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century. He entered the guild in that city in
1660. In the Six Collection, at Amsterdam, there
is an ' Interior of a Gothic church at Haarlem ' by
him. Other productions of his are to be met with
at Brunswick, Brussels, Copenhagen, St. Peters-
burg, and Stockholm. He died at Haarlem in 1703.
NIKKELEN, JAN VAN, was born at Haarlem in
1649, and instructed by his father or elder brother
Isaak. He did not pursue the same branch of art,
but applied himself to the painting of landscapes
and game, in which he followed the style of Karel
flu Jardin. He passed some time at the court of
the Elector Palatine, for whom he painted several
pictures, and was afterwards made painter at the
court of Cassel, where he died in 1716. The Gallery
there contains a ' Roebuck in a Forest ' by him. His
daughter, JAKOBEA NIKKELEN, born in 1690, was a
vmpil of Herman van der Myn, and excelled in
painting fruit and flowers. She married Willem
Troost, a portrait painter. The pictures she painted
at Diisseldorf have been erroneously ascribed to
her father. See TROOST.
NILSON, F. CHRISTIAN, painter, was born at
Augsburg in 1811. He worked chiefly at Munich,
and is principally known by his frescoes of scenes
from the Greek "War of Liberation," executed
after designs by Peter von Hess, in the " Hof-
garten ; ' ' and by the decorative pictures, from his
own designs, on the staircase of the State Library
at Munich. His paintings in illustration of Schil-
ler's ' Song of the Bell J have been engraved by
Adrian Schleich. In his later years he abandoned
painting for drawing and engraving. Nilson died
at Munich the 19th December, 1879.

NILSON, JOHANN ESAJAS, a German miniature
painter and engraver, was born at Augsburg in
1721. He engraved and etched several portraits,
and a number of figure scenes in borders, which
are good examples of the decorative art of the 18th
century. He became Director of the Academy at
Augsburg, and died there in 1788. His plates
appeared in series of two, four, six, or twelve, and
are signed either Nilson, E. N ., J. E. N., or with
a monogram. Among others are the following :


Clement XIII., Pontif. Max. ; Nilson inv. et fee.
Petrus III., Kussorum Imperator.
Catherina Alexiewna, Russorum Imperatrix.
Stanislaus Augustus, Rex Pol.

different engraver on wood, and is said to have
been a native of Saxony. Professor Christ attri-
butes to him a monogram composed of a B., an
M., and an N.



N IN HAM, HENRY, born at Norwich on October
15, 1793, was the son of John Ninham, who in
1792 drew, with the assistance of the camera
obscura, the ancient gates of Norwich, then about
to be demolished. Henry succeeded to his father's


business as an heraldic painter and copper-plate
printer, and was for many years employed by the
principal coach-builders of the city to paint
armorial bearings on their patrons' carriages.
The artistic tendencies of the father developed
in the son, and he became a frequent contributor
to the Norwich Exhibitions both in oil and water-
colours. In the Norwich Castle Museum is a
water-colour ' Gateway and Castle,' and in the
possession of Mr. James Reeve, Mr. Russell Colman
and other Norwich collectors are several of his oil
and water-colourpaintingsof picturesque old houses
and churches of Norwich and its neighbourhood.
Ninham was a good etcher, and published, without
letterpress, ' Eight Etchings of Antiquities of
Norfolk,' and not long before his death, 'Views
of the Gates of Norwich,' from drawings made by
Kirkpatrick about 1720. He also etched for private
circulation a series of small but spirited plates of
Norfolk views. He supplied etched illustrations
for Blomes' ' Castle Acre ' and Grigor's ' Eastern
Arboretum' (1847), and from 1847 till his death
contributed largely to the illustrations of 'Norfolk
Archaeology ' and other local antiquarian works.
' Remnants of Antiquity in Norwich ' and ' Norwich
Corporation Pageantry,' published by Muskett,
were illustrated by Ninham in lithography from
his own drawings. Ninham died at his house in
Chapel Field, Norwich, on October 23, 1874, and
was buried in Norwich Cemetery. M.H.



