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his Flock.

ROOS, JOHANN MELCHIOB, the younger son of
Johann Heinrich Roos, was born at Frankfort in
1659. After being taught some time by his father
he travelled to Italy, where he studied a few years,
and on his return to Germany settled at Nurem-
berg, where he met with considerable encourage-
ment as a painter of history and portraits, but his
inclination leading him to paint landscapes and
animals in the style of his brother, in the latter
part of his life he devoted himself entirely to that
branch, in which, although he never reached the
excellence of Rosa da Tivoli, his pictures possessed
sufficient merit to win him the patronage of the
Landgrave of Hesse Cassel. He died in 1731.
Works :

Dresden. Gallery. Stags under an Oak. Signed

J. Jlf. lioos fecit 1714, the J
and M interwoven.

Hampton Court. Cattle at a Fountain.

There is only one etching known by this artist.
It represents a Bull standing, seen in front ; it is
inscribed J. M. Roos, fee. 1685.

ROOS, JOSEPH, the son of Cajetan Roos, was
born at Vienna in 1728. He painted landscapes
and cattle with considerable success, and was
much employed by the Elector of Saxony. He
was a member of the Dresden Academy, and was
afterwards keeper of the Imperial Gallery at Vienna.
His principal works are at Schoenbrun. We may
also name :

Dresden. Gallery. Landscape with Sheep and

Shepherd. Signed Joseph
Koosf. 1765.

We have a few etchings by this artist, among
them the following :

A set of six Plates of various Animals ; inscribed Joseph

Boos, inv. et fecit, aquaforti. 1754.
Ten Plates of Sheep and Goats.


MERCURIUS, was the son of Johann Heinrich Roos,
and was born at Frankfort in 1657. Endowed
with genius by nature, and assisted by his excellent
father, he gave early proofs of capacity, and was
noticed by the Landgrave of Hesse, in whose
service his father at that time was. He took him
under his protection, and to promote his improve-
ment sent him to Italy, with an allowance sufficient
for his support. On his arrival at Rome his appli-
cation was so exemplary that he was regarded as
the most laborious young artist of his time. He
designed every object from nature, and to facilitate
this practice established himself at Tivoli, where
he kept a kind of menagerie, for the purpose of
drawing animals with the greater correctness. His
pictures are painted with equal vigour and pre-
cision. His colour, though it has darkened much
with time, is good. It is in inability to compose
that he betrays his chief defect as an artist. As a
man, he was given up to dissipation. Rosa da
Tivoli died at Rome in 1705. His few etchings
of pastoral subjects are very scarce. Works :

Dresden. Gallery. Seven landscapes with Cattle.

Noah surrounded by the


Florence. Uffi:i. Cattle on the Roman Campagna.

Cattle at Pasture.

Paris. Louvre. Wolf devouring a Sheep.

Vienna. LiechtensteinCol. Sheep and Shepherd.

ROOS, THEODOR, the younger brother of Johann
Heinrich Roos, born at Wezel in 1638. He was
first a scholar of Adriaan de Bie, but afterwards
was instructed by his brother. In 1659 he was
invited to the court of Mannheim, where he was
taken into the service of the Elector. His first
performance was a group of portraits of the
principal magistrates, still preserved in the council
chamber. He afterwards visited with success
several other courts of Germany. The Duke of
Wiirtemburg employed him in several historical
works, and appointed him his principal painter.
He was present in Strasburg when it was taken in
1681 by the French, by whom he was treated with
great courtesy. The pictures of this Roos are
chiefly confined to Germany. His touch is firm
and facile, his drawing weak, his colouring vigor-
ous and clear. Theodor Roos has left a set of six
etchings, small upright landscapes, with ruins,
dated 1667. He died in 1698.



painter, born at Mechlin. He was a pupil of
Gaspard Poussin, and practised in Italy in the 17th

at Hoorn about 1615, was a disciple of Pieter
Lastman, under whose instruction he became
eminent as a portrait painter. Some of his pic-
tures in the hall of the Archer's Guild, in his
native town, prove him to have been an artist of
considerable ability. They consist of three large
groups of portraits of the members. Rootius
died in 1674. In the Amsterdam Museum there
are by him :

Portrait of Vice-Admiral Jan Corn. Meppel, signed

J. A. Bootius, 1661.
Portrait of a Child. Same signature, and the date 1652.

ROOTIUS, JAKOB, (or ROOTSEUS,) a younger
brother of Jan Rootius, born in 1619, was a


scholar of J. D. de Heem, and painted in his
manner ; and, it is said, approached him closely in
excellence, fie died in 1681.

