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on the 18th July, 1813, at Breslau. He began his
art studies in 1832 as a pupil of Hensel, at the
Berlin Academy, of which he subsequently became
a member. In 1845 he was appointed Director of
the Art School at Konigsberg, and held that post
until his retirement upon a pension in 1874. A
visit to Italy occupied him in 1851-1852, and in
1865 he was engaged in painting the hall of the
Konigsberg University with pictures having refer-
ence to the Faculties. After his retirement he
continued to live at Kongisberg, and died there
in 1881. Among his works we may mention:
Arrest of Philip of Hesse by order of Alva.
Rienzi's Imprisonment at Avignon.
The Electress of Brandenburg receiving the Sacrament
according to Protestant rites.

Occupation of the Marienburg by the Mercenaries of

the Teutonic Knights in 1457.
Charles I. taking leave of his Children.
Mourners praying at the Bier of Henry IV. (Cologne

ROSENHAGEN, NICOLAAS, a Dutch still-life
painter of the 17th century, who worked in the
style of J. De Heem. The details of his life are
unknown. In the Hague Museum there is a picture
of fruit by him.

three brothers, natives of Nuremberg, who
nourished at the beginning of the 16th century,
and established themselves at Schwaz, in the
Tyrol. KASPAR was an architect and wood-
engraver, and is known by two extant wood-cuts,
' Legend des heiligen Vatters Francisci ' (Legend
of St. Francis), and ' Leben unseres erledigers Jesu
Christi ' (Life of our Redeemer). He built the
church and cloister of the Franciscans at Schwaz,
and his brothers decorated the walls with paintings
representing scenes from the Passion. Kaspar
died in 1514.

ROSER, EDME M. B., (or ROESER,) born at
Heidelberg about 1737. He was a pupil of
Loutherbourg, and in 1765 settled in


where he gained a reputation as a skilful restorer
and copyist. He restored several of the pictures
in the Louvre. He died in 1804.


ROSETTI, DOMENICO, born at Venice in the last
half of the 17th century, painted architectural per-
spectives with some success, but is chiefly known
as an engraver. He was invited by the Elector
Palatine to Diisseldorf, where he engraved twelve
large plates of scenes from the history of Alex-
ander, after Gerard Lairesse, which are now very
scarce, as few impressions were taken. He exe-
cuted several plates for the collection of prints
after some of the most celebrated pictures at
Venice, published in that city by Domenico Louisa
in 1720. He engraved the prints for a ' History of
the Bible,' printed at Venice in 1696 ; and several
single plates after Palma Vecchio, the Bassani,
Tintoretto, P. Liberi, and others. Zani says he
was at work as early as 1675. The year of his
death is not known.

ROSEX, NICOLA, (or NICOLETTO,) called also
NICOLETTO DA MODENA, an Italian engraver and
goldsmith of the 16th century, was born in Modena.
Two only of his works are dated ; these bear the
years 1500 and 1512 upon them. At various stages
his style changed from the imitation of Mantegna
to that of Schongauer, Albrecht Diirer, and finally
Marc-Antonio. His execution was rude, and his
plates vary greatly in appearance and merit.
Those which may be given to him with confid-
ence are between seventy and eighty in number,
a total which would be greatly increased if we
accepted the early prints ascribed to him by
Bartsch. His most frequent monograms were

the two here given, Jff' or J$jt'> Dut ne
marked his plates in a great variety of ways,
seldom, however, omitting to sign them altogether.
His better plates, perhaps, are the following :

The Adoration of the Shepherds, with his name.

St. Sebastian, marked Ificcolleto, on a tablet.

