Versailles.)



The Death of d'Assas.

A Scholar giving his breakfast to a poor man.

He died in 1855.

RIPANDA, GIACOMO, an obscure painter of the
15th century. He studied in Rome, and practised
portrait painting towards the close of the century.


subject painter, born at King's Lynn in 1798. He
was self-taught as an artist, and first practised at
Bristol, exhibiting at the Royal Academy from
1819. His subjects were taken from English
rural life until he visited Italy in 1837, when for
some years his inspiration was Italian. In 1841
he paid a second visit to Italy. He delivered
lectures on art, and devoted much attention to
literature, contributing to various periodicals. He
died suddenly at Swan village railway station, near
Birmingham, in 1859. Amongst his pictures are:
Liverpool. Corporation Gall. Portrait of Dr. Raffles.
London. Bridyewater House. A Brigand's Wife.
South Kensington. Museum. Mendicants of the Cam-



Scene in a Gaming-house.

A Country Post-office .

A Eecruiting Party.

Going to the Fair.

Stage-coach Breakfast.

Progress of Drunkenness. (A series of six pictures.}

RIQUIER, L., a Flemish subject painter, born
in 1795 at Antwerp, where he studied under Van


Bree. After visiting Italy he settled in Paris.
Amongst his works are :
Brussels. Museum. A Family of Brigands.
Haarlem. Museum. Kubens presenting Adrian Brouwer
to his Wife.

RISING, JOHN, an English subject and portrait
painter, born about the middle of the 18th century.
He practised in London, and exhibited at the
Academy from 1785 to 1814. Amongst his works
are :
Herts. Hatfield House. Portrait of First Marquis of


Oxford. Bodleian Library. Portrait of Sir W. Black-
stone. 1781.

born at Cernay (now Sennheim), Alsace, in 1819 ;
a pupil of Paul Delaroche ; completed his art-
studies by travel in Italy. His chief successes
obtained by portraits ; of these we may cite :
' Portrait de M. Meunier,' ' Portrait de Mine. T.,'
' La Belle Alsacienne,' &c. He died in Paris,
April 13, 1899.

RISS, FRANgois, painter, born at Moscow in
1804. He was a pupil of Gros, and practised in
France. He exhibited at the Salon between 1831
and 1866. At Versailles there is a portrait of
Henri Francois D'Aguesseau, Chancelierde France,
by him ; and at the Ministry of the Interior a ' St.
Vincent de Paul at Marseilles,' and ' Feast in the
house of Simon the Pharisee." His wife, PAULINE,
was also a painter.

RIST, GOTTFRIED, engraver, a native of Stutt-
gart, was a pupil of Johann Gotthard Miiller in
the early part of this century, and engraved the
following plates :

Death of Raphael ; after Riepenhausen.

Apollo among the Herds, and Abraham's Sacrifice;

after Schick.

Ariadne ; after Dannecker.
Job; after H'dchter.

King Frederick of Wiirtemburg ; after Seele.
Queen Charlotte Matilda of Wiirtemburg ; after Stirn-


RIST, JOHANN CHRISTOPH, a landscape painter,
born in Stuttgart in 1790, was first a confectioner
in Stuttgart and Vienna, in which latter city he
entered the Academy. In 1816, and again in
1823, he was premiated. The death of his brother
Gottfried caused him to leave Italy, and go to
Augsburg. From 1830 to 1840 he worked in
Munich, and gave drawing lessons; later on he
became the head of the drawing school at Augs-
burg. He died at Augsburg in 1886.

Spanish painter, born at Granada about the year
1640. He was a scholar of Alonso Cano, under
whom he studied both painting and sculpture. He
painted history with some reputation ; and there
are several of his works in the churches of his
native city. The most important is the decoration
of the cupola of the Carthusians. Risvenno died
at Granada in 1721.


RITT, AUGUSTIN, a Russian painter, born at St.
Petersburg. He studied at Antwerp, under De
Quertemont, and practised in Russia in the 18th

RITTER, ABKAHAM DE, amateur, born at Haar-
lem in 1668, devoted himself chiefly to water-
colour sketches and studies of rustic life. He
died in 1738.

RITTER, EDUARD, still-life and genre painter,
corn at Vienna in 1808, where he waa a pupil of

the Academy. Among his works we may name :
'In the Wine-cellar,' 'The Workman,' 'The Last
Farthing,' ' The Farewell of the Journeyman.' He
died at Vienna in 1853.

RITTER, G. N., painter, born at Heilbronn, in
1748. He settled at Amsterdam, where he prac-
tised miniature and portrait painting. He died at
Amsterdam in 1809.

