who painted at Avignon at the beginning of the
17th century, and whose works had some local
ROLLMANN, JULIUS, landscape painter, born
in 1827, was originally apprenticed to a decorative
painter at Diisseldorf, and at the same time worked
at the Academy. Thence he went to the Berlin
Academy. After travelling in the Bavarian moun-
tains he settled in Munich, but returned again to
Diisseldorf, and in 1858 he was in Italy. His
studies in Bavaria, the Tyrol, and Venice, displayed
great originality. In the National Gallery at
Berlin there is a ' Mountain Scenery, Bavaria,'
by him. He died at Diisseldorf in 1865.
ROLLO, - , a painter of whom nothing
is known, except that the name appears on an
' Ecce Homo,' in the manner of Guido. The sig-
nature is Rollo Gallois, F.
ROLLOS, PIETER, a German engraver, who
resided at Frankfort about the year 1620. He
engraved a frontispiece to a book of Emblems, by
G. de Montenay, published in that city in 1619.
He executed a few other book plates, in a very
indifferent style. He sometimes signed his prints
P. ROL. F.
ROLLS, CHARLES, draughtsman and engraver,
born 1800. He assisted the Findens in their
THE MADONNA AND CHILD WITH SAINTS AND ANGELS
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
'Gallery of British Art,' and also exhibited some
fruit and flower pieces at the British Institution
between 1855 and 1857.
ROMA, SPIRIDONK, an Italian portrait painter
and decorator, who practised in England in the
18th century. His works appeared at the Academy
from 1774 to 1778, and he painted a ceiling at the
old East India House. He died in 1787.
ROMAGNESI, JOSEPH ANTOINE, lithographer,
born in Paris, 1776. He is best known as a
sculptor, but also published various prints for
illustration, among which were a set for ' Les
Aventures de Sappho ' (1818). He died in 1852.
Two more artists of the same name and family
were at work at the same time.
ROMAIN, DE LA RUE, painted landscapes
in the manner of Jan Asselyn, Swaneveldt, and
Jan Both. No details of his life are known, but
excellent pictures by him occasionally appear, and
pass for the work of one or other of those masters.
ROMAIN, LE. See MIGNABD, PIETER.
ROMAKO, ANTON, Hungarian painter, born
October 20, 1834, at Atzgersdorp, near Vienna ;
studied at the Vienna Academy, and with Rahl ;
settled at Rome after a long period of study at
Munich and Venice. Among his works are: 'Louis
XV.,' Sevillanerin (1851), ' Pio Nono,' ' Ristori
as Phedre,' ' Romeo and Juliet,' &c. Obtained
medals in 1869 and 1872, and the Legion of
Honour in 1882. He died at Vienna, March 8,
ROMAN, BABTOLOME, a Spanish painter, born at
Madrid in 1596. He was first a scholar of Vin-
cenzio Carducci, but finished his education in the
school of Velazquez. He was an eminent painter
of history, and executed several considerable works
for the church of the Franciscans at Alcala de Los
Henares. In the sacristy of the Padres Cayetanos,
at Madrid, there are some pictures by him, which
his biographer, Palomino, compares to those of
Rubens. He died at Madrid in 1659.
ROMANELLI, GIOVANNI FRANCESCO, born at
Viterbo in 1610. Having shown an early inclina-
tion for art, his father sent him to Rome, where
he had the good fortune of being taken under
the protection of Cardinal Barberini, by whom
he was placed in the school of Pietro da Cortona.
His indefatigable application to his studies under
that master rendered him in a few years one
of the most promising young men in Rome ;
and he was left by his master to finish, during
his absence in Lombardy, some paintings he had
commenced in the Palazzo Barberini. On leaving
the school of P. da Cortona, he altered his style,
and adopted one distinguished by more elegance
but less vigour. He painted a 'Deposition from
the Cross,' for the church of S. Ambrogio, which
was so much applauded, that Pietro, alarmed for
his own reputation, painted a ' Stoning of Stephen,'
in which even Bernini admitted his superiority.
