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Archer Shee. One of his first and most influential
patrons was the Duke of Richmond, and for the
next twenty years Romney may be described as

being overwhelmed with sitters. His income from
portrait painting alone sometimes amounted to
between three and four thousand a year. He
worked indefatigably, often sitting at his easel
for thirteen hours, and having five or six sitters a
day, a month's annual holiday, which he spent
with the egregious Hayley at Eartham, being his
only relaxation. Whilst in Cavendish Square he
painted over 2000 portraits and fancy pictures ; the
record of each sitting was most scrupulously kept
by Romney for twenty years, and further records
of prices paid are preserved in ledgers and cash-
books, which remained in the possession of the
Romney family until 1894, when they were pur-
chased at Christie's by Mr. T. Humphry Ward ;
upon these exhaustive data a new Life and Cata-
logue raisonntf by Mr. Ward and the writer of
these lines is announced for publication in 1904.
Early in 1782 Romney became acquainted with Lady
Hamilton, then calling herself Mrs. Harte. Both
Hayley and Romney were bewitched by her, the
one celebrating her charms in verse, the other in
paint. She was at the time living under the
" protection " of the Hon. C. F. Greville, and there
can be no question that she inspired Romney as
no other sitter did. His first portrait of her is
now absurdly known as ' Nature,' and is that in
which she is represented with a little spaniel
under her arm. The Rev. J. Romney in his
' Memoirs ' enumerates twenty-four pictures of
her in various characters, but the real number,
with a great variety of rapid sketches which
Romney at various times made, run into several
scores, although many of the so-called ' Lady
Hamiltons ' have no claim to that title. Some of
the rapid sketches are of great loveliness. The
friendship with this sitter lasted up to the close of
the artist's career, but the statement that " he
reduced the number of his sitters to devote more
time '" to her has no foundation in fact. He speaks
of her as "the divine lady," but after 1791 he
saw little or nothing of her.

In Boydell's ' Shakespeare Gallery ' Romney
warmly co-operated, claiming indeed the merit
of having originated the idea. Two of his best
historical efforts, the 'Infant Shakespeare' and
the 'Tempest' (in which Hayley sat for Prospero),
were contributions to the undertaking. In 1797
Romney removed from Cavendish Square to a
house he had built at Hampstead, in order to get
more room in which to carry out some conceptions
he had thus described in a letter to his son : " I
have made many grand designs ; I have formed
a system of original subjects, moral and my own,
and I think one of the grandest that has been
thought of but nobody knows it. Hence it is
my view to wrap myself in retirement and pursue
these plans, as I begin to feel I cannot bear
trouble of any kind." The last words point to
early symptoms of the mental disorder which was
to shadow the close of his career. Always hypo-
chondriacal, he began, soon after his removal to
Hampstead, to fail rapidly, both in mind and
body. He gave up painting, and in the summer
of 1799 he set out for Kendal. His wife tended
him till his death with the greatest devotion. He
did no more work, but made frequent excursions
in the neighbourhood, and purchased the estate of
Whitestock Hall, Ulverston, where his family
remained for nearly a century. He at last sank
into a state of mental paralysis, and died on the


Woodbury Co. photo ^

\_.\attonal Gallery







15th November, 1802, aged not quite sixty-eight
years. He was buried at Dalton.

Taken all round, Roinney may be ranked as the
third great artist of the Early English School, the
honours of the first and second places indisputably
belong to Reynolds and Gainsborough. Romney's
portraiture was of a more poetical type than
either of these two ; simplicity too was one of
his chief characteristics. In his greatest composi-
tions there is nothing of the " stagey " element of
Reynolds, nor of the showy dexterity of Gains-
borough as a draughtsman he ranks high among
his contemporaries, aud must for ever remain one
of the chief glories of English painting. Enjoy-
ing during his lifetime an almost unparalleled
popularity, for nearly three-quarters of a century
after his death his merits were almost universally
ignored. The Exhibitions at the British Institution
and at the Royal Academy winter shows quickly
rescued him from oblivion, and to-day his finer
works excite the keenest competition. His charges
were extremely moderate, being at the height
of his fame, 25 guineas for a portrait 30 in. by
25 in. ; 30 guineas for one 35 in. by 27 in. ; 50
guineas for one 50 in. by 40 in. ; and 80 guineas
for a whole-length, 93 in. by 57 in. The market
value of a good whole-length now varies from
10,000 guineas to 25,000 guineas. The Fitzwilliam
Museum, Cambridge, contains a series of forty-
seven pictorial designs and studies by Roinney,
presented by his son in 1817 ; these are described
at length in the son's ' Memoirs ' of his father
(pp. 257-266) ; whilst eighteen cartoons were

