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some of the finest of their Gothic remains. In


1826 he sent his first picture to the Royal Academy,
' Rouen Cathedral,' but for some years after this
exhibited only at the Suffolk Street Gallery, until,
in 1836, he resigned his membership. His in-
creasing reputation now entitled him to seek the
honours of the Academy, and in 1839 he became
A. R. A., receiving the higher dignity two years
later. His journeyings in quest of subjects for his
art were very extensive, and he wandered through
most of the Western countries of Europe, also
visiting Syria and Egypt in 1838. Italy and
Austria he first saw in 1851. Towards the close
of his life he remained in England and painted
English scenes, his last work being a series of
views on the Thames, of which he had completed
six before his death. His productions divide them-
selves into three classes, identical with the various
influences under which he came. The pictures
dealing with, scenes from Western Europe, and
painted before 1838, are after the Dutch manner,
broad in treatment and luminous in colour. After
his visit to the East he adopted a colder and
thinner style, and in his latest work these defects
were aggravated by an unpleasant blackness of
tone. His strength lies in his fine feeling for
architectural effect, artistic composition, and good
drawing of detail. His pictures were at one time
very popular, and in addition to his paintings he
made considerable sums by his published works,
of which the best known are his lithographed
' Picturesque Sketches in Spain,' ' Sketches in the
Holy Land and Syria,' and his ' Italy : Classical,
Historical, and Picturesque.' For some years he
also contributed drawings to the ' Landscape
Annual.' He was a member of various foreign
Academies, and was appointed one of the Com-
missioners for the Great Exhibition of 1851. On
November 25th, 1864, he had an apoplectic seizure
in the street, and died in the evening of the same
day. His Life has been written by James Ballantine.
Among his numerous works in oil and water-colour
we may mention :

London. Nat. Gallery. Interior of the Cathedral,

Chancel of the Collegiate

Church of St. Paul at

South Kensington. Entrance to the Crypt, Eoslin

Old Buildings on the Darro,

The Gate at Cairo called ' Bab-


Interior of Milan Cathedral.

The Porch at Rosliu. 1845.

( Water-colour.)

Sketch of the opening cere-

monial of the International

Exhibition of 1851. (Do.)
Great Temple of Edfou, Upper

Egypt. 1838. (Do.)
The Pyramids, from the Nile.

1845. (Do.)

n n Gateway, Spaiu. (Do.)

Alcazar of Carmoua, Andalusia.

1833. (Do.)

Castle of Ischia. (Do.)

Isola Bella, Lago Maggiore.

,, Interior of Roslin Chapel.

1830. (Do.)

Fontarabia, Spain. 1836. (Do.)

Church of St. Pierre, Caen.

1831 ? (Do.)
March6 au Ble, Abbeville.

1825. (Do.)



i . 1




; .


\Tale Gallery



London. South Kensiny- > Interior of the Capilla de los
ton. j Reyes in the Cathedral of

Granada. (I>o.)

City Gallery. Antwerp Cathedral.

Interior of St. Stephen's,


Edinburgh. Nat. Gallery. Home. Sunset from the Con-
vent of San Onofrio.

The following works are in private collections :
Rouen Cathedral.
Church of St. Germain, Amiens.
Interior of Milan Cathedral. (Dan. Thwaites, Esq.)
Chapel in the Cathedral of Dixmude, West Flanders.

(Owner unknown, once in Pender Collection.)
Baalbek. ( W. H. Honldsworth, Esq. M.P.)
Euins of Baalbek. (R. Brockleliank, Esq.)
Temple of the Sun.
Destruction of Jerusalem.
Jerusalem from Mount Olivet.
Rome. The Tiber.
Paestum. (If. Eckersley, Esq.)
New Palace of Westminster. (C. Lucas, Esq.)
The Thames at Greenwich. (Uo.)

ROBERTS, EDWARD JOHN, an English engraver,
born in 1797. He studied under Charles Heath,
with whom he worked many years, on the ' Annuals.'
His name does not often occur, as he was chiefly
engaged in etching the engraver's plates. He died
in 1865. Specimens of his art are to be found in :
Front's ' Continental Annual.' 1832.
Roberts' ' Pilgrims of the Rhine.'
Birket Foster's ' Rhine."