RITTER, HENRY, painter, born at Montreal in
Canada in 1816, went when young to Hamburg,
where he received some instruction from Groger.
In 1836 he entered the Academy at Diisseldorf
under Sohn, and studied under Jordan. He died
at Dusseldorf in 1853.

G. N. Ritter, practised in the manner of her father
with some success. She died in 1813.

RITTIG, PETER, painter, born at Coblentz in
1789, studied at Paris under David, but afterwards
went to Rome to work under Overbeck. His
pictures show talent and sobriety of judgment.
He died at Rome in 1840. Works :

A Madonna with Angels.

Allegory of the 96th Psalm.

The Visit of Pope Paul III. to Michel-angelo.

RITUS, MICHAEL. This name is affixed to an
etching representing the Virgin Mary and the
Infant Christ ; after A. Caracci, dated 1647.

RIVALZ, ANTOINE, born at Toulouse in 1667,
was the son of Jean Pierre Rivalz, a painter and
architect of some celebrity, by whom he was
instructed in the rudiments of art. He after-
wards visited Paris, where he did not remain long,
but went to Rome in search of improvement.
During his residence in that capital he was the
successful candidate for the prize given by the
Academy of St. Luke, for a 'Fall of the Rebel
Angels.' After studying the works of the best
masters, he returned to Toulouse, where he passed
the remainder of his life. He possessed an extra-
ordinary talent for copying the works of Italian
masters. As he lived so far from the capital, few
of his works are to be met with in Paris. His
pictures are chiefly confined to Toulouse, where
he died in 1735. He left a great number of draw-
ings, which are executed with great freedom, in a
style resembling that of Raymond de la Fage ;
also a few spirited etchings, among which are the
following :

The Martyrdom of St. Symphorianus.

An Allegory of Vice driven away by Truth ; in memory
of N. Poussin.

Four Allegorical plates for a treatise on Painting, by
Ditpuy du Grez.

RIVALZ, BARTHE'LEMY, the nephew and pupil
of Antoine Rivalz, born at Toulouse in 1724. We
have by him a few etchings, among which are the
following :

The Fall of the Rebel Angels ; after Ant. Rivalz.

Judith and Holofernes ; after the same.

Joseph and Potiphar's Wife ; after the same.

The Death of Mary Magdalene ; after Benedetto Luti.

RIVALZ, JEAN PIERRE, the elder, painter and
architect, was born at Bastide-d'Anjou, in Lan-
guedoc, in 1625. He was a pupil of Ambroise
Frideau, and the father of Antoine Rivalz. He
died in 1706.

RIVALZ, JEAN PIERRE, the younger, painter,
was the son and pupil of Antoine Rivalz. He
practised historical painting in France, and also
visited Italy. He died in 1785.




at Ferrara in 1607, was the most distinguished
scholar of Carlo Bononi. On the death of that
master he was engaged to finish the picture of the
' Marriage of the Virgin,' in the church of S.
Maria del Vado. There are several pictures of his
own composition in the churches at Ferrara, which
do honour to the school in which he was educated.
Such are his ' Baptism of St. Agostino,' in the
church dedicated to that saint, which he has em-
bellished with magnificent architecture; the 'Re-
surrection,' at the Teatini ; 'the Brazen Serpent,'
in S. Niccolo ; and the ' Martyrdom of S. Caterina,'
in S. Guglielrno. This promising young painter had
acquired a reputation as one of the ablest artists of
Ferrara, when he died in 1640.

RIVE, PIEREE Louis, or DE LA RIVE, landscape
painter, born at Geneva in 1753. His father de-
signed him for the church or the law, but at last
consented to his following his own inclination. He
studied at Geneva uuder the Chevalier de Fassin, a
painter of Liege. He then visited Dresden, where
he received some instruction from Casanova, and in
1784 went to Italy for two years. He returned to
Geneva, and during the disturbances in his native
town, travelled in Switzerland and Savoy, painting
heroic landscape. His washed drawings have
much merit. He died in 1815.

unimportant painter of Cremona, who flourished in
the 14th century.

RIVERA, J. A., a Spanish historical painter of
the 19th century. He became Director of the
Museum and of the Academy at Madrid, where he
died in 1860. His best known work, painted in
1836, is ' The Oath of the Prince of the Asturias.'

sandria della Paglia, who received his education in
art at Bologna, where he painted some pictures for
the churches, in which he imitated the style of
Guido Reni. He also painted portraits with con-
siderable success. Of his historical works, the
most worthy of notice are his pictures of the ' Con-
ception,' in the church of the Padri Camaldoleai ;
and of ' S. Francesco di Paola,' in S. Maria de Fos-
cherari. He died at Bologna in 1744.