Romanelli painted for the church of St. Peter the
' Presentation in the Temple,' which has been exe-
cuted in mosaic, and the original placed at the
Certosa. On the death of Urban VIII., and the
succession of Innocent to the papal chair, Cardinal
Barberini left Rome for Paris, where he recom-
mended the talents of Romanelli to Mazarin.
Romanelli was engaged to decorate some apart-
ments in the Palais Mazarin and in the Louvre,
where he painted a series of subjects from the
' .5neid.' On his return to Rome he was employed
in several important works, and was preparing for
a second journey to France, when he died at
Viterbo in 1662. Works :
& M. deyli
iS 1 . Ambrogio.
Copy of Guido's ' Triumph of
Herodias with the head of John
A series of Classical Frescoes in
the Galerie Mazarine.
Venus and ^Eneas.
Venus and Adonis.
Israelites gathering Manna.
A series of Classical frescoes in
the Jlfusee des Antiques, the
Salles des Saisons, de la Paix,
de Septime Severe, and des An-
[ Presentation in the Temple.
S. Thomas of Villanuova.
Descent from the Cross.
Glory of S. Lorenzo.
ROMANELLI, UKBANO, the son of Giovanni
Francesco Romanelli, born at Viterbo about the
year 1645, was instructed by his father, after
whose death he became a disciple of Giro Ferri.
There are some of his works in the churches at
Velletri and Viterbo. He died young, in 1682.
ROMANET, ANTOINE Louis, a French engraver,
born in Paris in 1748. He was a pupil of J. G.
Wille, and afterwards resided at Basle, where he
engraved several plates under the direction of
Christian de Mechel. He was one of the engravers
employed on the plates in the ' Galerie du Palais
Royal,' the 'Galerie d'Orleans,' the 'Cabinet Le
Brun,' 'Picturesque Views in Switzerland,' and
other works of a like kind. He also engraved many
detached pieces after Italian, Dutch, and French
painters. He died in 1807. The best plates,
perhaps, are :
Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria ; after P. Battoni
Louis Francis de Bourbon, Prince of Conti after L
John Grimoux, Painter ; after a picture by himself.
The Death of Adonis ; after Kupetzky.
The Village Printseller ; after Seekatz.
The Ballad Singer ; after the same.
ROMANINO, GIROLAMO, was born about 1485
at Brescia, and is said to have first been the pupil
of Stefano Rizzi. His family came from the small
town of Romano, on the Serio, whence they took a
surname which was already two generations old
when it came to Girolamo. He was free of the
Bresciau Guild of Painters previous to 1510, in
which year he finished and signed a ' Pieta- ' for the
church of St. Lorenzo, which is now in Lord
Wimborne's collection. One of his earliest existing
altar-pieces is that of the church of S. Francesco,
at Brescia, representing the ' Virgin and Child be-
tween St. Francis and St. Anthony, and four kneel-
ing Saints,' which was probably finished before
1512. In that year Romanino went to Padua to
avoid the troubles in which Brescia was involved
by the wars between the Venetians and the
French. When at Padua, Roraanino found a home
with the Benedictine Monks of Santa Giustina,
and painted for them an altar-piece of the ' Virgin
and Child, attended by St. Benedict, St. Justina,
St. Monica, and St. Prosdocimo.' He also decor-
ated their refectory with a ' Last Supper,' and
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
finished an 'Enthroned Virgin and Child with
Saints.' All three pictures are now in the Gallery
at Padua. In 1517 he returned to Brescia,
having paid a short visit to Cremona, where on
his second visit in 1519-20 he painted four large
frescoes in the cathedral, representing ' Christ
before Pilate, 'the ' Scourging,' the ' Crowning with
Thorns,' and 'Christ delivered to the Jews. 1 On
his return, finding Moretto established in Brescia,
he entered into a friendly rivalry with that artist,
and in 1521 joined him in a contract to embellish
the chapel of the Corpus Christi in S. Giovanni ;
Roraanino's part being the frescoes representing
the ' Adoration of the Eucharist,' ' Two Evangelists,'
and the ' Prophets ' ; also two canvases with
the ' Resurrection of Lazarus,' and the ' Magdalen
anointing the Saviour's Feet.' His next work was
on the frescoes from scenes in the life of St.