ROBERTS, HENRY, an English engraver, born
about 1710. There are some humorous prints,
large landscapes, &c. by him. One of his land-
scape plates, after T. Smith, of Derby, is dated
1743. He was a print-seller in Hand Court, Drury
Lane, and mostly confined his attention to plates
for which he might hope to find a ready sale at
small prices. He died before 1790.

ROBERTS, JAMES, an English engraver, was
born in Devonshire in 1725. He engraved several
landscapes and views from the pictures of Richard
Wilson, George Barret the elder. Smith of Chiches-
ter, and others ; also ' Fox Hunting,' in four plates,
after James Seymour. Two small marine views
after Pillement. He died in London in 1799.

ROBERTS, JAMES, son of the last-named, was
born at Westminster about the middle of the 18th
century. He was awarded a prize at the Society of
Arts in 1766, and first exhibited at the Academy
in 1783. After practising some years at Oxford,
he settled at Westminster about 1794, and subse-
quently held the appointment of portrait painter
to the Duke of Clarence. In 1809 he published
some ' Lessons in Water-colour Painting,' which
is the last trace we have of him. Amongst his
works are :
London. Garrick Club. Mrs. Abingdou in the 'Schoo

for Scandal.'
British Museum. A series of elaborate Water

colour Drawings.
Oxford Bodleian. Portrait of Sir John Hawkins


ROBERTS, THOMAS, an Irish landscape painter
born at Waterford about the middle of the 18tl
century. He studied under George Mullens, am
was patronized by the Duke of Leinster and b'
Viscount Powerscourt. He died at Lisbon, wher
he had gone for his health. His sister, a landscap
painter of some skill, was employed as scene-painte
in the Waterford theatre.

painter, born in the latter half of the 18th century
He was the younger brother of Thomas Roberts

landscape painter, and at first studied as an
rchitect. Devoting himself to landscape painting,
e settled in London, and exhibited at the Royal
Lcademy from 1789 to 1818. Returning to Ireland,
e took a leading part, in 1823, in forming the
ncorporation of Artists in Dublin. There is at
le Kensington Museum a water-colour drawing
y him of St. John's Abbey, Kilkenny. He died in

ROBERTSON, ALEXANDER, a Scottish land-
cape and miniature painter, fourth son of William
lobertson of Drumnahoy, parish of Cluny, near
VIonymusk, Aberdeenshire, and Jean, his wife,
.aughter of Alexander Ross of Balnagowan, was
>orn at Aberdeen, 13th May, 1772. He received
nstruction in art from his eldest brother Archibald
q.ti.). Inl791 hewentto London.where he attended
lie schools of the Royal Academy, and studied
niniature painting under Samuel Shelley. In
792 he joined his brother Archibald in New
York, where they at once opened the Columbian
Academy, which flourished for many years at 79,
Mberty Street. In 1799 he went to the Lakes
^nd Canada ; there he painted a great deal, and
nany of his landscapes were engraved. He was
iminent as a teacher, and so fully occupied that
after 1802 he painted but little. He was Secretary
of the American Academy of Fine Arts under the
Residency of John Trumbull. Alexander felt
teen interest in the improvement of general
education, and was one of the original incor-
jorators of what afterwards became the gigantic
jublic school system of New York City. He was
a studious, hard-working, and gentle-natured
man of retiring disposition. He died in New York
in 1841. The artistic talent of the three Robert-
son brothers was probably inherited from the
mother's side, as the farm of Drumnahoy was
carried on, from father to son, by the Robertson
Family for nearly 200 years. |.R.