NIQUET, CLAUDE, the elder, was born in 1770.
He was one of the engravers employed on the
' Galerie du Musee Napoleun,' published by FilhoL
He was still living in 1831. Among his plates are :

The Death of St. Bruno ; after Le Sueiir.

The Triumph of Flora ; after 7V r . fovssin.

The Apollo Belvedere.

The Diana of the Louvre.

The Laocoon.

Cupid and Psyche.

The Transfiguration ; after Raphael.

historical and landscape painter. He was born in
Paris in 1776, studied under David and Regnault.
and exhibited at the Salon from 1806 to 1824.
He was a friend of the painter Jean Louis Cesar
Lair, whose biography he wrote, and after whose
death he retired into private life. There are several
of his works in the cathedral of Metz. Niquevert
died 2nd December, 1860. There are by him :

Tobit and the Angel.

The Siege of Paris by Henry IV.

Christ before Pilate.

NITTIS, GIUSEPPE DE, an Italian, was born
near Barletta, Naples, in 1845, and was a pupil of
Geronie, in Paris. He painted genre subjects,
chiefly scenes in the streets of Paris and London,
which are remarkable for their truth. His works
are realistic in the best sense. He painted for a
time in England, and with much success. He won
the orthodox honours at the Salon, and was
" decorated " in 1878. He died suddenly in 1884.
Among his works we may name :

Bougival. 1875.

Paris, Place de la Concorde. 1875.
des Pyramides. 1876.

Naples, on the Road to Castellamare. 1876.

Paris, from the Pont Royal. 1877.

Paris, Arc de Triomphe. 1878.

London, The Victoria Embankment.


engraver of Mayence, who was at work towards
the end of the 16th century. He is known by a
set of borders after the designs of B. Castelli for
the first Genoa edition of Tasso's ' Gerusalemme
liberata.' His son, Johann Georg, was born in
Genoa in 1594, and was also a wood-engraver, but
his works are inferior to those by his father. He
produced a set of wood-cuts for an edition of the
' jEneid," and another after Anton Tempesta's
' Patriarchs.' He died at Rome in 1624.

NIXON, JAMES, an English miniature painter.
He was a member of the Incorporated Society,
studied in the Royal Academy, where he first ex-
hibited in 1772, and was elected an Associate in
1778. Nixon received court patronage, and held
appointments to the Prince of Wales and the
Duchess of York. He was born in 1741, and died
at Tiverton in 1812.

NIXON, JOHN, an English engraver, who was
born in 1706, and was still at work about 1760.
His best prints are small portraits, in which the
faces are entirely finished in stipple. Among
others we have the following portraits by him :

Frederick, Prince of Wales.

William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland ; two plates.

Archbishop Tillotson.

John, Earl of Granville.

NIXON, JOHN. The only important work which
was done by this clever amateur artist was in
connection with a series of views of county seats
in England and Ireland issued by Watts the en-
graver in 1779-86. Most of the original drawings
for the series were the work of Nixon. He was a
merchant in the city of London, who was born
about 1760 and died in 1818. He amused himself
with etching, and some clever caricatures were
etched by him from the drawings of his friends.
He often exhibited at the Royal Academy.

NIXON, ROBERT. This artist is said to have been
the brother of John Nixon, but by other authorities
it is stated that he was his cousin. He was a
clergyman and the father of a Bishop of Tasmania,
but he is best known for the fact that it was at his
house that Turner as a lad completed in 1793 his
first painting in oil-colours. He exhibited frequently
at the Royal Academy, and his name appears at
the foot of certain drawings in Watts' book of
county seats alluded to in the biography of John
Nixon, but it is not even certain whether these
drawings were executed by this man or by another
Robert Nixon, an Irishman, who lived at about the
same time, and who died in 1837. About this
latter man nothing very definite is known, but
some writers have stated that there was but one
artist of the name of Robert Nixon, and that the
father of the Bishop of Tasmania was the Irishman
who died in 1837. The exhibitor at the Academy
was horn in 1759, but he is called a Scotchman in
contemporary documents, whereas the man alluded
to above claimed to have been born in Cork. The
confusion is now almost inextricable.