E resented by the same donor in 1823 to the Royal
nstitution at Liverpool. The National Gallery
contains seven examples of his work Lady Hamil-
ton as a Bacchante, and a sketch of the same sitter,
a work with the fancy name of ' The Parson's
Daughter,' a life-size group of Mr. and Mrs.
William Lindow (an early picture), Mrs. Mark
Currie (painted in 1789), a lady with a child,
and one of two versions of Lady Craven. The
National Portrait Gallery contains eight R.
Cumberland, Flaxman modelling the bust of \V.
Hayley, Lady Hamilton, James Harris, Thomas
Paine, the artist himself, the family of Adam
Walker, and an indifferent portrait catalogued
as William Cowper, to whom it bears no resem-
blance. The Print Room, British Museum, contains
a number of sketches and studies for pictures.
The engraved picture of ' Titania, Puck, and the
Changeling,' is in the National Gallery of Ireland,
whilst the portrait of Mrs. Ker of Blackshiels,
which for many years hung on loan in the National
Gallery of Scotland, was recently purchased by
Messrs. Agnew. The Wallace Collection contains
the beautiful portrait of Mrs. Robinson ('Perdita');
a whole-length of Sir John Stanley was acquired
for the Louvre, Paris, in 1897. At Christ Church
College, Oxford, there are portraits of Dr. Euseby
Cleaner, John Wesley, Archbishop Agar, Lord
Chief Baron -Macdonald, Viscount Stormont, and
Bishop Smallwell ; several are at Cambridge (see
T. D. Atkinson's ' Cambridge Described,' 1897),
and a number are at Eton College. Many of
Romney's more important pictures have been lent
to the various Old Master Exhibitions during the
last thirty years ; others have been seen at the New
Gallery, the Guildhall, London, and more especially
at the two Romney Exhibitions at the Grafton Gal-
lery, 1900-1901, and elsewhere in London, and in
the provinces. Sir Herbert Maxwell's excellent

little volume on Romney contains fairly exhaustive
lists of Romney's pictures and of his engraved
works. The following list contains some of the
more important examples in private hands. \y, R.

Acton, N. Lee, and his first and second wives. (Lady

de Saumarez.)

L'Allegro and II Penseroso. (Lord Bolton.)
Auspach, Margrave and Margravine (two whole-
lengths). (Fishmongers' Co.)
Bankes, Mrs. (Mr. W. R. Bankes.)
Beauchamp, Lady Mary. (Lord Burton.)
Bosauquet, Mrs., and Children. (Rev. G. Bosanquet.)
Broughton, Lady (whole-length). (Sir P. Grey


Carwardiue, Mrs., and Child. (Lord HiUinff<lnn.)
Cavendish Beutinck, Lady Ed. (Lord Hillim/don.)
Chaplin, Mr. and Mrs. (Mr. Hi/. Chaplin, M.P.)
Child, Mr. and Mrs. (Earl of Jersey.)
Clifden, Lady, and Lady E. Spencer. (Mr. Arthur


Clive, Hon. Charlotte. (Earl of Powis.)
Curwen, Mr. and Mrs. Christian. (Mr. H. T. Curwen.)
Davenport, Mrs. (Mr. W. Bromley-Davenport.)
Derby, Countess of. (Sir C. Tenn'ant.)
Dundas family portraits. (Sir J. Dundas.)
Fagniani, Mile. (Earl of Carlisle.)
Fortescue, the Sisters. '(Mr. J. B. Fortescue.)
Gordon, Duchess of, and Son. (Mr. A. n'ertheimer.)
Gower Children, the. (Duke of Sutherland.)
Hamilton, Emma, Lady, reading a newspaper. (Mr.