ROBERTSON, ANDREW, miniature painter,
youngest son of William Robertson of Drumnahoy,
and Jean Ross, his wife, was horn at Aberdeen,
14th October, 1777. From childhood he evinced a
thirst for knowledge, with versatility of talent
and earnestness of purpose. When his brothers
Archibald and Alexander (q. i>.) went to America
he was at college, intended for the medical profes-
sion. His father's failing health and straitened
circumstances showed that the charge of the family
would devolve upon him, two delicate sisters
and a brother of weak intellect being unable to
assist. He at once relinquished his studies, and
took up the pencil in their behalf. Having made
diligent use of his brothers' instruction for some
years, he was able to start a drawing-class and
private teaching without delay. He painted what-
ever offered, from scenery for the theatre, and flags
for processions, to miniatures. Through the
kindness of Mr. John Ewen, Andrew had six
months' instruction at Edinburgh from Alexander
Nasmyth and Henry Raeburn, who allowed him
to copy several portraits. In 1794 he was engaged
to teach drawing at Gordon's Hospital. His con-
nection increased year by year; he made excursions
to paint at Banff, Peterhead, &c., and worked six-
teen hours a day for months together, yet he found
time for study, and took the A.M. degree at
Marischal College. His musical abilities brought
him into notice, as he was for some years Director
of the Aberdeen concerts, of which Mr. Ewen
managed the business matters. From 1797 he was



fully employed in miniature painting, but he felt
the need of further study, and decided to go to
London for a year. He arranged with a clever
young man named Wilson, from Edinburgh, to
carry on his drawing-school and private teaching,
and arrived at Woolwich, 2nd June, 1801, after
four days' passage from Leith. He took lodgings
at 26, Surrey Street, Strand, and Mr. Ewen having
given him a letter to William Hamilton, R.A., he
was kindly received, and enabled to begin at once
to draw for permission to study at the Eoyal
Academy. He was soon introduced to Northcote,
who approved of his work, and gave him a letter
to the Keeper, Mr. Wilton, who allowed him to
draw there for admission as a student. He worked
hard, and obtained his ticket 23rd October. He
had also been busy painting small miniatures,
following the instructions contained in a treatise
written for him in 1800 by his eldest brother,
Archibald. He now made a copy of Van Dyck's
' Gevartius ' and Titian's ' Danae,' the ivory of each
measuring eight inches by seven, and the heads
three inches. He aimed at producing the richness
of oil-painting with the delicacy of water-colour.
He then painted a portrait of himself, and one of
Peter Coxe, author of 'The Social Day,' in the
same style. He attended classes for dissecting
and lectures on comparative anatomy, and was
admitted to the Life Academy, 22nd March, 1802.
At the Royal Academy his own likeness and that
of Coxe were placed in the centre of the minia-
tures, and attracted attention. Robertson's cabinet
portraits on ivory were a novelty and a surprise to
the artists, most of all to the great miniaturists,
Cosway and Humphrey, who, to his amazement,
asked how they were done, and, like West and
Shee, pronouuced them " a new style," prais-
ing their brilliancy and softness. Humphrey
compared the correctness of drawing with that
of Holbein. Robertson made a second copy of
' Gevartius,' smaller, which he sent to America,
also one of ' Danae,' having lost the first from his
portfolio. The labour of these large heads was
very great and his eyes felt the strain. In the
autumn of 1802 it became necessary for him to
go to Scotland ; he had been in London longer
than the year intended, and the family at Aberdeen
were getting into debt. He sailed for Leith 9th
December, and remained in Scotland for three
months. He painted eight miniatures besides
several portraits in oils, one of Baillie Littlejohn,
and one of Miss Charlotte Lumsden, a child, full-
length, with skipping-rope (thirty guineas). In
1803 Robertson exhibited three large miniatures,
viz. Benjamin West, P.R.A. (eight inches by six),
Mr. Peter Warren, and a female head, entered as
' Jenny.' These were placed in the centre with the
miniatures, although, contrary to rule, they were
in massive gilt frames, like oil paintings. He was
now copying Titian's ' Venus,' ' Mars,' and 'Cupid '
for Mr. Coxe, through whose kindness he had
permission to copy the ' Gevartius,' then in
Angerstein's collection. In the summer of 1803
Robertson joined the corps of Loyal North Britons.
He had been fugleman in the Aberdeen Corps of
Volunteers, and was soon made lieutenant, with
command of a company (3rd October) under Lord
Reay, who sat to him for a large miniature which
he exhibited in 1804 with one of Dr. Barrington,
Bishop of Durham (engraved), also Captain Drum-
mund, Mrs. Ferguson, and Mrs. Mackenzie. This
year he painted the Volunteer Colonels of London,