NOBLE, GEORGE, a brother of Samuel Noble,
and an engraver of some considerable merit. His
chief works are some illustrations in Boydell's
'Shakespeare' and in Hume's 'History of England.'
He also engraved many portraits. He lived at the
latter end of the eighteenth century, but the dates
of his birth and death are not known.

NOBLE, JOHN, an English painter, born in 1797.
He was a member of the Society of British Artists,
and occasionally painted Italian landscapes. He
died in 1879.



NOBLE, SAMUEL. Better known a8 an eminent
Swedenborgian minister, Noble demands attention
in these pages for his work as an engraver. He
was born in 1779, the son of Edward Noble, a
bookseller, who was the author of a small volume
on perspective. He was apprenticed to a silver-
plate engraver, but soon left him and went to
another man in the same profession who did book
work, and for bim he executed several important
architectural plates. In 1798 he set up in the
profession for himself, and from that time down to
1819 he worked steadily at it and was a popular
engraver, commanding good prices for his archi-
tectural and landscape plates. In 1820 he became
a Swedenborgian minister and attained great
eminence in his new profession. In 1848 he
became quite blind, and he died in 1853.

scape painter, was born in 1780. He taught draw-
ing, and exhibited a few works at the Royal Academy
in 1809-11. Having lapsed into irregular habits,
through disappointment in love and art, he at-
tempted suicide in 1825, and died in Somers Town
in 1831. He left a MS. poem called, ' The Artist,'
to Nagler was born at Cahors in 1652, and resided
in Paris, where he died in 1730. He excelled in
drawing with a pen, and appears to have formed
his taste by studying the works of Callot. He
etched a few small landscapes.

excellent landscape painter of Verona. He died
young in 1696.

NOBILI, DURANTE DE', an Italian painter, who
flourished at Caldarola about 1571, and formed
himself on the style of Michelangelo. At S. Pier
di Castello, Ascoli, there is a ' Madonna' inscribed
with his name, birthplace, and the above date.

NOBLIN, H. and L. Two indifferent engravers
of portraits, who lived in Paris about the year 1680.
NOCHER, J. E., a French engraver, born in
Paris about the year 1736. He was a pupil of
Etienne Fessard, and has engraved several book-
ornaments, and a few portraits ; among the latter
' J. J. Rousseau,' after Ramsay, dated 1766.

NOCRET, JEAN, (or NOCROIT,) a French painter
and engraver was born at Nancy in 1618, and be-
came a scholar of Jean Leclerc, but finished his
studies in Italy under the direction of Poussin.
On his return to France he was much employed at
St. Cloud and the Tuileries. He painted the por-
traits of several of the royal family of France,
among them the Queen of Louis XIV. as ' Minerva.'
He engraved several plates after his own designs ;
the best is ' L'hommage du petit St. Jean.' He
was principal painter to the Duke of Orleans, and
Rector of the Royal Academy of Painting and
Sculpture in Paris, where he died in 1671. P. Syl-
vestre engraved his portrait of himself, and Nan-
teuil that of the Duke of Beaufort. His son CHARLES
(born 1647, died 1719) painted portraits with some
success, and was known as NOCRET JEDNE._

NODDER, FREDERICK, a botanical painter and
engraver who exhibited at the Royal Academy,
and who in 1788 was created "Botanical Painter
to the King." It is not known where or when he
was born, but his name appears first in the
catalogues in 1786, and he is said to have died in
1800. He illustrated many important botanical
books, and started a long series of volumes on
natural history which were completed by other
relations of his after his death.