J. P. Moryan.)
as a Bacchante. (Mr. T.


as a Bacchante, leading a

goat. (Mr. T. Chamber-
layne, but lately sold.)
as Cassandra. (Mr. T.


as Comedy in Shakespeare,

nursed by Comedy and

Tragedy. (Mr. T.


engraved as Emma. (Mr.

A If red de Rothschild.)
M as Joan of Arc. (Mr. J. C.

as Nature. (Mr. Fawkes,

but now in Paris.)

as Sensibility. (Lord Bur-

as Ariadne. (Baron L. de

at the] Spinning-wheel. (Earl

of Normanton.)
as Circe. (Hon. H. C.


Hamilton, Lady Isabella. (Messrs. Agnew.)
Hardy, Admiral Sir C. (Greenwich Hospital.)
Humphry, Ozias. (Lord Sackville.)
Jordan, Mrs., in ' The Country Girl.' (Lord Roths-

Legge, Lady Charlotte. (Earl of Dartmouth.)
Lushington, Master. (Sir C. Tennant.)
Marlborough, Duke and Duchess of. (Duke of Marl-
borough. )

Milnes family portraits. (Earl of Crewe.)
Pitt, Miss. (Lord Burton.)
Peirse, Miss. (Mr. A. Davis.)
Ramus, the Misses. (Hon. W. F. Smith, M.P.)
Russell family portraits. (Sir Geo. Russell.)
Siddons, Mrs. (The late Judge Martineau.)
Smith, Mrs. Drummoud. (Marquis of Northampton.)
Sneyd, Miss, as Serena. (Mr. H. T. Curwen.)
Thurlow, Lord. (Duke of Sutherland.)
Towneley-Ward, Mrs. (Lord Aldenham.)
Trench, Mrs. (M. C. Sedelmeyer.)
Vernon, Miss, as the Seamstress. (Mr. Vernon-JTent-


Warwick, Countess of, and Children. (Earl of War-

Wilson, Sir John. (Corporation of Kendal.)
Wortley Montagu, Ed. (Earl of Warwick.)


ROMNEY, JOHN, an English engraver, born in
1786. He died at Chester in 1863. Specimens of
his work are to be found in:

Smirke's illustrations to Shakespeare.

The Ancient Marbles in the British Museum.

Views of Ancient Buildings in Chester. 1851.

Amongst his separate plates are :

The Orphan Ballad Singer ; after Gill.
Sunday Morning the Toilette ; after Farrier.

EOMNEY, PETER, an English portrait painter,
the brother of George Romney. He practised at
Ipswich and Cambridge. He fell into difficulties,
was imprisoned for debt in 1774, and died early.

ROMSTEDT, CHRISTIAN, an obscure German
engraver, who resided at Leipsic about the year
1670. He engraved a few portraits, which are
very indifferently executed. His plates are marked
with a cipher composed of a C. and an K. It
would seem that there were two engravers of this
name, probably father and son, and that they
worked between 1630 to 1720 ; the younger died in
1725. They not only engraved portraits, but some
plates after the pictures of A. Carracci in the
Farnese Palace.

ROMULO, DIEGO, painter, the eldest son of
an obscure painter named CINCINATO ROMDLO, was
born at Madrid, where he studied under his father,
and was much esteemed. He was favoured by Philip
IV., and was sent to Rome in the suite of the
Spanish ambassador. Here he painted the portrait
of Pope Urban VIII. with so much success that
the Pope conferred on him the title of Cavaliere of
the order of Christ of Portugal. He did not long
enjoy his honours, for he died at Rome a few days
after his investiture, in the year 1625, and was
buried in the church of San Lorenzo.