Another St. Sebastian ; inscribed Ora pro nobii Sanctt


St. Jerome Heading ; with the monogram.
St. George, with his name.
St. Martin ; inscribed Diva Marti ; with his name on a

A Triton embracing a Syren ; marked N. M. on a


A whole-length Figure of Christ standing on a pave-
ment of square stones, &c. Monogram.
St. Sebastian, his arms tied over his head to a column,

pierced with six arrows. Name at full length on a

St. Sebastian, his arms tied over his head to a column,

and is pierced with three arrows. Monogram.
St. George in complete armour, standing in the centre

of the print. Name at full length on the frieze of a

triumphal arch. (British Museum.)
St. Catherine standing, holding a palm branch in her

left hand, &c. Name at full length on the base of a

pillar on the right.
Mars in Armour, standing in the middle of the print,

companion to the St. George. Name on a tablet

hung to a tree on the left.
Three Children ; one kneeling in the centre, one on

the left raising his left hand, and one on the right

raising his right hand. Name at full length on a

A Female wearing a Helmet, &c., pouring incense on

an Altar. No mark.
Perseus and Pegasus. Perseus holding the bridle of

the horse with both hands.

The Nativity, in a richly decorated ruined Stable.
| St. Cecilia standing.


Christ crowned with Thorns; beneath, a Bishop and a

King, with their attendants, kneeling.
St. Jerome in Penitence.

Group of Four Women. Copy from Albrecht Direr.
Hercules and the Cretan Bull.
Two whole-length Figures on one plate.
Two winged Boys supporting a Standard. (British

St. Roch, with a long staff in his right hand, sitting in

an arched building. Landscape with the sun rising

in the distance.
A Marine Monster holding a Sea-horse ; a Boy with a

Torch and Olive-branch sitting on its tail. N. M.

on a tablet.

A Man crowned with Laurel looking at some geometri-
cal figures : ' Appeles Poeta,' &c. (British Museum.)
David holding the Head of Goliath. The monogram

at bottom on the left.
St. Anthony standing amidst Ruins, turned to the left,

holding a book in his right hand to his breast, and in

his left hand a crutch and a bell ; landscape in the

distance, and the pig is partly seen on the left.

Monogram at bottom on the right.
A Saint, with a large bag on his back, running towards

the left. In the background a landscape with ruins.

The monogram on a stone.

Lazarus, with two Dogs licking his Sores. Monogram.
Victory. A winged Female Figure standing on the

ruins of a large building, holding a lance in one hand,

and a laurel wreath in the other. On a pillar on the

right, VICTOEIA, and above, N R.
Fame A winged Female sitting on some armour

writing FAMA VOLAT on a shield. N M on a pillar

to the right.
Neptune holding a Trident, sitting turned to the left ;

his left hand is on an urn from which water flows ;

on the right is a niche with an altar, and a tablet

with the letters ONRM. On Neptune's chair, NEP-


Mercury standing, the winged cap on his head and the

caduceus in his right hand. On the pedestal of a

pillar NJ. RO.
Mercury standing, caduceus in his left hand, a flute in

his right ; head three-quarters turned to the right.

On the pedestal of a pillar, MEECUEIO. At bottom

in front, N. R. at the side of a vase.
Four Children round a Tree. One on the right sits on

a round pedestal ; the second leans its head on the

knee of the first ; the third is on horseback ; and the

fourth standing. In the centre is a tree with a tablet

suspended, on which is inscribed, OPUS NICOLETTI

The Vestal Tuccia carrying Wa f er in a Sieve, to prove

her virginity. At top on a scroll hangs a tablet with

the artist's monogram.
Goldsmith's Ornament. A Vase surrounded by four

Wreaths of Roses. The letters N. R. are by the side

of a smaller Vase with pointed top.
A similar Ornament with the letters N. R., but without

the smaller Vase.
Saint Dominic.
The Deceitful Tongue.
Vulcan and Cupid.
Christ with a Globe in His Hand. (British Museum)


ROSI, ALESSANDRO, said to have been born at
Florence in 1627, was a scholar of Cesare Dandini,
under whose tuition he became a reputable painter
of history. There are many of his pictures in the
churches and private collections at Florence. The
cathedral at Prato possesses a ' S. Francesco di
Paolo ' by him ; and two good Bacchanalian sub-
jects used to be in the collection of the Grand
Duke. He died at Florence in 1697.