ROPER, , an English artist mentioned by

Edwards as a painter of sporting pieces, race-
horses, dogs, and dead game. Some of his pictures
were in the exhibitions in Spring Gardens in 1761
and 1762, dates he did not long survive.

ROPS, F^LICIEN, French painter and etcher ;
born July 10, 1833, at Namur ; was of Hungarian
extraction ; educated at Brussels ; inherited a
considerable fortune which he soon squandered,
and was then obliged to choose art as a means of
livelihood ; he was self-taught ; began with cynical
caricatures and lithographs published in ' Uglen-
spiegel,' a politico-satirical journal ; his draughts-
manship was marvellously accurate ; many of his
subjects were frankly and offensively pornographic,
displaying biting cynicism and brilliant technique.
He died at Essonnes, August 23, 1898.

ROCOPLAN,) a French genre, landscape, and marine
painter, born at Mallemart (Bouches-du-Rhone)
in 1800. He entered the Ecole des Beaux Arts in
1818, and studied under Gros and Abel de Pujol.
Notwithstanding this training amongst the " classic-
ists " he won fame as a " romanticist," and gained
great reputation by his works founded on subjects
from Sir Walter Scott. In his latter years he
suffered much from illness. He died in Paris in
1855. The following is a list of his more important
works :

Bordeaux. Museum. Valentine and Raoul.

Chartres. Child playing with Cat.

Grenoble. Coast View.

Havre. Sea Piece.

Leipsic. The Harbour of Boulogne.

Lille. Death of the Spy, Morris (' Bob

Ry ')
Paris. Louvre. View on the Coast of Normandy.


Versailles. Gallery. Battle of Elchingeu. 1837.
Battle of Eocoux.

Portrait of the Mar&hal, Marquis

de Chastellux.

ROQUES, GUILLAUME, or JOSEPH, painter, born
at Toulouse on the 1st October, 1754, was the son
of a respectable workman of that city, and showed
such an early inclination for art, that at eleven
years old he entered the Ecole des Beaux Arts of
Toulouse, then directed by Rivalz. His talent and
industry enabled him to distinguish himself in all
competitions, and a youthful picture of ' Amyntas '
was pronounced to be a work of precocious promise.
The young painter ardently wished to visit Italy,
and, provided with a little store of money which
his mother had saved, he set out for Rome when
about 22 years old. Here ne was kindly received
by Vien and David, and formed a friendship with
the latter, who assisted him in many ways. His
Italian studies proved of great service, and on his
return to his native place he was overwhelmed
with commissions. Among his pupils was Ingres,
in whose development he took a special interest,
and with whom he always remained on terms of
affectionate intimacy. After the Revolution Roques
was appointed director of the Art School at Mont-
pellier, but his affection for his native town
induced him to resign his post for a Professor-
ship at the Ecole des Beaux Arts at Toulouse,
and there he remained until his death in 1847,
at the age of 91. His best known works are the
following :


Portrait of his Mother. (Toulouse Museum.)
The Tomb of Amyntas. (Toulouse Museum.)
The Communion of the Duke of Angouleme. (Toulouse

Shepherds of the Valley of Campan. (Toulouse


Marat in the Bath.
The Death of Lucretia.
Cupid and Psyche. (A lamplight effect.)

painter, born at Drammen in Norway, in 1803,
entered the Academy at Copenhagen in 1819, and
learned drawing under Eckersberg. From 1834
to 1837 he was travelling through Italy, Greece,
and Turkey. On his return home he received the
Thorwaldsen medal for his picture of a 'Turkish
Notary settling the Marriage Articles,' and then,
with his ' Life in the East,' he won the Fellowship
of the Academy. In 1839 he went to Italy, where
he painted his 'Market in Amain.' He died in
Copenhagen in 1848. The Copenhagen Gallery
possesses the following pictures by him :

Chapel of St. Benedict at Subiaco.

Oriental Chess-players.

A Holiday at Cape Skagen.

Arcade of the Town-hall of Copenhagen.





ROSA, CRISTOFORO, born at Brescia about the
year 1520, excelled in painting perspectives,
and lived in habits of intimacy with Titian, by
whom he was occasionally employed to paint the
architecture in some of his pictures. There are
several of his works at Brescia and at Venice,
particularly in the antechamber to the library of
St. Mark, in the latter city. He died of the plague
in 1576.

ROSA, FRANCESCO DI, called PACICCO, painter,
born at Naples about the year 1600, was brought
up in the school of Massimo Stanzioni. His easel
pictures are frequently found in private collections
at Naples, and he painted some altar-pieces for the
churches, of which the best, perhaps, are his St.
Thomas Aquinas, in the Sanita; and the Baptism
of S. Candida, in S. Pietro d'Aram. He died at
Naples in 1654.