ROMULO, FRANCISCO, painter, the second son of
Cincinato Romulo, was born at Madrid, and studied
under his father. In consideration of his brother's
untimely death, Urban VIII. conferred on him the
title Diego had enjoyed for so brief a time, and he
accordingly went to Rome, where he practised with
some success until his death in 1635.

ANCE, born at Pomarance, in the diocese of Vol-
terra, in 1552, studied at Rome under Niccolo
Circignani, also called dalle Pomarance. He
was employed by Paul V. in the embellishment
of the Capella Clementina, where he represented
the ' Death of Ananias and Sapphira ' ; and in the
Basilica of S. John Lateran, he painted a large
picture of the ' Baptism of Constantine.' He exe-
cuted several other important works in the public
edifices at Rome. In the church of S. Giovanni
Decollate, is a fine picture by him, representing
the ' Visitation of the Virgin to St. Elisabeth ' ; and
in S. Andrea della Valle, an altar-piece, represent-
ing 'St. Michael discomfiting the Evil Spirits.'
One of his most satisfactory works is the Cupola
of La Santa Casa di Loreto, in which he was em-
ployed through the influence of Cardinal Crescenzi.
At Naples, in the church of San Filippo Neri,
there is one of his best productions, a ' Nativity.'
The pictures of Roncalli exhibit a mixture of
Roman with Tuscan characteristics. In his fres-
coes his colouring is cheerful and brilliant ; in his
oil pictures, on the contrary, his tints are subdued
to a generally quiet tone. He was fond of intro-
ducing landscape backgrounds, which he treated
well. He died at Rome in 1626.

RONCELLI, GIUSEPPE, painter, born at Bergamo

in 1677. He became known for his skill in paint-
ing nocturnal conflagrations, the figures in which
were added by Celesti. He died in 1729.

KONGO, MICHELE DI, a native of Milan, who
flourished in the latter part of the 14th century.
He painted in the Duomo of Bergamo between
1375 and 1377.

about the year 1505, was brought up in the school
of Correggio, whom he assisted in his great work
of the dome of S. Giovanni. In the church of St.
Mary Magdalene, at Parma, is a fine ' Virgin and
Infant Jesus,' which has been sometimes mistaken
for the work of Correggio. His talents were, how-
ever, confined to compositions of a few figures.
One of his most considerable works is a ' St.
Augustine and St. Jerome,' in the Eremitani.
Pungileone often mentions him in connection with
Allegri ; and at the death of the latter, Rondani
inherited the drawings and many of the cartoons
from which he had worked in the Cupola at Parma.
Lanzi says that he had seen one of his Madonnas,
in the possession of the Marquis Scarani, at
Bologna, Mary bearing a swallow in her hand, in
allusion to the painter's name. Rondani's known
works are rare. He died at Parma about the
year 1548.

flourished in France in the 16th century. In 1552
they were engaged on the decorations of the
palace of Fontainebleau.

RONDINELLO, NICCOLO, flourished at Ravenna
and Forli in the last quarter of the 15th century. He
is described by Vasari as one of Giovanni Bellini's
most industrious pupils. He spent his early years
at Venice, and produced pictures that are often
thought to be Bellini's own works. In the Doria
Gallery, Rome, is a ' Virgin and Child with St.
John the Baptist,' signed by Rondinello, that is
an exact counterpart of the same subject painted
and signed by Bellini in the same Gallery. The
identity is so great as to lead Crowe and Caval-
caselle to conjecture, that, while Rondinello
painted the whole of the picture which bears his
name, he also painted a great part of that signed
Bellini, the latter being content to finish his pupil's
work and sign it as his own. The Gallery of
Forli possesses a half-length 'Virgin and Child,'
painted by Rondinello after he left Venice ; a por-
trait of a young man in the same Gallery is now
also assigned to him. The Duomo of Forli has a
' S. Sebastian ' by him, in the style of Palmezzano,
whom he seems to have copied in his later years.
In the Brera, Milan, a ' St. John the Evangelist
censing a kneeling female figure wearing a crown,
with angels ministering on each side of the altar,
over which hangs a picture of the Virgin and
Child,' is rightly assigned to this artist. _ Many
of the churches in Ravenna contain paintings by
Rondinello. No dates are known of either his
birth or death, but he was still alive in the first
years of the 16th century. He usually signed
thus : Nicolaus Rondinelo.