ROSI, GIOVANNI, a Florentine painter of the
17th century. He was one of the artists who
formed an early school of landscape painting in
Italy before the time of Salvator Rosa. He was
working about 1620.

ROSI, ZANOBI, painter, a native of Florence. He
was one of the pupils of Christofano Allori, and

completed some of the pictures left unfinished by
his master, so that he was still living in 1621,
the year of Allori's death.

ROSITI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, an artist of Forli,
mentioned by Lanzi as a contemporary of Palme-
giani, was the author of a ' Virgin and Child ' of
much merit in the church of S. Maria dell' Orto at
Velletri, bearing the following inscription: "Jo.
Baptista de Rositis de Forlivio pinxit, I. S. O. 0. de
Mense Martii."

ROSLANEY, WELLS, ornamental painter and
designer, practising in London in the second half
of the 18th century. He died October 1, 1776,
and his wife is said to have starved herself to
death from grief at his loss.

painter, born at Gorlitz on the 18th May, 1775.
He began life as a smith, but at the age of twenty
determined to become an artist. He worked in-
dustriously at the Dresden Academy, and gained
further knowledge by studies in Italy. In 1810
he became a member of the Dresden Academy,
and five years later was appointed Professor. He
died at Dresden in 1845. Among his best works

The Marys at the Sepulchre.

The Elector Maurice of Saxony after the Battle of

Portrait of the Baroness von der Recke.

Portrait of King Anthony of Saxony.

Portrait of the Actor and Entomologist Ochsenheimer.
(In the Dresden Gallery.)

ROSLER, MICHAKL, an obscure German engraver,
who resided at Nuremberg about the year 1626.
He engraved several portraits for a folio volume,
published in that city, entitled ' Icones Bibliopo-
larum et Typographorum.' Zani mentions a
Michael Rosier as a German engraver who flour-
ished about 1728 ; and Nagler a Rossler of Nurem-
berg, as living in the first half of the 18th century.
ROSLIN, ALEXANDER, a native of Sweden, born
at Malmoe in 1718, worked in Paris as a portrait-
painter, and in 1753 became a member of the
Academy. In 1765 he gained a prize in competition
with Greuze for a family portrait for the Duke
of Rochefoucauld. He married Mdlle. Giroust, a
French artist, and after her death returned for a
time to Sweden. He subsequently painted for a
time in Russia. His portrait of the Duchess Marie
Christine of Saxony was engraved by Bartolozzi.
Roslin died in 1793. The following are among his
best known works :
Paris. Louvre, Portrait of a Lady. (La Caze


Stockholm. Gallery. Portrait of Gustavus III. and

his brothers, Prince Charles

and Prince Frederick. 1771.

Bust Portrait of Gustavus III.


Portrait of Duke Frederick

Adolphus, brother of Gusta-
vus Adolphus. 1770.

,. Portrait of the Painter's Wife.


wife of Alexander Roslin, the Swedish painter,
was born in France in 1735. She practised in
pastel at Paris with so much success that in
1770 she was. elected an Associate of the Academy.
She died in Paris in 1772.

ROSS, F. W. R., an English natural history
draughtsman, born in 1792. He was an officer in
the Royal Navy, and practised art as a pastime.
He applied himself chiefly to drawings in illustra-


tion of natural history, particularly excelling in
the rendering of birds, which he treated with
much delicacy and finish of draughtsmanship, and
brilliancy of colour. His later years were passed
at Topshara (Devon), where he died in 1860.

ROSS, H. , miniature painter, a Scottish artist,
whose father was a gardener in the service of the
Duke of Marlborough, and who gained a certain
celebrity by the portraits and portrait groups in
miniature, which he exhibited at the Royal
Academy in the early years of the present centu-ry.
He was the father of Sir W. Ross.