Domenic for the convent of his order in Brescia ;
the decoration of the Town-hall with various
subjects ; and the frescoes in the church of S.
Salvatore. After this he painted a fresco in the
castle of Malpaga, representing Bartolommeo
Colleoni invested with the command of the Cru-
saders in the presence of the Pope and his
Cardinals. In 1534 he painted a series of frescoes
for the village church of the Madonna, near
Pisogne, which, although much injured, still shows
his great powers. His next undertaking was a
series of scenes from the life of the Madonna, in
fresco, at Vieno. This was followed by a series
from the life of a Saint for the church of St.
Antonio at Breno, which are now much defaced.
About 1540 Romanino, by the order of Cardinal
Madruzzo, painted several subjects taken from
sacred and profane history, in fresco, in the Cas-
tello of Trent, and, the same year, four scenes
from the life of St. George in the church of that
Saint at Verona. About 1541 he finished the organ
shutters of the Duomo in Brescia, representing
the Birth and the Visitation of the Virgin. His
last known work was a picture of ' Christ's Sermon
on the Mount,' painted for the Benedictines of
Modena in 1557. His death is believed to have
occurred in 1566. Many of the private collections
and churches in Brescia contain examples by this
master. Amongst those most worthy of note is
' The Communion of St. Apollonius,' in the church
of St. Maria Calchera, and a 'Nativity' and a
' Pieta ' in St. Guiseppe. Also :
Berlin. Gallery. Madonna with Saints and Angels.
Brescia. The Supper at Emmaus.
5I Magdalen in Simon's House.
Christ carrying His Cross.
Oanf ord. Lord Wim- \ ,
lorne. j A rieta>
London. If at. Gall. Nativity with Four Saints.
Vienna. Gallery. A Female Portrait.
ROMANO, GIULIO. See DEI GIANNUZZI.
ROMANO, IL. See CATALAN:, ANTONIO.
ROMANO, IL. See TBEVISANO, FRANCESCO.
ROMANO, VINCENZO. See ANIEMOLO.
ROMBERG, ARTHUR GEORGE. This clever
Austrian artist was born at Vienna in 1819, and
was educated at Munich, where afterwards he
became Professor of Painting. He studied for a
while also at the Academy of Dresden and under
Hiibner. Most of his notable works were executed
at Munich and at the Wartburg in the part where
Luther had lived, and were in the form of decor-
ative frescoes. He also painted many genre paint-
ings in oil, especially delighting in scenes of
merriment and frolic after the style of the old
Dutch masters, whose works he greatly admired.
Be was a correct draughtsman and a fine colourist.
He died in 1875.
ROMBORGH, , a painter of Nimeguen, who
was living at the commencement of the last
century. He studied landscape painting at Rome,
but chiefly in the works of the old masters. In his
style he resembled Frederic Moucheron.
ROMBOUTS, JAN, (or ROMBOUTS,) of the same
family with Salomon Rombouts. He painted in
Friesland about 1660, and is the author uf several
works attributed to Ruysdael and Hobbema. In the
Berlin Museum there is by him a ' Wooded Land-
scape' ; in the Stiidel Institute at Frankfurt, a 'Park ' ;
several works in the Brunswick Museum ; and in
the Dresden Gallery a picture of a ' Dutch Village.'
There is a woody landscape in the Amsterdam
Museum signed V. Rombouts. It is probable that
he is the artist mentioned in the Haarlem archives
under the name of Gilles (Jilles) Rombouts (1661-
1663). Some writers have denied his existence
altogether, holding that landscapes attributed to
him are by Salomon Rombouts, and that the
signature S. has been misread J.
