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a painter of battle-scenes ; won distinction as an
illustrator, notably of Miinchausen. His ' Bataille
de Malplaquet,' ' Gueux de Mer devant Leyde,'
' Bataille de Castricum,' and ' Comte Florens
combattant les Prisons ' are among his most im-
portant works. He was a Knight of the Lion of
the Netherlands, and a Chevalier of the Legion of
Honour. He died at Rotterdam, September 24,

ROCQUE, J., was probably a native of France,


but about 1750 he resided in England, where he
graved maps and a few views from his own de-
signs. Among these are two large views of
Wanstead House, Essex. Vivaret engraved a view
of Kensington Palace after a drawing by Rocque.

RODAKOWSKI, HEINRICH, Polish painter ; born
at Lemberg (Austrian Galicia), June 9, 1823 ;
began his art studies at Vienna, and in 1846 came
to Paris, where he settled ; remained for five years
in Cogniet's studio ; made his debut at the Salon in
1852 with his 'Portrait du General Dembinski';
chiefly earned distinction as a portrait-painter,
though some of his historical canvases won high
praise ; in 1893 he returned to Cracow, being
appointed President of the Acade'mie des Arts ; he
gained a first-class medal in 1852 ; a third-class
one at the Universal Exhibition of 1855 ; the
Legion of Honour in 1861, and the Belgian Order
of Leopold in 1873. He died at Cracow. December
28, 1894.



graver, was born in Berlin in 1725. Having learned
the rudiments of his art in his native city, he went
to Paris, where he studied for a time under Charles
Vanloo and Pesne. He afterwards travelled to
Italy, and on his return to Berlin met with very
flattering encouragement as a painter of history
and portraits. He painted several altar-pieces for
the churches at Berlin and the other towns in
Prussia, and was employed by the king in em-
bellishing the palace of Sans Souci. In 1783 he
became Director of the Academy at Berlin. He
etched a great number of plates from his own
designs and those of others. There is a MS.
catalogue of 309 plates by him in the British
Museum Print Room. The following are his
principal works :

The ceilings in the New Palace, Sans Souci.
A Descent from the Cross. (Marienkirchc, Berlin.)
The Agony in the Garden. (Marienkirche, Berlin.)
The Ascension. (Rostock.)

A Head of Christ.
The Maskers ; after SchZuter.
Plates for Gessuer's ' Idylls ' and Gellert's ' Fables.'

RODE, JOHANN HEINRICH, the younger brother
of Christian Bernhard Rode, born at Berlin in 1727,
was brought up to the profession of a goldsmith,
but abandoned that pursuit to devote himself to
engraving. Having executed some plates at Berlin
with considerable success, he went to Paris, where
he became a pupil of Johann Georg Wille. During
his residence in that city he engraved a few plates
in the finished style of his instructor, and on his
return to Berlin published several prints from the
designs of his brother. He had acquired a reputa-
tion, when his career was cut short by his death
in 1759. Among others, we have the following
prints by him :

The Portrait of Johann Georg Wille ; after Schmidt.
A Head of Epicurus ; after J. M. Preister.
Jacob wrestling with the Angel ; after C. B. Rode.
An Ecce Homo ; after the same.
A Sacrifice of the Vestals ; after tfie same.

painter, born at Copenhagen in 1743. He came to
Holland, and studied at the Hague under the
portrait-painter J. G. Ziesenis. In 1776 he became
a member of the ' Pictura ' Society at the Hague,
and finally established himself at Leyden. He

died in 1794. There is a portrait group by him
in the Town Hall at the Hague.

RODEN, MATHYS, a Flemish painter of the 15th
century, who practised at Ghent, and became a
member of the Corporation in 1475. In 1477 he
designed some allegorical figures for the fete in
honour of the entry of Duke Maximilian. No
record of his works later than 1483 has come
down to us.