NODDER, R. P., an English painter of horses
and other animals, exhibited at the Royal Academy
from 1786 to 1820. He was appointed botanic
painter to George III., and after that exhibited a
few flower pictures. Nothing is known of his life.
This brilliant draughtsman and caricaturist was the
second son of Jude-Amed6e, Comte de Noe, a peer
of France. The name of the family, whose nobility
dates from the time of the Carlovingian kings, is
that of a small island near Mirande. There Am6-
dee Charles was born the 20th of January, 1819.
The date and place of his birth are thus given
by GeVome, who no doubt knew the facts. His
mother was an Englishwoman, and as he grew
up he combined in his manners the most striking
characteristics of the two nations from which he
derived his origin ; the calmness of the English-
man with the vivacity of the Frenchman. It was
to this singular union of very different qualities,
and to his ever ready wit that he owed his great
popularity. Although his talent for design had,
from his childhood, been known to his friends, and
had led to his abandoning the military career for
which he had been educated, to study under Paul
Delaroche, Charlet, and Lanny, it was only in 1842
that his first "album" appeared. It is entitled
' Calembours, betises, jeux de mots tire's par les
cheveux. Paris, 1842. Par Cham de N**,' and
affords, it is said, the only instance in which the
name of 'Cham,' that he rendered so famous, is
combined with any hint at the de Noe". Between
that year and 1879, when he died, de No^ produced
at least forty thousand designs, illustrating every
phase of life in France and Algeria. They are to be
found in so many different publications, that want
of space will not permit us to name them separately.
Although ' Cham ' dealt so many hard blows, they
were always so fair and honest that de No^ was
a man esteemed alike by friends and foes. One of
the former proposed to inscribe upon his tomb,
"Quarante ans d' esprit, et pas un de mechancete."
His wife, the Comtesse de Noe", died in 1880, six
months after her gifted husband.

NOEL, ACHILLE JULES, a French landscape and
marine painter, born at Quimper in 1815. His
works first appeared at the Salon in 1840, and he
was awarded a medal in 1853. He died in Paris
in 1881. As one of his best works we may name
' The Arrival of the Diligence at Quimper in the
time of the Directory.' The following pictures are
in the French public collections :

Besan<;on. Museum. View of Brest Harbour. 1840.
Bordeaux. Museum. Two landscapes.
Nantes. Museum. Sea-piece. 1840.

NOEL, ALEXIS NICOLAS, designer, lithographer,
and painter, was born at Clychy-la-Garenne in
1792. He studied in Paris under David, and his
sketches in oil and water-colours represent land-
scapes, military scenes, hunts, and architectural
views. He published a ' Voyage Pittoresque et
Militaireen France et en Allemagne, dessine d'apres
nature, par A. Noel : ' most of the plates in this work
were lithographed by liiraself. He died in 1848.

NOEL, ALPHONSE LON, a lithographer, born in
Paris in 1807, who studied under Gros, Hersent, and
Girodet. He began his career as a painter, but
acquiring great skill in lithography, he devoted
his time almost exclusively to that branch of art.
Among a great number of works by him we may
name a set oi! lithographs from the more remarkable


pictures in the Gallery at Dresden. He reproduced
a number of Winterhalter's portraits of royalty.
He died in 1879.

NOEL, JEAN ALBXANDRE, a French marine
painter, was t>orn in 1750, and became a scholar
of Joseph Vernet. He visited California in 1768-70.
and afterwards Spain and Portugal, and painted
storms, fogs, conflagrations, moonlights, and falls
of snow, principally in water-colours. He also made
sketches of the combat of the French corvette, La
Bayonnaise, with the English frigate, L'Embuscade,
and of a French frigate passing Alexandria by night.
He painted views of Gibraltar and Lisbon ; and was
an industrious exhibitor till the year 1822. His
views of Gibraltar and Cadiz have been engraved
by F. Hegi. He was still living in 1831.