RIVEY, ARSENE HIPPOLYTE, French painter ; born
1845 at Caen ; was a pupil of Picot, Couture, and
Bonnat ; a successful portrait painter whose work
was constantly seen in the Salon. In 1880 he ob-
tained a third-class medal. He died in Paris in 1901.

RIVIERE, HENRY PARSONS, water-colour painter,
was a student of the Royal Academy, and first
exhibited in London in 1832, when he sent two pic-
tures to the Suffolk Street Gallery. He was after-
wards a frequent exhibitor there, and also at the
Royal Academy and the British Institution. In
1834 he became a member of the New Society of
Painters in Water-Colours, and in 1852 was elected
an Associate of the Old Society. He painted chiefly
history and genre, either English or Italian in
subject. In 1867 he went to Rome, where he lived
for many years. He died at his house in St. John's
Wood, in 1888.

RIVIERE, WILLIAM, an English painter, born
in London in 1806. He studied in the schools
of the Academy, where also he first exhibited in
1833. A cartoon by him was sent to the first West-
minster Hall competition. From 1849 his time was
devoted to teaching, first at Cheltenham, where he
was drawing-master to the College from 1849 to

1859, and then at Oxford, where he died in 1876.
He was the father of Mr. Briton Riviere, R. A.

RIVIERE, FRANCOIS, a painter of French birth,
who settled at Leghorn, in Italy, in the first part
of the 18th century. He painted many Turkish
subjects, consisting of dances and public cere-
monials. He painted much for the churches of
Leghorn and Pisa, and at one time his reputation
was very considerable in Italy. He died at
Leghorn at a very advanced age.

RIVOLA, GIUSEPPE, an Italian painter of little
note, who was a pupil of Ph. Abbiati, and died in


RIZI, FRANCISCO, a Spanish painter, born at
Madrid in 1608, was the son of Antonio Rizi, a
native of Bologna, who had accompanied Federigo
Zuccaro into Spain, but was instructed in the prin-
ciples of art by Vincencio Carducho. He was
the Spanish Fa presto. As he lived at a time, and
in a court, when and where the great merit of an
artist was to improvise, he was celebrated and
patronized as one of first-rate talent ; and in con-
sequence he became painter to Philip IV. in 1656,
which office he continued to hold under Charles
EL, who added to it the deputy-keepership of the
royal keys. A few years before he had been
appointed painter to the cathedral of Toledo, a
post of more importance to an artist, in a pecuniary
point of view, than that of painter to the king, as
it gave him the charge of all the existing works in
the cathedral, and insured to him the execution of
the greater part of what might be undertaken in
his time. His empty cleverness is responsible to
no slight extent for the decline of Spanish art.
Rizi died at the Escorial in 1685 Among his
works are :

The decoration, in 1648, with Pedro Nunez, of the

Theatre in the Alcazar of Madrid.
Religious Scenes in the Chapel of Antonio.
Scenery for the Theatre of the Retiro.
Sketch for an altar-piece in the Sacristy of the Escorial.
The Auto-da-Fe of 1680. (In the Madrid Museum.)
A Portrait of a General of Artillery.
The Annunciation.
The Adoration of the Magi.
The Presentation in the Temple.

RIZI, FRAY JUAN, painter, born at Madrid in
1595, was a brother of Francisco Rizi, and a pupil
of Blayno. In 1628 he entered the Benedictine
Order, studied in Salamanca, and became Abbot
of the Medina del Campo in Madrid. He painted
several works for St. Juan Bautista in Burgos, St.
Martin in Madrid, and Monte Cassino in Italy. In
the Madrid Museum is a ' St. Francis of Assisi ' by
him. He afterwards went to Rome, where he was
made an Archbishop by Pope Clement X. He
died at Monte Cassino in 1675.



ROBART, , said to have been a scholar of

Jan Van Huysum, painted fruit, flowers, dead
game, and landscapes : he flourished about the
vear 1770.

in 1649, studied at Rome in the school of Carlo
Maratti. He for some time painted historical
subjects with considerable reputation, and was
employed for some of the churches at Genoa.
One of his best works is ' St. Francis receiving
the Stigmata,' at the Cappucini. He afterwards
abandoned himself to a fatal passion for gaming,


and his latter performances are hasty and careless.
He died in 1733.

ROBELOT, PIERRE, painter, born in 1802. A
native of Lorraine, and pupil of Mansion. He
practised miniature painting in the first part of
the 19th century.