ROSS, JAMES, an English engraver, born in
1745, was a pupil of R. Hancock. We have by
him several views of the city of Hereford, very
neatly engraved ; they are small plates, and
are taken from drawings by G. Powle. He also
executed some plates in illustration of Green's
' City of Worcester,' and of a ' History of Tewkes-
bury.' He died at Worcester, 1821.

ROSS, JOSEPH THORBURN, the son of Robert
Thorburn Ross, R.S.A., was born at Berwick-on-
Tweed in 1858. Although brought up in an
artistic household and with an early-shown love
of art, he entered a merchant's office with a view of
following a commercial career. But he found art
too absorbing as a pastime, and, renouncing com-
merce, entered the classes at the Royal Institution,
Edinburgh, under Mr. Hodder, and gained^ the
gold medal for his drawings from the antique.
From 1877 to 1880 he studied in the Life School
of the Royal Scottish Academy, and was a Stuart
prizeman in 1879 for composition and design.
Since then he was a regular exhibitor at the Royal
Scottish Academy Exhibitions, and also exhibited
at the Society of Scottish Artists, the Glasgow
Institute of the Fine Arts, the Royal Academy, and
the Paris Salon. He was elected an Associate of
the Royal Scottish Academy in 1896. He travelled
much on the Continent, and, not being dependent
on his art, was able to follow out, untrammelled,
his artistic ideas. Among his more important
works may be mentioned : ' The Girl I left behind
Me' (1890); 'Where do Fairies dwell?' (1891);
and ' A Poppy Field ' (1894). His work, strong
and individual, if sometimes glaring in colour, is
marked by frankness and sincerity. His genial
and generous nature won him universal esteem.
He died at Edinburgh, by accident, in 1903.


ROSS, KARL, a painter, bom at AltekoppeL, in
Holstein, in 1816. After studying from 1832 to

1836 in the Academy of Copenhagen he went in

1837 to Greece, where he worked at landscape
painting for two years, and then went to Munich.
From 1842 to 1843 he lived in Rome; in 1846 he
was in Paris ; in 1850 in Rome again. Among
his works we may name, ' Naxos,' ' Temple of
Phigalia in Arcadia,' and a ' Forest Party.' He
died at Munich in 1857.

ROSS, MBS. MARIA, an English portrait painter,
born in 1766. She was the sister of Anker Smith,
the engraver, the wife of H. Ross, miniature painter,
and the mother of Sir W. C. Ross, R.A. She
sometimes exhibited at the Academy, commencing
in 1811, and occasionally painted history. She
died in London in 1836.

ROSS, ROBERT THORBURN, a Scottish subject
painter, born at Edinburgh in 1816. He was a
pupil of Simson and Sir W. Allen. In early life
he practised as a portrait painter in pastel, but
became better known as a painter of genre. His


Highland Pets.
The Broken Pitcher.
Wha's at the Window ?

pictures have an echo of the pastellist about them.
His works first appeared in 1845 at the Scottish
Academy, of which he became an Associate in
1852, and a full member in 1869. He died in 1876.
Amongst his chief pictures were :

The Thorn in the Foot.

The Spinning-wheel.

Cottage Children.