to be engraved, they were Birch, Canning, Combe,
Cox, Erskine, Hankey, Kensington, Reader, Shaw,
and Smith. In 1805 six Colonels were exhibited,
also Mr. Pitt, Captain Skene, Miss Purt, Miss
Dickson, <fec., altogether fourteen, some at British
Institution. Lord Huntly sat for a large miniature,
of which there were two replicas. It was engraved,
as were also the portraits of West and Bishop
Barrington. He was now a member of the High-
land Society of London, and took an active part
in the execution of the medal given to the 42nd
Regiment, designed by West.

H.R.H. the Duke of Sussex had succeeded Lord
Reay as Colonel of the Loyal North Britons, and
Robertson had the command of two rifle com-
panies ; he was appointed Miniature Painter to
H.R.H. in December 1805. Hitherto he had lived
in apartments in Cecil Street ; he now leased a
house, 32, Gerrard Street, Soho, looking up Dean
Street, where he resided for twenty-five years. In
1806 he exhibited three large miniatures H.R.H.
the Duke of Sussex, Lord Huntly, Colonel of the
42nd Regiment, afterwards last Duke of Gordon,
and Mrs. Murray, also three Colonels and Mrs.
Stephenson. In February 1807 he was commanded
to attend at Windsor Castle, and remained for a
month, taking daily sittings from the Princesses
Augusta, Elizabeth, Sophia, Mary and Amelia ;
the latter was engraved, and after her death he
made copies for all the Royal Family. In July
he painted the Prince of Wales at Carlton House.
This year he took a leading part in forming the
Society of Associated Artists in Water-Colours,
and was appointed Secretary, but pressure of work
obliged him to resign the following year. He
now recommenced attending the Royal Academy
in the evenings, and practised oil painting under
Sir William Beechey ; he also attended a course
of lectures on chemistry in relation to colours.
In March 1808 he went to Windsor and finished
the miniatures of the Princesses ; they were of
an intermediate size, but similar in style to the
large ones. Robertson had now formed his own
method, and described it in a treatise written this
year, and sent to his brothers in New York. In
this he omitted all that he had retained of his
brother Archibald's directions, which had been so
helpful to him. Andrew Robertson had no rival
in his cabinet portraits, his contemporary, the
gifted A. E. Chnlon, developed a style of his own.
The rising miniaturists followed Robertson's lead,
and were nearly all more or less his pupils (VV. C.
Ross from the age of fourteen). A large miniature
of Mrs. Mnry Anne Clarke was finished in 1809
(and a replica) to be engraved for her memoirs.
In 1811 he painted the last of his largpst heads,
measuring three inches ; this picture, 'The Gipsy
Mother,' was afterwards engraved for the 'Book
of Gems.' The ivory was about nine inches by
seven. He painted others as large, some full-
lengths, the head smaller. In 1812 Robertson
attended a levee with the other Captains of the
Loyal North Britons. The Prince Regent sat the
same year for a small miniature (oval) of which
a replica was painted. A large miniature of
Mrs. Dingwall was exhibited, also a drawing of
seven children of Mr. W. Bell, full-lengths (a
hundred guineas). During the autumn Robertson
spent two months in Paris, and wrote an interest-
ing diary relating to artistic and military matters.
He continued to have great pressure of work, and
in 1819 he raised his prices for the third and last