RODEN, WILLIAM T., the well-known Birming-
ham portrait-painter, was born in Bradford Street
in 1817, and was apprenticed to an engraver
named Dew, at the close of his association with
whom he engraved for Messrs. Hogarth, publishers,
his most noteworthy work being a plate of 'John
Knox preaching at the Court of Queen Mary.'
After following the art of engraving for about ten
years he took to portrait-painting, and attained a
considerable measure of success, his services being
in great request for presentation portraits. Besides
those in the Art Gallery and at Aston Hall, there
are portraits by him in the Board Room of the
General Hospital, at Saltley College, in the board
rooms of banks and other institutions, and in the
hands of private persons throughout the Midlands.
Lord Palmerston sat three times to him. Mr.
Rodeu co-operated with others in founding the old
Birmingham Art Gallery, and was for many years
an active member of the Royal Society of Artists.
He continued to paint until a few years previous to
his death, but on Christmas Day 1890 he suffered
from a stroke, which left him much weakened, and
on the third anniversary of the attack he died a his
sister's house at Handsworth, 1892. A. B. C.


ERMANS, was a native of Holland, and flourished
about the year 1640. From the style of his etching-
he appears to have been a painter, and to have
imitated Rembrandt with success. He engraved
a few portraits, now become scarce, among which
are :

Sir William Waller, Serjeant Major-general to the Par-
liament, with a Battle in the background ; after C.

Joaunes Secundus, a Latin Poet of the Hague ; signed
Rodermont, fecit.

RODRIGUEZ, ALFONSO, a painter of Spanish
extraction, born at Messina in 1578, studied the
works of Titian, Raphael, and Michael Angelo.
His best works are to be found at Messina : ' The
Impotent Man at Bethesda,' in S. Cosimo de'
Medici; 'The Murder of the Innocents,' in S.
Elena de Constantino ; ' Madonna with St. John,
and St. Nicholas,' in S. Filippo Neri. He died at
Messina in 1648.

RODRIGUEZ, DOMINGO, a Portuguese painter
and Augustine monk, was living at Salamanca in
1682. He painted many pictures of saints and
martyrs for the convent of his order in that city.


PITTOR SANTO, the son of Alfonso, and nephew and
pupil of Luigi Rodriguez. After his uncle's death
he formed a close connection with Domenichino,
which continued until the latter was driven from
Naples. Rodriguez has much of the tenderness
of Domenichino. He died in 1667 at Naples,
where the following works of his are to be seen :
' The Virgin with the Child rescuing a Soul from
Satan, 1 altar-piece for the church of the Madonna
del Soccorso ; ' S. Carlo in glory, with angels sing



ing and playing,' in a chapel of the church of Gesii

in 1476 by the Duke of Alva to execute ' ara-
besques ' in his palace of Barco di Avila.

RODRIGUEZ, LUIQI, brother of Alfonzo Rodri-
guez, born at Messina in 1585, studied at Rome
and Naples. In the latter city he painted for
some time with Bellisario Corenzio. On his return
to Messina he executed twelve scenes from the
Trojan War, in monochrome. There is a tradition
that he was poisoned at Naples by Corenzio

NICOLAS, painters, the less famous brothers of
Pedro. FRANCISCO was born in 1701, and was
appointed painter to the Master of the Horse. In
1746 he painted twelve large pictures, representing
incidents in the life of S. Peter, for the convent of
San Gil at Madrid. He died in 1751. NICOLAS
distinguished himself as a landscape-painter, and
died at Madrid shortly before Francisco.

Madrid in 1696, was the nephew and scholar of the
elder Juan Garcia de Miranda. (See GARCIA DB
MIRANDA.) Under the auspices of Father Aller,
confessor of the Infant Don Philip, fourth son of
Philip V., he painted an Immaculate Conception
6O pleasing to the prince that he insisted on
its being inscribed with the artist's name. He
executed a half-length portrait of Aller, and
various religious subjects for the Bare-footed
Carmelites. He chiefly distinguished himself,
however, by landscapes and scenes of low life,
as well as panels of coaches, which were sufficiently
prized to be preserved when the coaches them-
selves were worn out or disused. He succeeded
his uncle as painter to the King, and died in 1766.

painter at Madrid in the early part of the 18th
century, and in 1725 was appointed Valuer of
Antique Pictures by royal letters patent.