RONDINOSI,ZACCARiA, a painter of the Floren-
tine school, working at Pisa between 1665 and
1680. He was mainly occupied with ornament,
and when he died in 1680 he was buried in the
Campo Santo by the Pisans, who there put up a
tablet to his memory.
RONJON, Louis AUGUSTS, a French historical
painter, born in Paris in 1809. He studied under


Dixon photo} [Dorchester Jlome



J. M. Langlois, and obtained a medal in 1834.
During his later years he gave up painting, and
devoted himself to teaching. He died in Paris in
1876. His best known pictures are :

The Assassination of the Duke of Guise.
An Incident in the Life of Kichelieu.

born at Rouen in 1786. He was a pupil of Vien
and of Taunay, and for many years was a frequent
and successful exhibitor at the Salon. He colla-
borated with Provost in his panoramas, notably
those of Rio Janeiro and Constantinople. He died
at Passy in 1854. Among his principal works we
may name : 'The Temple of the Sybil at Tivoli,'
'Henry IV. at the Siege of Paris,' 'A Camp of
Laplanders,' and a ' View of Constantinople."

RONOT, CHARLES, French painter; born at
Dijon in 1821 ; for many years occupied the post
of Director of the Art School at Dijon ; here he
died, January 18, 1895.

RONSE, PHILIPPE, a French artist of the 17th
century, who, in conjunction with Pauvert and
Vespre, painted in the cathedral of Chartres. He
died in 1645.


RONTBOUT, J , a Dutch landscape painter,

whose pictures at first view have a slight resem-
blance to those of Hobbema and Ruysdael. They
are generally of a small size, always on panel, and
represent wooded scenery. The figures are of the
same character as those in Hobbema's pictures
when painted by himself. They are signed with
the name in full, or with a monogram, somewhat in
the manner of Jakob Ruysdael, which has deceived
many into the belief that they are by that artist.

RONZELLI, FABIO, painter, probably the son of
Piero Ronzelli. He flourished at Bergamo shortly
after 1627, and is known by the ' Martyrdom of
San Alessandro,' which he painted for the church
of Santa Grata, at Bergamo.

RONZELLI, PlERO, practised at Bergamo about
1600, and became known as a skilful painter of

ROODE, THEODOR, (or DE ROODE,) painter and
engraver, born at Rotterdam in 1736. He travelled
through Belgium and Germany in 1756, and settled
for a time in Vienna, where he was appointed
painter in ordinary to the Archduke Charles of
Austria. He returned to Rotterdam in 1771, and
died in 1791.

ROOKER, EDWARD, an English draughtsman and
engraver, born in London about the year 1712,
was a pupil of Henry Roberts. He died in 1774.
He possessed an admirable talent for engraving
architectural views, of which he has given an
excellent example in his large plate of the Section
of St. Paul's Cathedral, from a drawing by Gwyn,
the figures by Wale. The plates in Sir W.
Chambers's ' Civil Architecture,' several of the
plates in Stuart's ' Athens,' and Adams' ' Dio-
cletian's Palace at Spalatro,' are by him. We have
also the following views :

Four Views in Italy ; after R. Wilson.

Six Views in London ; after P. Sandbif.

Twelve Views in England ; after the same.

ROOKER, MICHAEL ANGELO, the son of Edward
Rooker, born in London in 1743, was first instructed
by his father in engraving, but was after placed
under the tuition of Paul Sandby, to be in-
structed in drawing and landscape painting. In
1772 he painted and exhibited a view of Temple


Bar, which possessed considerable merit, and was
much admired. For several years he was the
principal scene painter to the " theatre in the Hay-
market. 1 ' As an engraver he acquired considerable
celebrity, and for many years engraved the head-
pieces to the Oxford Almanacks. They were exe-
cuted from his own drawings. Rooker was one of
the first Associates of the Royal Academy. About
1788 he began a series of autumn tours on foot,
and made many drawings from picturesque ruins
in Norfolk, Suffolk, Somerset, Warwick, and other
counties. He contributed some of the illustrations
to an edition of Sterne, published in 1772. He
died in London in 1801.