ROSA, PIETRO, son of Cristoforo Rosa, was born
about 1550. From the friendship that existed
between his father and Titian, he was received
into the school of that great painter, of whom he
became a favoured disciple. His best works are
in the cathedral and the churches of S. Francesco
and le Grazie at Brescia. This promising young
artist died of the plague, in the same year with
his father and his master, Titian.

ROSA, SALVATORE, born at Renella near Naples,
in 1615, was the son of Vito Antonio (an archi-
tect and land surveyor) and Giulia Grecca Rosa.
His parents intended him for the Church ; with
that view he was sent to the College of the Con-
gregazione Somasca at Naples. His impetuous
character and temperament seem to have brought
him into great trouble, and he left before his
education was completed. He returned home, and
as his sister meanwhile had been married to Fran-
cesco Francanzani, an artist of the Spagnoletto
school, the lad was often found in the work-room
of his brother-in-law. There he first displayed his
talent, and encouraged by Francesco, he was



enabled to earn enough to procure himself clothes
and sustenance. Impatient, however, of restraint,
in his eighteenth year he left Naples, and after
wandering about he joined himself to a body of
banditti, who infested the Abruzzi ; to this sojourn
may be traced many of those robber pictures
which so especially distinguish this artist. Under
what circumstances Salvator returned to Naples is
unknown, but it is certain that he did so during
the residence of Lanfranco in that city. A few
days after his return his father died, bequeathing
to the care of his son a poverty-stricken family.
Oppressed by want and privation, he used to expose
his pictures for sale in the street, till one day
Lanfranco happening to be attracted by a ' Hagar '
thus exposed for sale, purchased it. It is asserted
by some that Lanfranco sought Salvator's acquaint-
ance, and assisted him, though the fact' of his
continued poverty seems to be in strong disproof
of this idea. But the bare circumstance of being
brought into notice, though it exposed him to
much envy and hatred from less favoured rivals,
acted as a spur on his drooping spirits, and was
the means also of gaining for him the friendship
of Aniello Falcone, one of the best pupils of
Spagnoletto, who may be looked upon as the
first painter of battles. In 1634 poverty made
him resolve to leave Naples and visit Rome. There
he maintained himself by his sketches for some
time, but under the influence of malaria his mental
energy gave way, and he returned to Naples, de-
prived of hope and strength. Soon after his
return, however, he agreed to accompany his
fellow-student Girolamo Mercuri, who had been
appointed Chamberlain to Cardinal Brancaccia,
back to Rome. This led to his being commis-
sioned to paint the portico and loggia of the
Cardinal's palace at Viterbo, and also an altar-
piece for the Chiesa della Morte, in the same
city. After a year's residence in the Episcopal
Palace of Viterbo, Salvator returned to Naples,
from whence he sent to Rome his great picture,
' Prometheus,' which gained him such reputation
as to induce him to return there. Belonging,
however, to no school, he was unable to win for
himself the footing he wished, till the Carnival
of 1639, when, flinging aside his palette, he came
forth as a poet, singer, and actor, and found all
Rome at his feet. After this outburst he applied
himself with increasing success to painting. From
1639 to 1647 he produced numbers of gloomy
forests, rocky defiles, and storms at sea, as well
as subject pictures and a few altar-pieces for the
churches of Lombard} 1 . In 1647, hearing of the
approaching revolution in Naples, he shut up his
house in Rome, and hastening to his native city,
joined himself to Masaniello, together with his old
friend Aniello Falcone and his pupils. After the
death of Masaniello, Falcone fled to France, where
he spent the rest of his life, and Salvator returned
to Rome, where he painted his ' La Fortuna ' and
' L'Umana Fragilita,' for which he was threatened
by the Inquisition, to escape which he fled in the
train of Prince Giovanni Carlo de' Medici to
Florence, where he was received in triumph.
While at Florence he formed a great friendship
with Lorenzo Lippi, himself a poet and painter,
whom he assisted in his pictures. After a re-
sidence of five years in the Tuscan capital, he left
it in 1652 to return to Rome, where he established
himself in a house on the Monte Pincio. During
this period he painted his ' Jonas preaching at

Nineveh,' for the King of Denmark, and was chosen
to paint a picture as an offering from the Court of
Rome to King Louis XIV. of France, which resulted
in the battle-piece now in the Louvre. In 1661,
on the occasion of the marriage of the Heir
Apparent of Tuscany to Marguerite d'Orleans, he
again visited Florence, but soon returned to Rome,
where, in 1668, he alone of living artists was
allowed to exhibit his pictures, and the works
then shown were his ' Triumph of St. George,'
and ' Saul and the Witch of Endor.' His last work
of any importance was a ' S. Turpin,' finished in
1670, after which his faculties began to fail, and
in 1673 he died at Rome. His principal pictures

Dublin. Nat. Gallery.
Dulwich. Gallery.