RODRIGUEZ, SIMON, a Spanish painter of some
talent, who flourished in the 16th century. The
details of his life are unknown, but at the monas-
tery of Belem, on the Tagus, there is a ' Nativity '
of much merit by him.

at Granada in 1650, was an imitator of the style of
Alonzo Cano. He took orders, and gained a high
reputation both for his talent as a painter and for
the blamelessness of his life. Among the works
he is known to have executed were : ' A Madonna,'
for the staircase of the Archbishop's palace at
Granada, and other paintings for the church of
Nuestra Senora de las Angustias, for the church
of the Augustine order, and for that of the Bare-
footed Carmelites. In the Munich Gallery there
is a portrait of a naval officer by him. He died at
Granada in 1737.

ROECKEL, WILHELM, historical painter, born
at Schleissheim in 1801, where his father was a
glazier. After studying in the Munich Academy
under Langer, he went to Diisseldorf. On his
return to Munich in 1827 he took up glass
painting. In the Auerkirche at Munich is a
picture of the ' Marriage of Cana ' by him. He
died at Munich in 1843.

ROED, a living Danish painter, and was born at
Copenhagen in 1846. He studied at first under his
father, but in 1861 entered the Academy, where
he received a gold medal for a ' Scene from the


Deluge.' In 1870 he went to Paris, Rome, and
Naples, but returned home after two years' absence.
He died prematurely in 1874.

ROEDER, JULIUS SIEGMUND, the son of poor
parents, was born at Berlin, 1829, entered the studio
of Dr. Herbig at the age of fifteen, and the
Academy a few years later. He had great difficulty
in maintaining himself, and was obliged to curtail
travels undertaken to complete his art education.
A fortunate marriage improved his prospects,
but his wife soon died, and he left Weimar,
where he had been living with her. His picture
' The last Blessing ' (in the possession of the
Emperor of Germany) was exhibited in 1850.
His ' Grape Seller ' is now in the Berlin Gallery.
He died in 1860.

ROEDIG, J. C., a painter of fruit and flower
pieces, was born at the Hague in 1751. He was
a pupil of Van der Aa, and became secretary to
the School of Art at the Hague in 1794. He died
in 1802.

ROEHN, ADOLPHE EUGENE, born in Paris in
1780, belonged to the school of the Restoration.
He began his career with a ' Market Scene,' and
a ' Halt of Spanish Soldiers,' and in 1866 he ex-
hibited his ' Dancing Bear.' He was professor of
drawing in the College Louis le-Grand. He died
at Vannes in 1867.

ROEHN, JEAN ALPHONSE, the son of Adolphe
Roehn, born in Paris in 1799, was a pupil of
Regnault and Gros. He entered the Ecole des
Beaux Arts in 1813, and afterwards became a
colleague of his father at the College Louis-le-
Grand. His works were rather in the style of
the 18th century. He died in Paris in 1864.



ROELOFS, WILLEM, Dutch painter and etcher ;
born March 10, 1822, at Amsterdam ; was a pupil
of Sande Bakhuyzen and De Winter. For a time
he resided at the Hague, and also (since 1848) at
Brussels. His works include ' Vaches au bord de
la Fleuve,' ' Bois en Automne ' (in the Louvain
Museum), ' Paysage & la Haye ' (in Amsterdam
Museum), and others. Of his etcliings we may
mention ' Le Marais,' ' Le Ruisseau,' &c. He
obtained a medal at Brussels in 1848 ; also the
Orders of Leopold and of Francis Joseph, and he
was appointed Officer of the Order of the Oak
Crown. He died at Berchem, near Antwerp, May
14, 1897.