ROMBOUTS, SALOMON, was a follower of Ruie-
dael. He painted principally landscapes and
marine views. In the Hamburg Gallery is a
winter landscape ; in the Leipzic Museum a sea-
shore at Scheveningen ; and at Schleissheim two
landscapes. The dates of his birth and death are
not recorded, but he died in Haarlem before 1702.
ROMBOUTS, THEODORE, born at Antwerp in
1597, was a scholar of Abraham Janssens, under
whom he studied until he was twenty years of age.
In 1617 he travelled to Italy, and it was not long
before his talents distinguished him as one of the
most promising young artists at Rome. His works
were sufficiently esteemed to secure him constant
occupation ; and after a residence of a few years
in the capital of art, he had arrived at sufficient
celebrity to be invited to visit Florence by the
Grand Duke, who employed him in some consider-
able works for the Ducal Palace. After an absence
of eight years he returned to Antwerp, whither
the reputation he had acquired in Italy had pre-
ceded him, and he painted some pictures for the
churches, which excited such general admiration
that his vanity led him to believe his abilities equal,
if not superior, to those of Rubens, who was at
that time in full possession of his powers. This
vanity incited him to more arduous exertions,
and his happiest productions were conceived and
executed under the feelings of emulation. Rombouts
possessed a ready invention, and an uncommon
facility of touch. He received the freedom of St.
Luke in 1625. On the 17th September, 1627, he
received a permit from the Burgomaster of Ant-
werp which allowed him to spend his wedding
night outside the city without losing his right as a
citizen, and he then married Anne, a member of
the noble family of Van Thielen. By her he had
one child, a daughter. Of his works, the most
remarkable are the following: 'The Descent
from the Cross,' in the cathedral at Ghent ; ' St.
Francis receiving the Stigmata,' and ' The Angel
appearing to Joseph in his Dream,' in the church
of the Recolets ; and ' Themis with the Attributes
of Justice,' in the Town-house. Rombouts died
at Antwerp the 14th September, 1637. The year
///< ixim/t IKI ///
JH //i i- /'!>', >',// </ 'jj. (' (fr,ti/ - '(///
1 1 ',///,;- ,./;,/ Ci'ckrctl f/ioii'] [National Portrait Gallery
THE ARTIST, BY HIMSELF
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
1640 has also been given, but that is a mistake.
He was interred in the Carmelite church.
ROMEGIALLO, GIOVANNI PIETEO, born at Mor-
begno, in the Valteline, in 1739, learned the rudi-
ments of art from G. F. Cotta, an obscure painter
of his native city, but afterwards went to Rome,
where he became the pupil of Agostino Masucci.
He was much occupied in copying the works of
Guercino, Guido, and P. da Cortona. His pictures
are in the collections at Como, and in the churches
of the Valteline.
ROMEO, DON JOSE, a Spanish painter, born at
Cervera, in the kingdom of Arragon, in 1701, went
to Italy when he was young, and studied at Rome
under Agostino Masucci. On his return to Spain
he resided for some time at Barcelona, where he
painted some pictures for the church of the Mer-
cenaries Calzados. He afterwards visited Madrid,
where he was taken into the service of Philip V.
He died at Madrid in 1772.
ROMERSWALE, VAN. See MARINDS.
ROMEYN, WILLEM VAN, (ROMUN,) a Dutch
painter of landscapes, with cattle and figures,
born at Haarlem in 1624, was a pupil of Berchem,
to whose pictures those of Romeyn bear a great
resemblance. They also show points of similarity
with those of Karel du Jardin and Adrian van de
Velde. They are generally small, well drawn and
composed, and harmonious in colour. His pictures
are in all the principal galleries of Europe, but are
frequently attributed to one or other of the above-
named masters. It may be added that some of his
landscapes have a slight resemblance to those of
Jan Both : it is probable that he had visited Italy.