ROSS, SIR WILLIAM CHARLES, an English minia-
ture painter, born in London in 1794. He was
the son of H. and Maria Ross. Both his parents
being artists, he at a very early age showed a
predilection for art. He entered the schools of
the Academy in 1808, and made distinguished
progress, and winning many prizes. He was also
awarded by the Society of Arts no less than seven
premiums between 1807 and 1821. His two chief
works at this time were ' The Judgment of Brutus,'
and ' Christ casting out Devils among the Tombs.'
His name first appeared in the Academy Cata-
logues in 1809, when he was scarcely sixteen
years of age, and for several years he exhibited
historical works, to which he devoted much atten-
tion. But in 1814 he became an assistant to
Andrew Robertson, a miniature painter on ivory,
to which branch of art he at length wholly
applied himself. He obtained a large practice
in the highest circles. The Queen, the Prince
Consort, and their family sat to him, as well as
the King and Queen of the Belgians, the King
and Queen of Portugal, Napoleon III., &c. It is
said that the total number of his miniatures exceeds
2200. In 1838 he was elected an Associate of the
Royal Academy, becoming a full member in the
following year, when he also received knighthood.
In the cartoon competition of 1843 he won a pre-
mium of 100 with an ' Angel Raphael Discoursing
with Eve.' He continued in full practice, holding
the first rank in his art, until 1857, when he was
struck by paralysis. After a period of consider-
able suffering he died, unmarried, on January
20th, 1860.

ROSSELL, JOSEF, a Spanish painter and mem-
ber of the Academy of St. Barbara at Valencia,
who is known as the author of a ' St. Luke ' on
linen, presented to the Academy in 1754.

SELLI), born at Florence in 1439, was a pupil of Neri
de Bicci from 1453 to 1456, and is then thought
to have won the friendship of Benozzo Gozzoli.
At some period of his life he visited Lucca, for a
fresco by him can be seen above the portal of the
church of S. Martino, besides other paintings in that
city. In the court of the SS. Annunziata, Florence, '
is a fresco representing ' Beato Filippo receiving the
Habit of the Servites from the Virgin,' which is
said to have been painted in 1476. In 1480 Ros-
selli was invited to Rome by Sixtus IV. to compete
with Ghirlandaio, Signorelli, and Perugino, in the
decoration of the Sixtine Chapel ; and according
to Vusari gained the Pope's approbation over his
rivals through the immense quantity of gold and
ultramarine used by him in his pictures. His sub-
jects were the ' Passage of the Red Sea,' ' Moses
delivering the Tables of the Law,' ' The Sermon
on the Mount,' and 'The Last Supper.' Rosselli'a
masterpiece is a fresco in the chapel of the S.
Sacrament in S. Ambrogio, Florence, which repre-
sents 'The Exhibition of a Miracle-working Chalice.'
Amongst his pupils and assistants were Piero di
Cosimo and Fra Bartolommeo. In 1496 he valued
Baldovinetti's frescoes at S. Trinita, Florence, and


[ Victoria and Albert Museum



he died in 1507, in which year he made his will
Pictures by this artist are to be found in the churches
of S. Ambrogio and S. Maria de' Pazzi, Florence
also in:

Berlin. The Gallery. The Virgin in Glory.
>, , Christ in the Tomb.

.. Massacre of the Innocents.

Florence. S. Ambrogio. Procession of the Miraculous


The Assumption.

& M. Madda- \

lena } Coronation of the Virgin.

S. Annunziata. The Virgin delivering to St. Philip
Benizzi the garb of the Servites.
Academy. St. Barbara Triumphing.

London. Nat. Gall. St. Jerome and Saints (from the
Ruccellai chapel in the Eremiti
di S. Girolamo at Fiesole).

Lucca. S. Martino. Christ taken down from the Cross.
Paris. Louvre. Virgin Glorified.

Rome. Sistine Chapel. Passage of the Red Sea.
Sermon on the Mount.

,, The Last Supper.

ROSSET, , a French landscape painter of the
18th century of some talent, who was employed at
Sevres to paint landscapes on porcelain.