ROELOFSWAART, ADOLF, painter, born at the
Hague. He practised towards the close of the
18th century, painting historical subjects and
portraits, and was a pupil of Abraham Verkolje, of
Amsterdam. He lived for some time at Delft, and
finally settled at Ryswick, near the Hague.

Dutch painter of flowers and fruit, born at the
Hague in 1679. He was placed for some time
under the care of Constantine Netscher, with the
intention of becoming a portrait painter ; but the
delicacy of his constitution made it necessary for
him to quit the Hague, and to reside at a country-
house of his father's, where he amused himself in
cultivating flowers. This occupation led him to
an attempt to paint the objects of his care. Some
of his pictures were bought by a florist at the
Hague, who afterwards kept him supplied with
flowers. In 1716 he was invited to the court of
the Elector Palatine, at Diisseldorf. On the death
of his patron he returned to the Hague, where he


painted some pictures for Prince William of Hesse,
and the families of Fager and Lormier. There
are specimens of his art in the Berlin and Cassel
Galleries. In 1718 he was received into the Pic-
tura Society, of which he was the Director at the
time of his death in 1748.


painter; born May 17, 1803, at Drammen ; studied
at the Copenhagen School of Art, and became a
pupil of Eckersberg ; travelled in Italy, Turkey,
and Greece. On his return was elected a member
of the Copenhagen Academy ; his pictures include
'Turkish Wedding,' 'Skagen, 1 'Oriental Life,'
'Market at Amalfi,' and sundry portraits. He
died at Copenhagen, August 29. 1848.

ROESTRAETEN, PIETER, portrait and still-life
painter, born at Haarlem in 1627, was brought up
under Frans Hals, whose daughter he married, and
whose style in portrait painting he followed for
some time with success. Attracted by the fame of
Sir Peter Lely's good fortune iu England, he visited
this country in the reign of Charles II. He was
received by Lely with great kindness, and intro-
duced to the king ; but it does not appear that he
met with much encouragement at Court, as none
of his pictures are to be found in the palaces, or
in the royal catalogues. The story of Lely's
jealousy of Roestraeten seems to be unfounded.
Roestraeten painted with great success vases of
gold and silver, bas-reliefs, musical instruments,
&c., which he designed with precision. His
pictures were well coloured, and touched both with
delicacy and freedom. The exact date of his visit
to England is not ascertained ; but he must have
resided here many years, as he met with an
accident at the fire of London, and was lame for
the rest of his life. He died in London in 1700.

ROETING, JCLIUS, German painter ; born
September 7, 1821, at Dresden ; studied at Dresden
Academy under Bendemann ; subsequently ap-
pointed Professor at the Diisseldorf Academy,
becoming an Associate of the Berlin and Vienna
Academies. Among his principal works are:
'Columbus at Salamanca' and 'The Entombment
of Christ ' ; also notable portraits of W. von
Schadow and K. F. Lessing, which are in the
Diisseldorf Gallery. In 1855 in Paris he gained
a third-class medal, and a gold medal at Berlin.
He died at Diisseldorf, May 22, 1896.

ROETTIERS, FRANCOIS, was born in Paris in
1702, of a Flemish family. His ancestors had
for many years been medallists to the French
mint. He was probably a scholar of Nicholas de
Largilliere, from whose designs he etched the
following plates :

Christ bearing His Cross.

The Crucifixion.

There are a few others by him of less importance.
He died in 1770.

ROFFE, JoHN.'an English engraver,born in 1769.
His practice was chiefly confined to architectural
plates. He died at Holloway in 1850. Specimens
of his work are to be found in :

The Marbles in the British Museum. 1812.

Murphy's Arabian Antiquities of Spain. 1816.

ROGEL, JoHANN, an engraver on wood, practised
at Augsburg about the year 1567.