ROOM, HENRY, portrait painter, practised chiefly
at Birmingham, and enjoyed a reputation there.
He was residing at Pentonville in 1826, and ex-
hibited a portrait at the Academy, and in 1827-28
sent portraits from Birmingham for exhibition.
In 1830 he went to London, and continued to ex-
hibit his portraits, and, while practising there,
painted ' The Interview of Queen Adelaide with
the Madagascar Princes at Windsor,' and 'The
Caffre Chief's Examination before the House of
Commons' Committee.' Many of his portraits were
engraved for the 'Evangelical Magazine.' He did
not exhibit at the Academy between 1840-47, but
in 1848 sent his last work. He died August 27th,
1850, aged 48. A . B. C.

ROOS, CAJETAN, (GAETANO,) son of Philipp Peter
Roos (Rosa da Tivoli), was an animal and landscape
painter, and practised at Vienna towards the middle
of the 18th century.

ROOS, JACOB, a son of Philipp Peter, commonly
called Rosa da Napoli, was born at Tivoli in 1680,
and painted in Naples in the style of his father.

ROOS, JAN, a Dutch landscape and portrait
painter, born at Amsterdam towards the close of
the 18th century. After a sojourn at Dresden he
went to Italy, and was practising his art at Rome
about 1820.

ROOS, JAN, painter, born at Antwerp in 1591.
He was a pupil of Snyders, and went to study in
Italy in 1615. He was for some time at Rome, and
became famous for his painting of animals. It is
said that dogs were deceived by the hares he
painted. From his choice of subjects he has been
occasionally confounded with Philipp Peter Roos
(Rosa da Tivoli). He settled later at Genoa, where
his works enjoyed a high reputation. He there
became acquainted with his great countryman,
Vandyck, and was one of the artists who frequented
the salon of Sofonisba Anguisciola. The many
commissions which he received caused him to
work so unceasingly that his health gave way, and
he died at Genoa in 1638. In the church of SS.
Cosmus and Damianus at Genoa there is an
1 Entombment ' by him.

ROOS, JOHANN HEINRICH, painter and engraver,
was born in 1631, the son of a poor weaver, by
whom he was apprenticed to a painter of little note
at Amsterdam, named Julian du Jardin, for the
term of seven years. Under this master he made
little progress. At the end of his time he studied
under Adriaan de Bie ; and it was not long
before he discovered an extraordinary talent for
painting horses, cows, sheep, goats, &c. ; not only
surpassing his instructor, but becoming one of the
most celebrated animal painters of his time. He
frequently placed them in the most singular and
difficult attitudes, but always drew them with the
correctness of character for which he is reraark-



able. He was invited to the court of the Elector
Palatine, where he painted the portrait of that
prince, and those of his principal courtiers, for
which he was munificently rewarded. He was
employed at several other German courts, but
established himself at Frankfort in 1671, where he
painted his favourite subjects with great success.
His works were purchased with avidity, and he
received commissions from almost every court in
Europe. A catastrophe interrupted his career. In
1685 a great conflagration broke out in the night,
and the house of Roos was situated in the quarter
in which the flames raged with the greatest violence.
Anxious to save some valuable objects, he re-
entered his house, which was already burning
fiercely, and perished. He signed his pictures J.
H. Roos, the initials being welded into a monogram.
Works :

Berlin. Museum. Italian landscape with Cattle.

Dresden. Gallery. Cattle, Sheep, and Groats in a

Cattle and old Woman in a

Landscape with Sheep and

Munich. Gallery. Nine Landscapes, with Cattle.

J. H. Roos has left a series of excellent etchings ;
the following are the best :

A set of eight Plates of Animals ; dated 1665.
A set of twelve Plates of domestic Animals.
Two large Landscapes, with Ruins and Animals.
A Shepherd sleeping at the foot of a Monument, near

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