ROSSETTI, CESAEE, an Italian painter of the
17th century, the pupil and assistant of the Cavaliere
d'Arpino, under whom he worked at the decoration
of San Giovanni Laterano during the pontificate of
Clement VIII.

known as DANTE GABRIEL was born on May 12,
1828, at No. 38, Charlotte Street, Portland Place.
His father, Gabriele Rossetti, known for his com-
mentaries on Dante, was an Italian patriot from
Vasto, in the Abruzzi.who had fled on the occupa-
tion of Naples by King Ferdinand in 1821, and
settled in London as professor of languages at
King's College. His mother was Italian also on
her father's side (she was a daughter of Gaetano
Polidori, Count Alfieri's secretary), but English on
her mother's. He was the second of four children,
all more or less distinguished in literature, the
eldest being Maria, and the other two Christina,
the poetess, and William Michael, the literary
critic. As it is Rossetti the painter that is under
consideration here, one may pass over his youthful
literary proclivities, merely noting that whereas in
painting he did not accomplish anything before he
was twenty, he had completed the greater portion
of his remarkable poetical works before he was
nineteen. They were not published, however,
until many years later.

Rossetti's art training was of the sketchiest
character. After four years' desultory work at
Cass's private academy, he was admitted to the
Royal Academy Antique School, only to quit it
shortly afterwards in disgust ; and it was this
experience of the commonplace, rule-of-thumb
methods which prevailed amongst art teachers of
the time which drove him into revolt against
authority, and led to the formation of that famous
band of youthful enthusiasts, the pre-Raphaelite
Brotherhood. Previous to this, Rossetti UDder-
went a short pupilage in the studio of Ford
Madox Brown (q. v.), whose strong original work
he much admired ; and Brown continued to furnish
advice and instruction for some time after he left
him, in 1848, to share a studio with Mr. Holman
Hunt, then a student of similar aims and views.
The Brotherhood grew out of this attachment.
It was formed by the addition of J. E. Millais
(q. 11.) and four other members, viz. Thomas

Woolner, F. G. Stephens, James Collinson, and
W. M. Rossetti, under whose editorship was
launched 'The Germ,' that rare little periodical
intended to illustrate the creed of the young
painters. Four numbers only of 'the Germ'
appeared, and the Brotherhood itself practically
ceased to exist within a couple of years of its
foundation ; but the interest and outcry it oc-
casioned, and the vehement partisanship of Ruskin,
then in his zenith as a critic, drew down upon the
artists an amount of public attention which, though
mainly antagonistic at the time, proved eventually
to have had its value. It is easy to exaggerate
the scope and influence of the original pre-
Raphaelite Movement, which was not so much a
protest against the worship of Raphael as against
the extreme lengths to which it was carried. The
Movement itself might have passed into oblivion
but for the strong personality of its three chief
promoters, Rossetti, Millais, and Holman Hunt,
whose individual fame kept its memory green.

In 1852, after one or two changes of residence,
Rossetti settled down in rooms at No. 14, Chatham
Place, Blackfriars, now destroyed, where much of
his finest earlier work was produced. Here, in
1860, he brought his wife, the remarkable Miss
Siddal, whose acquaintance he had made about
five years earlier through a happy accident. Walter
Deverell, a young painter connected with the
pre-Raphaelite group, had encountered her in a
milliner's shop, and had persuaded her to give
sittings to him and to some of his friends. She
was the original of Millais's ' Ophelia,' and of
many of Rossetti's pictures also, notably of ' Beata
Beatrix,' which was painted from memory after
her death. Under Rossetti's tuition she developed
some talent for painting and drawing, but her
health was very delicate, and in 1862, two years
after their marriage, she died, to Rossetti's incon-
solable grief. The story has often been told how,
in a moment of strong emotion, he caused to be
buried in her coffin the manuscripts of all his early

An interesting feature of Rossetti's life at this
period was the friendship which grew up between
Ruskin and himself, many intimate details of
which have been published in the form of corre-
spondence. Ruskin's means enabled him to play
the part of a generous patron to the young painter,
and also to Miss Siddal ; but his frank and some-
times domineering criticism caused an eventual
estrangement, which the gradual development of
Rossetti's work on his own lines contributed to
make permanent. Ruskin's help at a critical point
was, however, of material value to Rossetti, and
from that time he rarely wanted purchasers for his
work, generally having one or more patrons at a

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