NOEL, PETER PAUL JOSEPH, was born at Waul-
sort sur Meuse, near Dinant, in 1789, and was there
instructed in the rudiments of art. At Antwerp
he studied under Herreyns and Regemorter, and
obtained several prizes there and at Brussels. In
Paris he became a disciple of Schwebach ; and after
visiting Rome, went to Brussels, where he for a
time painted landscapes with animals and figures,
and then devoted himself entirely to genre subjects.
He died at Sosoye in 1822. There are by him :

A Peasant falling from a Tree, and upsetting a Basket
of Fruit.

Halt of Bavarian Cavalry.

Postilion before an Inn.

The Market-place of Amsterdam. (Amsterdam Museum.)

Girl with grapes. (The same.)

A Cavalry Outpost. (Brussels Museum.)

Repose of the Shepherds. (The same.)

NOFERI, MICHELE, a Florentine painter, of whom
little is known. He worked in the 17th century,
and was a pupil of Vincenzo Dandini.

NOGARI, GIUSEPPE, a Venetian painter, was
born in 1699, and became a scholar of J. B. Pittoni
and Antonio Balestra. He especially devoted him-
self to the painting of half-length figures, and from
the numerous heads by him which have been
brought to England, it may be concluded that he
was an excellent portrait painter. He was Director
of the Academy at Venice, where he died in 1763.
We are indebted to him for the excellent copies of
the 'Madonna de San Sisto,' after Raphael, at Pia-
cenza, and the ' Notte,' after Correggio, at Modena.
T. Cattini and T. E. Hayd have engraved after him.
Among his better works we may name:

Dresden. Royal Gall. An old Man.

n The Bust of an old Woman.

St. Peter.
Stockholm. Gallery. An old Man.

n An old Woman with a Spindle.

NOGARI, PARIS, (called ROMANO,) a painter
and engraver of Rome, who flourished during the
pontificates of Gregory XIU.,Sixtus V.,and Clement
VIII. He imitated the manner of Ratfaello Motta,
and was employed in the Loggie of the Vatican,
and in the library and church of the Lateran. He
also painted several pictures for other churches,
both in oil and fresco. In the church of the
Madonna de Monti is a picture by this master
representing our ' Saviour bearing his Cross ; ' in
San Spirito in Sassia, the ' Circumcision ; ' and in
the Trinita de' Monti, the 'Taking down from the
Cross.' In later year? he painted in miniature and
practised engraving ; his best plate is considered to
be ' The Battle of "King Ramirez with the Moors '
(1588). He died at Rome in 1596.


NOLLEKENS,) was born at Antwerp in 1702. He
came to England in 1733, and was for time
a scholar of Pieter Tillemans. He painted land-
scapes and domestic subjects, and was much em-
ployed in copying the works of Watteau, and the
architectural views of Giovanni Paolo Pannini.
Lord Cobham employed him in several ornamental
works at Stowe ; and he was also patronized by
the Earl of Tilney. Nollekens died in London in
1748. He was the father of the sculptor, Joseph
Nollekens. His subjects, like Watteau's, were
often musical and fashionable conversations al
fresco, but they are not imitations of that master :
the scene is generally the gardens at Wanstead,
the seat of Lord Tilney. There is a painting at
Windsor by him containing portraits of Frederick
Prince of Wales and his sisters.

NOLLET, DOMINIQUE, was born at Bruges in
1640, and was a scholar of Frans van der Meulen
in Paris. He painted history, but was more dis-
tinguished for his landscapes, battles, and sieges.
His talents recommended him to the patronage of
.Maximilian, Duke of Bavaria, who sent him to ac-
company the Duchess to Venice ; the governor of
the Low Countries also appointed him his principal
painter. He was made a member of the Society of
Painters at Bruges in 1687. In the church of the
Carmelites at Bruges is an altar-piece representing
' St. Louis embarking for the Holy Land.' There
are several of his battle-pieces and landscapes in
private collections in Belgium. He died in Paris in
1736. His pictures on close inspection have more
the appearance of crude sketches than finished
works, but viewed at a proper distance, the colours
become warm, and the arrangement harmonious.