[Collection of Miss E. Robertson



time. The best work of his riper years was
executed from this time to 1830, after which he
painted no large miniatures. Lockets, brooches
and bracelets had again become fashionable. In
1830 he removed to 19, Berners Street, where he
resided until he retired in 1841. In his sixtieth
year he painted a very minute likeness of George
IV. for a ring, the ivory measuring less than
three-eighths of an inch square. In 1838 he
attended a levee in Highland dress, wishing to
do homage to the young Queen. About this
time he wrote some papers on 'The Perception
of Beauty,' and on 'Light and Shade.' In 1841
he visited Scotland for the last time. The troubled
state of the Church distressed him, and on his return
he wrote a long paper on the subject. In 1842 he
had a fall which seriously injured the muscles of
the neck, and his health declined from that time.
In 1844 he wrote a short history of miniature
painting, in which he referred to the remark of Sir
Martin Shee, P.R. A., that it had become "a new art."
Very large miniatures were then in demand, far
too large for work on ivory, and too laborious to
repay the artist. Andrew Robertson desired only
that portrait miniatures should be of such size
and quality as would render them equal in com-
position and colouring to good oil-paintings ; he
was regarded by the profession as the father of
this style. He died at Harnpstead, 5th December,
1845. In his private life he was a good son and
brother, a devoted husband and father. His
interest in many subjects, and his ability to take
part in quartet-playing and glees, made him
popular in society. Andrew Robertson's patriotism
and philanthropic spirit led him into much arduous
labour outside his profession, and several times
his health broke down from overwork. He took
a very active part in founding the Artists' Benevo-
lent Fund in 1810, and its branch, the Artists'
General Benevolent Institution, of which he was
Deputy Chairman in 1818, and Hon. Secretary
until 1833, also Vice-President. The work was,
at times, overwhelming. In 1818 he was a
Director of the Highland Society of London,
and for many years actively zealous in promoting
its objects, including his arduous work for the
establishment of the Caledonian Asylum during
ten years ; he was Treasurer from 1813 to 1822,
Convener of Committees, Director, &c. The West-
minster General Dispensary, then located next
door to his house in Gerrard Street, was greatly
in need of help in the management ; the physicians
being personal friends, his sympathies were roused,
and from 1814 he devoted much time for the
benefit of the suffering poor. These charitable
objects he brought under the notice of the Royal
Dukes successfully ; for thirty years before he
retired they occupied his pen by night and his
thoughts by day in disinterested beneficence.

Andrew Robertson's large and intermediate-
sized miniatures included a replica of H.R.H. the
Duke of Sussex, of the Marquis of Huntly, and
Sir Henry Rivers, Bart. (1807), Colonel Sibthorpe
and family (1808), Mr. and Mrs. Brooke, Miss
Fawcett, Henry and James in one picture, Mrs.
P. Wyatt, Mr. Hanbury Tracy, senior (copy after
Gardiner), David Wilkie (1811), the Duchess of
Gordon, from corpse (1812), Mr. and Mrs. Forbes of
Lockiel (1813), Master and Miss Stephenson (1814),
Mrs. W. Bell, Miss Thomas (1816), the Marquis
of Wellesley, Mr. Johnston, Mr. E. Johnston, Miss
Sinclair of Belfast, a. copy (1817), Mrs. Attersale,

Lady Btirdett, Mrs. Bowen and child (1818), Lord
Weymouth, full-length, and a replica, Mrs. Leslie,
Mrs. Leigh, Mr. Alexander Murray of Broughton,
and a replica (1819), Mrs. Johnston (1820), Lady
Sitwell, Mr. Charles Russell, Archdeacon Coxe
(1821), Captain Barnard (1822), the Marquis of
Wellesley, full-length, in robes as Lord Lieutenant
of Ireland (1823), Lady Louisa Macdonnell (copy
after Jackson), Mr. E. J. Johnston, with dog,
Miss Schuyler (Mrs. Johnston), jEneas Macdonnell
of Glengarry, full-length, and a replica, with
deer-hound and dead stag (1824), the Marchioness
of Wellesley, three-quarter-length (also a replica),
engraved (1825), Mrs. Howell (1826), Sir George
Abercrombie Robinson, Provost Brown of Aber-
deen, the Recorder of London (Knowles) in robes,
engraved (1827), Sir Francis Chantrey, with bust
of George IV. (1829), Mr. H. Mackenzie (1833),
Mr. Chalmers of Aberdeen, the Duke and
Duchess of Roxburgh (1836), Mrs. Lovibond,
Mr. Macgillivray (1837). Many miniatures were
engraved, also several water-colour drawings, e. g.
Rev. Edward Irving, Rev. Hugh Macneile,
D.D., the Duchess of Roxburgh, &c.