He died at Haarlem in 1693. Works :
Amsterdam. Museum. Two landscapes with Cattle,
signed W. Romijn.
Two ditto, signed If. Romeijn.
One ditto, signed W. R.
Berlin. Museum. Italian Landscape ; W. Romijn.
Dresden. Gallery. Rocky Landscape ; W. Romeijn.
London. Dultcich Gal. Two Cattle pieces ; W. Romeijn.
ROMNEY, GEORGE, painter, was born at Walton-
le-Furness, Lancashire, on the 15th December (Old
Style = December 26, according to present reckon-
ing), 1734. He belonged to a respectable yeoman
family, whose original home had been near Appleby,
but the painter's grandfather had, during the
troubles of the Civil War, been obliged to move
further south. At Dalton he married at the age of
sixty, and had several children. His son John, a
cabinet-maker, married, in 1730, Anne Simpson, of
Sladebank in Cumberland, and had by her a
daughter and ten sons, of whom the second was
the artist. George Romney did not in his school
life show any special aptitude for anything, and
to the end of his life his spelling was, if possible,
one degree worse than his handwriting. He
worked with his father from about 1744 to 1751.
He soon developed a great fancy for mechanics,
and employed his leisure in carving small figures
in wood, and in the construction of experimental
violins, a passion for music leading him to this
last pursuit. Whilst in his father's shop he was
in the habit of making sketches of his fellow-
workmen, and he obtained a copy of Leonardo's
'Treatise on Painting,' which he read with deep
interest, making copies of the engravings, and
another book, ' Art's Masterpiece,' which contained
some practical hints on oil painting. Other sketches
and likenesses done at this time showed so much
talent that John Romney was persuaded to take
his son to Kendal, and to there apprentice him
(for four years, at a premium of 21) to an eccentric
painter, Christopher Steele, whose love of dress
and affectation of French manners and tastes
had gained for him the nickname of "Count"
Steele. Steele had studied in Paris under Vanloo,
was not without talent, but was idle and extrava-
gant. Romney's indenture is dated March 20,
1755. Steele neglected his pupil, employing him
as a mere studio drudge. Romney admitted, how-
ever, that he gained experience even under these
unfavourable conditions. Steele, finding that his
practice as a portrait painter was an insufficient
source of income, resolved to carry off a young
lady of fortune, whose affections he had gained,
and aided by Romney, he succeeded in marrying
her at Gretna Green. The excitement and anxiety
caused by this affair is said to have thrown Romney
into a fever, through which (according to tradition)
he was nursed by Mary Abbot, a good and attrac-
tive girl, who lived with a widowed mother and a
sister at Kendal. Between her and the painter an
attachment sprung up, and on his recovery he
married her, on the 14th October, 1756, Romney
being nearly twenty-two years old. His wife was
devoted to him, and at first even kept him supplied
with money, sending small sums concealed under
the seals of her letters while he was on his profes-
sional tours with Steele. In 1757 Romney, who
had grown weary of his apprenticeship, induced
Steele to cancel the articles, and as a set-off con-
sented to remit a debt of ten pounds, borrowed at
various times by his master. Romney's first work
on his own account was a sign for the post-office
at Kendal a hand holding a letter, which long
remained in the window. He practised at Kendal
for five years, making a living by portrait paint-
ing at very modest prices two guineas being his
usual charge for a half-length. The Westmoreland
people gave him commissions in plenty, and
among his productions of this period are the
portraits of Walter Strickland of Sizergh and
his wife, Charles Strickland, and others of the
family, many of which still hang on the walls at
Sizergh, Colonel Wilson of Abbothall, and Mor-
land of Cappelthwaite, besides a few original com-
positions ' Lear awakened by Cordelia,' ' Lear in
the Storm,' ' A Shandean Piece,' ' A Tooth drawn
by Candel-light,' ' A Landscape with figures,' &c.