ROBERT, ALEXANDRE, a Belgian painter, born
at Trazegnies, February 17, 1817 ; a pupil of the
Brussels Academy and of Navez ; after study in
Italy he settled at Brussels, where he became a
professor and a member of the Academy. He painted
portraits and genre subjects. His ' Luca Signor-
elli ! is in the Brussels Museum, also the ' Sack of
a Carmelite Cloister.' He obtained a Brussels
gold medal in 1848, a Paris medal in 1855, the
Leopold Order, &c. He died at Brussels in 1890.

ROBERT, AURELE, (AURELIO,) architectural and
genre painter, born at La-Chaux-de-Fonds in 1815,
was originally a watch engraver, but in 1822 he
joined his brother Leopold at Rome, and became
his pupil. In 1828 and 1829 he travelled with
Leopold ; and though they were separated for a
short time in 1831, they met again in Paris, and
Aurele followed his brother to Venice in 1833.
After the suicide of Leopold he returned to Paris,
where he stayed for some time copying his
brother's pictures. In 1838 he returned to Venice,
where he stayed for five years, and then went to
Switzerland. There is a picture by him, in the
Berlin Gallery, of the ' Baptistery of St. Mark's,
Venice.' He died at Berne in 1871.

ROBERT, CHARLES, a Scotch engraver, born at
Edinburgh in 1806. He learned his art in the
Trustees Academy. His early works were chiefly
vignette portraits, but he was employed by the
London Art Union on its foundation, and produced
several excellent plates for its subscribers. He
died at Edinburgh in 1872. Amongst his plates
we may also name ' The Expected Penny,' ' The
Rush-plaiters,' and 'The Widow.'

ROBERT, FANNY, painter, a native of Paris, and
a pupil of Girodet. She nourished about 1825, and
painted portraits and historical subjects.

ROBERT, FELICITAS, Madame, painter. She
practised in Gennany in the early years of the
19th century, and was the daughter of the Belgian
painter and engraver, Philip Tassaert, who died
in England in 1803. Her work was chiefly in
pastel. In the Dresden Gallery there are two
pictures by her, a ' Visitation,' after Rubens, and a
portrait of ' An Old Cook.'

ROBERT, HUBERT, generally called ROBERT DBS
RUIZES, a painter and engraver, born in Paris in
1733. After learning the rudiments of design in
his native city, he went to Rome, where he passed
several years, and made accurate drawings from
the remains of ancient architecture. On his return
to Paris he was made a member of the Academy,
and his pictures were held in high estimation. He
has also left a series of eighteen spirited etchings,
among them a set of ten views, with buildings,
entitled ' Les Soirees de Rome.' In the French
Revolution he was deprived of his position, and
imprisoned for ten months ; but that did not
prevent his painting-, and he produced a 'Taking
of the Prisoners by Torchlight in open Carts from
St. Pelagie to St. Lazare.' He obtained his freedom
through a mistake of his gaoler, another prisoner
of the same name being sent to the guillotine
instead of him. He died in Paris in 1808. The
Louvre possesses seven good examples of his

ROBERT, JEAN, was a pupil of J. C. le Blond.
He has left some prints in colour, which possess
considerable merit. They are carried out, like
those of his master, by the use of four plates.

ROBERT, LE LONG, generally called FLAMINGO,
a native of Brussels, went to Piacenza, where he
visited the school of Bonisoli, and later on took
Massarotti as his model Of his works we find
'Scenes from the life of St. Theresa,' in St.
Sigismondo, near Cremona, in the style of Guido
Reni ; ' St. Anthony the Martyr ; ' and ' The Death
of St. Xavier,' in the cathedral of Piacenza, which
is the best of his works. He died at Piacenza
in 1709.

ROBERT, Louis LEOPOLD, painter, born at La-
Chaux-de-Fonds, in the canton of Neufchatel, in
1794, at first entered a house of business, but his
love of art induced him to follow Charles Girardet,
the engraver, to Paris in 1810; from him he
learned engraving, and then entered the studio of
David. The cession in 1815 of Neufchatel pre-
vented him from obtaining the Grand Prix
de Rome, as it is only awarded to those who
are natives of France, and under the French
Government. In 1814 he obtained a second prize
for engraving. Disappointed at his want of good
fortune, he returned home, and supported himself
by portrait painting, till a friend made it possible
for him to go to Rome, which he did in 1818. In
1831 he returned to Paris, but soon went back to
Italy ; this time to Florence, where an unfortunate
passion for Princess Charlotte Bonaparte kept
him, and on his return to Venice in 1835 be
committed suicide in a fit of despondency. Pic-
tures :

Berlin. National Gallery. Sleeping Virgin.