Andrew Robertson painted in oils from time to
time, e. g. Rev. Dr. Lindsay (engraved), and Mr.
Simon Macgillivray (1820). Copies after Van
Dyck, head of old beggarman, &c. Smaller
miniatures included the Duke of Gordon (1801),
the Marquis of Huntly (1805), Lady Mary Erskine
(1806), H.R.H. the Duke of Sussex (1807, 1808,
1817), Lord St. John (1807), Lord and Lady
Bernard (1809), Lord Lyttleton, self for brooch
(1811), H.R.H. the Duke of Clarence, and replica,
Sir George and Lady Hoste, Lady and Miss Lacon
(1812), Lord Kennedy (1814), Lady Sitwell, Bishop
Skinner (engraved), Sir William Paxton (1815),
the Marquis of Wellesley, Sir John Sinclair
(engraved), Colonel John Trumbull (1817), the
Earl of Denbigh, Lord Weymouth (1818), Lord
King (1819), Archdeacon Coxe, Lady and Miss
Hunter (1821), Lady Denbigh (1822), Lady King
(1823), Rev. E. Bickersteth, Lady Smith (1826),
Lady Gore Booth, Miss and Master Ainslie, very
small (1828), Lady Hamilton, Sir Robert Gore
Booth, for bracelet, Lady Gore Booth (engraved),
three children of Mrs. Ainslie, for lockets (1830),
Hon. Mrs. Ramsay, Lady North (both engraved)
(1832), Lord Viscount Beresford, Judge Barton
(1833), Sir C. Leslie (1834), Hon. Captain Maule
(1835), Lord Strangford, Mrs. Gore Booth (1836),
self for bracelet (1837), Lady W. Gordon (1839).
Over 1000 miniatures were painted in London.


ROBERTSON, ARCHIBALD, portrait painter 'in
oils and miniature, eldest son of William Robert-
son of Drumnahoy, and Jean Ross, his wife, was
born at Monymusk, May 8, 1765. His parents
removed to Aberdeen when he was a child, and
he had a good education at King's College. In
early youth he manifested general talent, and
marked aptitude for the fine arts. In 1782 he
went to Edinburgh for study, and received instruc-
tion in oil and water-colour painting. His first
teacher in miniature work was a deaf mute,
probably Charles Sheriff of Bath. In 1784 he
returned to Aberdeen, and in 1786 he went to
London, where he studied at the Royal Academy.
Sir William Chambers, the architect, introduced
him to Sir Joshua Reynolds, who at once admitted
him to his studio as a pupil. While here he copied
at least two of Reynolds' well-known pictures, viz.



hig own likeness and that of Doctor Beattie, both
represented in the scarlet gown of Doctor of Laws,
the latter with allegorical treatment in reference
to Dr. Beattie's ' Essay on Truth,' the exquisite
figure of the angel being beautifully reproduced
by Robertson. Both copies were in miniature, on
ivory. His father's failing health obliged him to
return to Aberdeen, where he worked diligently
for the support of the family, and instructed his
younger brothers, Alexander and Andrew, in
drawing. In 1791 he was urgently invited to go
to New, York, through Dr. Gordon of King's
College, Aberdeen. The Earl of Buchan gave him
a letter of introduction to President Washington,
with a request for his portrait in oils painted by
Robertson. He arrived at New York, October 2,
1791, and proceeded to Philadelphia to deliver the
letter and the Earl's present of a silver-mounted
box made of the oak which sheltered Sir William
Wallace after the battle of Falkirk. Robertson
was cordially received and entertained by Wash-
ington, who introduced him to his wife and family.
The portrait for the Earl of Buchan was painted,
and received hig-h commendation. Robertson also

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