Twenty of these he exhibited in the Town Hall at
Kendal, and disposed of them by a lottery, which
brought in the sum of 40.
As Romney's local fame increased his ambition
took a wider range, and he determined to try his
fortune in the capital, leaving his wife and two
children behind him. Roraney's so-called desertion
of his wife has for the past century called forth a
vast amount of cheap and foolish sentiment, cul-
minating in Tennyson's poem entitled ' Romney's
Remorse.' As a matter of fact there is nothing
whatever to show that Romney's wife was dis-
satisfied with her lot ; all her friends and relations
were at Kendal, and she probably had no desire
to go to London. Romney regularly remitted
very considerable sums to her, as his bank pass-
books prove ; his only son, John, was educated
at Cambridge, and for many years spent his
holidays with his father. The son was devoted
to his mother, and if the "neglect" was so
scandalous as is sometimes made out, John
A BIOGBAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
Romney would have shown some resentment ;
but neither his ' Memoirs ' of his father nor his
letters show any trace of this. The arrangement
was clearly a mutual affair. In 1762, on the 14th
March, Romney started for London. By rapid
and continuous work at portrait painting he had
raised a sum of nearly 100. Taking 30 for
his own expenses, and leaving the surplus to
his wife, he arrived in the capital, where he almost
immediately formed (or probably renewed) friend-
ships with Daniel Braithwaite of the post-office, a
native of the Kendal district, and Stephenson the
banker, whose wife was also a native of Kendal.
He established himself in a small studio in Dove
Court, near the Mansion House, whence he re-
moved in August to Bearbinder's Lane. The
moment was favourable, and there was much
truth in Fuseli's remark, that " Romney was made
for his times, and his times for him.'' In 1763 he
painted a ' Death of General Wolfe,' to which the
Society of Arts awarded him a prize of twenty-five
guineas. Tradition states that, departing from the
accepted convention of the day, Romney painted
his warriors in their actual costume, and the critics
fell foul of his work, contending that the event
represented was too recent to be strictly called a
" historical '' subject, and taking great exception
to the cocked hats, cross-belts, and bayonets of
what was contemptuously described as the " coat
and waistcoat style." Mortimer, the historical
painter, had also competed, with his ' Edward the
Confessor seizing the Treasure of his Mother,' and
the upshot of the controversy was the reversal of
the Society's decision, the award of the fifty pounds
to Mortimer, and of a gratuity of twenty-five
pounds to Romney. There is no proof of this,
any more than for the theory that this reversal
was chiefly due to the intervention of Reynolds.
However this may be, a coldness always existed
between the two artists. It was not until about
1775 that he divided the patronage of the fashion-
able world with his two great rivals, Reynolds and
Gainsborough. Lord Thurlow declared that the
whole town was divided into two the Romney
and the Reynolds factions, adding : " And I am
of the Romney faction." Such comment irritated
Reynolds, who, later in Romney's career, is said to
have habitually called him "the man in Cavendish
Square." In 1764 Romney paid a short visit to
France, where he met Joseph Vernet, and a year
later he won the first prize of the Society of Arts
with his ' Death of King Edward.' From 1763 to
1772 he exhibited twenty-five pictures at the Free
Society of Artists, and at the Society of Artists
in Spring Gardens, and never afterwards sent a
picture to a public Exhibition. It was not indeed
until 1817 that any work of his was publicly ex-
hibited, excepting at the artist's sales at Christie's
in 1804, 1807, and 1810. In 1773 he set out for
Rome in company with his friend Ozias Humphry,
the miniature painter, bearing a recommendation
to the Pope, who allowed him to erect scaffolds in
the Vatican in order to make copies from Raphael.
He stayed two years in Italy, and returned to
London on July 1, 1775. He took rooms in Gray's
Inn, and at the end of the year removed to 32,
Cavendish Square, left vacant by the death of
Cotes, and afterwards to be tenanted by Sir Martin