Diisseldorf. Gallery.
Edinburgh. Nat. Gall.

Florence. Gallery.


Genoa. Cataneo Palace.

Glasgow: Gallery.
London. Nat. Gall.



Ch. San Martina.
Paris. Louvre.

Peiersbaig. Hermitage.

Rome. Pal. Colonna.


t v>




Baptism of Christ (?).

Soldiers Gaming (study for the

Hermitage picture).
Pool with Monks Fishing.
The Entombment.
Rocky Landscape.
Two Studies of Men in Armour.

(Also etched by Salvator.)
Landscape, with Figures and

The Leucadiau Leap.
Wood Scenery.
Portrait of Himself.
Two Sea- Views.

Temptation of S. Anthony.

Jonah at Nineveh.
Hagar in the Desert.
The Catiline Conspiracy.
Fall of the Giants.
Christ clearing the Temple.
Jeremiah restored to Liberty.

Landscape, with Waterfall.
A Landscape with the fable of

Mercury and the Woodman.
Forest Scene, with Tobias and

the Angel.
River Scene.
Landscape with Figures.

t A Holy Family.

Jacob attending his Flock.
The Soothsayers.

Brera. Purgatory.

St. Nicolas of Bari.

Saul and the Witch of Endor.

Large Battle-piece.

The Prodigal Son.

Nausicaa and Ulysses.

Democritus and Protagoras.

Soldiers Gaming.

Three Portraits.

Four Landscapes.

St. John Preaching.

St. John in the Desert.

Two Landscapes.


St. Jerome in the Desert.

Four Landscapes.


Salvator was a free and excellent etcher ; he has
left 40 plates, of which the following are perhaps
the best:

St. William, the Hermit.
Plato, and his Scholars.









Battle of Tritons.
Soldier sitting on a Hill.

ROSA, SIGISMONDO, an Italian painter of the
18th century, and a pupil of Giuseppe Chiari. He
practised in Rome, but never attained to much
excellence in his art.


ROSA, STEFANO, painter, a native of Brescia,
the brother of Cristoforo Rosa, with whom he was
associated in decorative and architectural painting.
He also painted portraits and historical subjects.
He was working at Brescia about 1570.


ROSALES, EDUARDO, painter, born at Madrid in
1837. He studied at the Academy of Madrid under
Ferrant and Madrazo, and completed his education
at Rome, where the works of the old masters
exercised a strong influence on his art. Returning
to Spain he worked for a time in Murcia, occupying
himself principally with subjects from Arab life.
His first exhibited work of importance was the
' Isabella dictating her Will,' for which he gained
honours at the Paris Exposition of 1867. He was
appointed Director of the Spanish Academy at
Rome, and died there on the 13th September,
1873. Among his pictures we may also name:

St. Joseph. (In the church at Vergara.)
Don John of Austria at S. Yuste.
King Amadeo's entry into Madrid.
Death of Lucretia.
Portrait of Don Garcia Aznar.

The two Evangelists, St. John and St Matthew. (For
the church of S. Tomas at Madrid.)

ROSALIBA, ANTONELLO, a painter of Messina,
who flourished in the first years of the 16th cen-
tury. He was one of the latest artists of the
insular school, before it became fused in that of
Italy. His works have now disappeared from his
native island. A ' Virgin and Child,' painted for
the village church of Postunina, was one of the
last to remain in Sicily.

ROSASPINA, FRANCESCO, engraver, born at
Rimini in 1762, was a pupil of Bartolozzi, and at
first worked in the dot manner. Afterwards, how-
ever, he produced plates in line and aquatint, and
made drawings in sepia. He was a member of
the National Institute, and a professor of the
Bologna Academy. He died in that city in 1841.
Among his best plates we may name :

Dance of Cupids ; after Albano.
Cupid bending his Bow ; after Franceschini.
St. Francis of Assisi ; after Domenichino.
Dead Christ ; after Comggio.
Love ; after Guercino.
Mary Magdalen ; after Cagnacci.
A series of Napoleonic Battles ; after Appiani.
A series of twenty-five plates in the chalk manner ',
after Parmiyiam.

He also superintended the engraving and pub-
lication of the work entitled ' La Pinacoteca,' con-
sisting of about seventy-two of the best paintings
in the Academy of the Fine Arts at Bologna. He
signed his plates sometimes with his full name,
sometimes with his initials separately, and some-
times with a monogram.