NOLLI, CARLO, painter and engraver, was a
native of Como, a son of Giovanni Battista Nolli
the architect, and a scholar of Agostino Masucci
and Corradi. He engraved after Guercino, Priina-
ticcio, Parmigianino, and others. He was em-
ployed by command of the King of Naples, on the
Antichita d'Ercolano ' (Napoli, 1757-62), and en-
graved also for Hamilton's works on Greek, Etrus-
'an, and Roman Antiquities. He died at Naples
in 1770.

Carlo Nolli, was a native of Italy, and flourished
about the year 1755. He was an architect by pro-
fession, but he engraved nineteen sheets of plans
and views of buildings in Rome in 1748.

NOLLIN, (or NOLIN,) J. B., a French engraver,
was born in Paris in 1657. He studied in Paris
under N. de Poilly, and in Italy, where he executed
some plates after Annibale Carracci, Nicholas
Poussin, and other masters. He engraved several
of the prints in a work entitled, ' Vues, plans,
coupes et 1^ vations de Versailles.' He died in 1 725.

NOLPE, PIETER, a Dutch painter and engraver,
was born at the Hague about 1601. Of his works
as a painter little is known apparently beyond
a 'Dutch Landscape* in the Copenhagen Gal-
lery ; but we have several prints by him. They
are usually begun with the point, and finished
with the burin. His best productions are his
landscapes. He usually signed his prints with
his name at length, joining the initials P. and
N. together, and in a few instances with this

monogram PJ. or flf; only. He is said to

have engraved as early as 1616, and as late as
1670 The following are esteemed his best works :



The Portrait of Johann Adler Salvius, Swedish Minister


A set of eight Cavaliers ; etched.
A set of eighteen etchings of Beggars ; I'M the style of

P. Quast.

St. Peter delivered from prison ; after J. V. Vitcht.
Judah and Tamar, in a large landscape ; from hit

own design. The same figures were afterwards

introduced into another landscape, of a smaller


The Broken Dyke ; from his OKU design (a masterpiece).
Daniel in the Den of Lions ; after Blancert.
An Allegorical Print on the Marriage of the Prince of

Orange with the Princess Mary of England.
A set of six Landscapes ; after Adriaan van Xieulant.
A set of six Landscapes ; after R. Hoc/man.
Eight Months of the Year ; Pie:er Ifolpe fee. et exc.
The Prophet Elijah and the \Vidow of Sarepta.
St. Paul, the Hermit, fed by an Eagle in the Desert ;

after Fitter Potter.
The Cavalcade of 1C38 at Amsterdam, on the entry of

Mary de' Medici into that city ; after C. JUolyn ; a

large print in six sheets.

A Landscape in the style of Van Goyen. 1616.
Six plates of Costumes ; after P. Quasi.
Six plates on the Entry of the Prince of Orange ; after

J. Wildens.
Ten plates on the Entry of Maria de' Medici ; after

Moijart de Jonghe. 1639.
Thirty plates on the funeral of Prince Frederic Henry ;

after P. Pott. 1651.

NON, DOM. Viv. de. See DENON.


NONOTTE, (or NOUNOTTE,) DONAT. This painter
was born at Besancon in 1707, and became a
favourite pupil of Lemoine, who employed him on
many of his works, and whose biography he
eventually wrote. The death of his protector, the
Uuke d'Antin, prevented his accomplishing a
long-desired journey to Rome. He was made
painter to the King, and a member of the Academy
of Paris in 1741. In 1754 he was appointed painter
to the city of Lyons, where he established a free

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