ROGER, ADOLPHE, a French historical painter.

born at Palaiseau in 1797. He studied under Gros,
and obtained honours in 1822, 1831, and 1841. He
had considerable practice as a decorative painter,
and executed works at the churches of St. Elizabeth,
St. Roch, and Notre Dame de Lorette, in Paris.
He died in 1880. Amongst his works we may also
name :

Versailles. Gallery. Battle of Civitella. 1842.

Trianon. Charles V. entering the Louvre.


Taking the Veil.

Ordination of Africans.


ROGER, EUGENE, a French historical and portrait
painter, born at Sens in 1807. He studied under
Hersent, and obtained the second prix de Rome in
1827. Six years after he obtained the coveted
grand prix. He died in Paris in 1840. Amongst
his works are :

Nancy. Museum. Finding the body of Charles the

Versailles. Gallery. Charlemagne crossing the Alps.

Raising the Siege of Salerno.


ROGERS, GEORGE, amateur, painted landscapes
of some merit, and was an exhibitor at the Spring
Gardens Exhibition in 1761 and 1762. He married
a daughter of Jonathan Tyers, the proprietor of
Vauxhall, and settled in the Isle of Wight. He
died about 1786.

scape painter, born at Plymouth in 1794. His
works were chiefly inspired by Devonshire scenery,
and occasionally appeared at the Academy up to
1835. During his latter years he resided in Ger-
many, and died at Lichtenthal, near Baden-Baden,
in 1853. Amongst his works are :

Karlsruhe. Gallery. View of Plymouth Harbour.

View of Baden.

Saltram House. Two views of Saltram.

Strasbourg. Museum. Entrance to Plymouth Harbour.

ROGERS, WILLIAM, an English engraver, born
in London about the year 1545. It has not been
ascertained from whom he learned the art of
engraving, but he worked with the burin in a neat
though stiff style. He engraved a few portraits, and
several frontispieces, and other book ornaments.
He was one of the earliest English engravers to
practise the art as a profession. He usually
marked his plates with the cipher ~VV7)

We have the following prints by him :


Queen Elizabeth ; a small upright plate.

Henry IV. of France ; a whole length.

The Emperor Maximilian ; a whole length.

The Earl of Essex, Earl Marshal of England.

The Earl of Cumberland.

Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk.

Sir John Harrington ; the title to his ' Orlando Furioso.'

Thomas Moffat; a frontispiece to his 'Theatre of

John Gerarde, Surgeon ; frontispiece to his ' Herbal.'

ROGERSON, R., portrait painter, who lived in
the middle ' the 17th century. He painted a
room in the J-v. ?s Head Tavern, in London, in
1688 (Pepys).

ROGERY, ROGER DE, a French artist, who,
about 1570, painted a series of pictures at Fon-
tainebleau, from the legend of Hercules.



EOGHMAN, GEERTRUTDT, the daughter of Roe-
land Roghman, engraved after her father. Bartsch
has described Le Chateau de Zuylen, engraved by
her after her father's design, and there are also
by her a ' Massacre of the Innocents,' after
Tintoretto, and about twenty plates more of less

These names are signed to two or three engraved
portraits. The first appears on a portrait of M.
Barent Jansz, set. 53, 1627 H. L. Roghman
sculpsit the H. L. and R. forming a cipher ; the
second on a portrait of A. I. Roscius in an oval
P. H. Roghman, sculpsit. The latter signature
is also affixed to a print after Rubens, and to a
portrait of Erasmus.