ROSE, SUSAN PENELOPE, miniature painter, was
the daughter of Richard Gibson, the Dwarf, by i
whom she was probably instructed in the rudiments
of her art She was the wife of a jeweller, and

painted portraits in water-colours with great
freedom. Her miniatures were of a larger size
than usual, and possessed considerable merit. She
died in 1700.

ROSE, WILLIAM, landscape painter, was born in
1810. He exhibited frequently at the Royal
Academy, and with the Society of British Artists,
views taken from the rural scenes of the Home
Counties, such as ' Kentish Heath Scene,' ' Clover
Time,' ' Ashdown Forest,' &c. He died at Eden-
bridge in 1873.

and engraver, born at Augustenberg in Arnstadt,
in 1705, was a pupil and cousin of the fresco and
animal painter, Wilhelm Rb'sel, and studied in the
Academy at Nuremberg. At first he devoted him-
self to architectural painting, but afterwards to
natural history, especially insects. He died at
Nuremberg in 1759.

LIUS, ROOSHOFF,) an animal painter of Nuremberg,
who lived in the 17th, century. In the Munich
Pinakothek is a picture of a ' Wolf Devouring a
Lamb,' which formed the subject of a contest
between Rosel and Paudiss, in which the former
was victorious, while the latter, if we may believe
Descamps, died of grief at having lost. In the
Augsburg Gallery there are a ' Fox devouring a
Hen,' and ; A Cock,' by him.

ROSELLI, MATTED, (RossELLi,) born at Florence
in 1578, was first a pupil of Gregorio Pagani, and
afterwards of Passignano, with whom he visited
Rome, and improved his style by studying the
works of Raphael and Polidoro da Caravaggio.
On finishing his studies at Rome he returned to
Florence, where he resided for the remainder of his
life, and his works are little known out of that
city. He was much employed by the Grand Duke
Cosimo II., and embellished the Poggio Imperiale
with several frescoes, representing the history of
the Medici family. He sometimes emulated the
style of Lodovico Cardi, called Cigoli, as particularly
appears in his picture of the 'Nativity,' in the
church of S. Gaetano, which is considered his finest
work, and in the ' Martyrdom of S. Andrea,' at the
Ognissanti. Roselli excelled in fresco painting, in
which his works still retain their pristine purity
and freshness. Roselli founded a school, in which
Manozzi, Volterrano the younger, and others were
scholars. He died in 1651.

Florence. SS. Annun-~( Pope Alexander VI. approving

ziata. $ the Statutes of the Servites.
Ognissanti. Martyrdom of S. Andrew.
S. Gaetano. The Nativity.

Pitti. The Triumph of David.
Uffizi. His own Portrait.
Academy. Adoration of the Magi.

Allegorical history of the Medici.

ROSELLI, NICCOLO, of Ferrara, flourished about the
year 1568. He is supposed to have been brought
up in the school of the Dossi ; though in some of
his works in the Ferrara Certosa he appears to
have imitated the style of Benvenuto Garofalo.
He painted several pictures for the churches in his
native city, among which are an altar-piece in the
cathedral, representing the 'Virgin and Infant in
the clouds, beneath, St. John the Evangelist and St.
Anthony ; ' and a ' Purification,' in the church of
S. Maria Bianca.

ROSEMALE, , a Dutch painter of the 17th

century, who painted views of towns and interiors



in the manner of Emanuel de Witte. The town of
Utrecht possesses a picture by him, representing
the churcli of St. Peter of that place in ruins, after
the hurricane of 1674.

ROSENBERG, FRIEDRICH, an obscure painter
and engraver, born at Dantzic in 1758. He lived
for some time in Switzerland and in Holland, and
finally settled at Altona. He died after 1830.

ROSENBERG, GEORGE F., a water-colour painter,
was born in 1825. He practised at Bath, and from
1849, in which year he was elected an Associate of
the Old Water-Colour Society, exhibited landscapes,
chiefly mountain scenery from Scotland and Norway,
painted with much ability. He died at Bath in

ROSENBERG, JOHANN GEORG, a painter, born at
Berlin in 1739, was a cousin of Johann Karl Wil-
helru Rosenberg. He was principally employed on
theatrical scenery, though he also painted portraits
and views of Berlin.

and engraver, born at Berlin in 1737, was mainly
a scene painter. But he engraved a few plates,
among them a Head after the style of Rembrandt.
He died in 1809.


ROSENDAAL, NICHOLAS, painter, born at Enk-
huizen, in Holland, in 1636. He accompanied
Jakob Torenvliet to Rome in 1670, and died in

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