Munich. Pinakothek. Woman of Procida and child.

Paris. Louvre. Eeturn from the Festival of

the Madonna dell' Arco.
Eeapers in the Tontine


The Fisherman of Lugano.

Peasant "Woman of the Cam-


ROBERT, NICOLAS, born at Langres in 1610,
excelled in painting animals, insects, and plants, in
miniature, and was employed by Gaston, Duke of
Orleans, in painting the most curious beasts and
birds in the royal menagerie. The results are
preserved in the National Library, Paris, in the
Recueil des Valins. He was also commissioned to
engrave his own drawings, in which he was assisted
by Abraham Bosse and Louis de Chatillon. In
collaboration with Girard Audran, he engraved
several plates of ornaments, from the designs of
G. Charmetton. See the Abecedario de Mariette,
vol. iv. pp. 408411. He died in Paris in 1684.

DE SERI, or R. DE SEIS, a French painter and en-
graver, born in Paris about the year 1680, was a
scholar of Pierre Jacques Cazes, and afterwards
studied in Italy. On his return to Paris he painted
an altar-piece for the church of the Capuchins,
representing the ' Martyrdom of St. Fidelis,' which
is considered his principal work as a painter. He
etched several of the subjects executed in chiaro-
scuro, by Nicolas le Sueur, for the Crozat Col-

was born at Cologne, 1797, but was brought to
Paris by his parents at the age of seven, and
received his education in that city, studying for



a time under Horace Vernet, and later under
Girodet. After a term of study in Rome, he
finally settled in Paris, where he produced his
most important works. He was first broughi
prominently before the public by a picture ex-
hibited in 1833, the subject of which was a scene
from the Massacre of St. Bartholomew. He sub-
sequently painted a good many pictures of the
same kind, showing an inclination to depict scene
of horror and bloodshed ; but later his art took a
simpler and less tragic direction, with increased
success in result. In 1864 he was commissioned
to paint four pictures for the hall of the Tribunal
de Commerce in Paris, namely : ' The Installation
of the Judges, 1563;' 'The Proclamation of the
Trade Statutes of 1673 ; ' ' The Granting of the
Laws of Commerce by Napoleon I.;' and 'The
Visit of Napoleon III. to the new Tribunal de
Commerce.' Other well-known works by him
are :

The Conference at Poissy. 1561. (Mus.Xat. Luxembourg.)

Clovis entering TOUTS. ( Versailles.)

Baldwin of Flanders before Edessa. (Versailles.)

The Marriage of Napoleon III. (Senate House.)

Beuvenuto Cellini in his atelier.

The Death of Titian. (Academy of Antwerp.)


Charles V. at S. Yuste.

Fire in the Ghetto. (Luxemloura.)

Louis XIV.

Jane Shore. (Mas. Nat. du Luxembourg.)

He also painted several portraits of much merit.
He was member of various foreign Academies of
Arts,_and received many decorations and medals,
both in France and in other continental countries.
He died in Paris in May 1890.

ROBERTI, ALBERT, painter, bora at Brussels,
1811. He was a pupil of Navez. and painted
portraits and historical subjects. There are by
him, amongst other things, a ' Baptism of Christ '
and a ' Review of a Chapter of the Golden Fleece
by Charles V.' He died in 1864.

ROBERTI, DOMENICO, painter, born at Rome,
1690. The details of his life are unknown, but
there are in the Dresden Gallery four pictures of
ruins by him.

ROBERTS, DAVID, a Scottish painter, born at
Stockbridge, Edinburgh, October 2nd, 1796. His
parents were in poor circumstances, but his father,
a shoemaker, remarking his strong artistic pre-
dilections, determined to give him a trade in
which his gift might have opportunities of develop-
ment. He was accordingly placed with one Beugo,
a house-painter and decorator, and, after a seven
years' apprenticeship, he turned his attention to
scene-painting. He was first employed by a
travelling company at Carlisle, and subsequently
obtained more regular work at the theatres of
Glasgow and Edinburgh. In 1822, whilst scene-
painter at the Theatre Royal, Edinburgh, he sent
several architectural pieces to the Edinburgh Ex-
hibition, and in the same year was engaged as
scene-painter to Drury Lane Theatre, and settled
in London. He afterwards left Drury Lane for the
rival house, Covent Garden, and in 1824 he became
a member of the Society of British Artists, and
exhibited at the Suffolk Street Gallery. A first
visit to the continent took place about this time,
and his wanderings amongst the picturesque old
towns of Normandy resulted in his painting various
pictures during the next two years, introducing

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