painter and engraver, was born at Amsterdam in
1597. It is not known by whom he was instructed
in art, but he was a good painter of landscapes.
His pictures usually represent views in Holland,
and on the borders of Germany. They exhibit a
close attention to nature in the forms, but his colour
is dark and disagreeable. He has left several
landscape etchings. His landscapes have a strong
resemblance to those of Rembrandt, with whom
he was on terms of intimacy. He sometimes
painted distances to the figures of Lingelbach.
His drawings with the pen are very free and
spirited, and prove that he was an artist of much
talent. They are very numerous. The Rotterdam
Museum possesses a collection of twenty-five of
the best. His etchings, like his drawings, re-
present views of chateaux and ruined buildings.
Several of the plates have been re-bitten, and these
appear scratchy and crude. His prints are thirty-
nine in number ; six, published by Peter Nolpe
with the title of ' Views in the Wood at the Hague,"
are retouched and finished with the graver by
Nolpe himself. It is supposed that Roghman
died in the workhouse at Amsterdam about 1685.

GIEBO, a Flemish landscape painter, who flourished
from 1520 to about 1540, and is said to have
painted in the style of Joachim Patinir.

ROHDE, KARL, German painter ; born in 1840
at Coblentz. He was a pupil of Neher and Rustige
at the Stuttgart Art School ; in 1864 he settled at
Munich ; painted market-scenes and animals with
success. He died at Munich, August 23, 1891.

ROHDE, NIELS, Danish painter ; born at
Copenhagen in June 1816 ; at first studied with
his father and subsequently at the Art Academy ;
well known in Denmark as a landscape painter ;
died at Copenhagen, July 14, 1886.

ROKERZ, HENDRICK, an obscure Dutch engraver,
by whom we have a few portraits, very indifferently
executed ; among them that of

William Henry, Prince of Orange, on Horseback ; after
P. Janse.


ROLAN, FAMGDERBE, a Spanish painter, who
practised in the neighbourhood of Seville, and in
1653 painted a picture of the Virgin and St. Francis,
which was bought by the Tribunal of Indian
Commerce for 4533 maravedis.

ROLI, GIDSEPPE MARIA, (RoLLi,) born at Bo-
logna in 1654, was a scholar of Domenico Maria
Canuti. There are several of his frescoes in the
churches of his native city. We have also some
etchings by him after the principal Bolognese
painters, among which are the following :


Charity; after Lodovico Carracci.

A Sibyl ; after Lorenzo Pasinelli.

Lucretia in the act of stabbing herself; after Canuti.

The art of Drawing ; after Pasinelli.

His brother ANTONIO, born at Bologna in 1643,
is mentioned by Crespi as a decorative painter of
much merit, and the pupil and assistant of Angiol
Michel e Colonna. He died in 1696.

ROLLAND, AUGUSTS, painter, architectural
draughtsman, and modeller, born at Metz in 1797.
He had much versatility in his art, painting
landscape, genre pictures, and still-life. His
travels in Switzerland and the Pyrenees furnished
him with many subjects. He died in 1859. By

Metz. Musie, Cow-stable in the Pyrenees.

L'Etang de Bouligny.

,, Cows crossing a Stream.

French painter of fruit, flowers, still-life, and feigned
bas-reliefs, was born in Paris in 1724. Between the
years 1760 and 1789 he frequently exhibited at the
Salon. In 1763 he was received into the Academy.
He died in 1793.

ROLLE, KARL, German painter ; born August
15, 1814, at Reichenau-bei-Zittau ; studied at the
Dresden Academy with Rentsch and Arnold ; also
with Schnorr and Cornelius at the Munich
Academy ; in 1839 came under the influence of
Semper at Dresden, and subsequently visited
Paris. He decorated several rooms in Dresden
public buildings, also Scraper's Villa Rosa, the
Opera House (burnt down in 1869), and many
other buildings of beauty and grandeur. He died
June 18, 1862, at Reichenau.

ROLLER, JEAN, painter, born in Paris in 1798.
He began life as a piano-maker, but afterwards
set up as a portrait painter, and was also a sculp-
tor. He was a pupil of Gautherot. He died in
1866. Works :

Portrait of M. Coriolis (Academic des Sciences).
Portrait of M. Dumas, president of the Academie des

ROLLIN, J., a French painter of little note,

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