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time who took everything he produced. The prices
he received at first were very small, but gradually
he became an astute man of business, and his
transactions with wealthy patrons command the
envy of later painters, if not always their entire
admiration. Another interesting connection of
these early days was the acquaintance formed,
through Burne-Jones (q. v.), with William Morris
and his group of Oxford friends. The acquaintance
began in 1855, and was continued at the rooms in
Red Lion Square which Morris and Burne-Jones
afterwards occupied. The designing of furniture
for these rooms, in which Rossetti took part, was
the beginning of the Morris Decorative Art Move-
ment, which was formally started in 1861, Rossetti,

281



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Madox Brown, Burne-Jones, and other artists
being all jointly interested at first as partners in
the venture. An earlier partnership had come
about in 1857 over the painting of a series of
frescoes in the bays of the Oxford Union debating-
hall. The idea was Rossetti's, and was carried
out by him in association with six other artists,
including Morris and Burne-Jones. As an episode
in English art the experiment is full of interest,
but as a practical effort it resulted in failure, the
preparation of the walls not having been properly
carried out, so that within a few years, even before
they were finished, the pictures had begun to
perish. The subjects chosen were from Malory's
' Mort D'Arthur,' and Rossetti's contribution repre-
sented Lancelot asleep before the shrine of the
Grail, seeing in a vision Guinevere. He had
intended first to paint the Guinevere from Miss
Siddal, but whilst he was at Oxford he met the
lady who afterwards became Mrs. William Morris,
and substituted her features instead. This was
the beginning of a long relationship as painter and
sitter, evidenced by many of Rossetti's most im-
portant pictures and by an innumerable series of
chalk drawings and studies ; but it is an error to
suppose, as many do, that all Rossetti's pictures
represent Mrs. Morris. His earlier ones are mostly
from his wife, and of his later ones many are from
models, or from different well-known sitters. Like
Sir Edward Burne-Jones, he doubtless tended to
assimilate the different types to his own ideal.

In 1862, after the death of his wife, Rossetti
took the large house overlooking the river at
Chelsea, No. 16, Cheyne Walk, where, as the gloom
of his bereavement wore off, he became the centre
of a large literary and artistic circle. The house
was shared at first with Mr. George Meredith and
Mr. Swinburne, the latter of whom published from
there his first series of ' Poems and Ballads,' as
well as ' Atalanta in Calydon' and 'Chastelard.'
Here Rossetti amassed a great collection of rare
blue china and old furniture, for both of which he
set the fashionable craze which followed. He
also collected quantities of curious jewellery,
combs, draperies, and vessels which appear and
reappear among the sumptuous accessories of his
pictures. His instinct for rare and beautiful objects,
at a time when taste in such matters was at a low
ebb, forms a marked characteristic of Rossetti's
genius ; and it may be claimed for him that he did
much to elevate popular taste in this direction,
just as at an earlier date he had been instrumental
in reviving the love of old romantic and ballad
literature.

Rossetti's activity and social habits began to
undergo a change about 1867, when he developed
insomnia, and his eyes also showed signs of being
overstrained. In 18G9 a rest was advised, and he
paid the first of a series of visits to Scotland,
staying at Penkill Castle, Ayrshire. This visit is
memorable from the fact that he took up again the
habit of writing poetry as a relaxation for his
mind, and even began to think of publishing his
early poems, which, as has been said, were buried
in his wife's grave. At the request of friends he
consented to have them exhumed, and in 1870
appeared the volume called ' Poems.' Rossetti's
fame as a painter ensured its success, but one
critic, the late Mr. Buchanan, attacked it fiercely
on moral grounds, and the controversy which
followed had an injurious effect on Rossetti's
health. He became the victim of nervous fancies

282



and of pronounced melancholia, which was increased
by the use of chloral, the depressing properties of
which were then little understood. He made
frequent visits in pursuit of change, and for two
years, 1872-1874, abandoned Chelsea entirely and
lived at the old manor-house of Kelmscott, in
Gloucestershire, which he shared with William
Morris. Shortly after his return to London the
Morris firm was dissolved, and there was some
friction between the partners, in which Rossetti
became involved, so that from that time his relations
with Mr. Morris were strained. The state of his
health, moreover, cut him off from his friends,
although he continued to paint actively on large
canvases. In 1877 he had a fresh and severe
attack of illness, after which his output of work
became less, and with a few notable exceptions
inferior in quality. He was still able to take
refuge in poetry, however, and produced material
enough for a second volume, ' Poems and Ballads,'
the reception of which was unequivocal. Finally,
in 1881, he was seized with partial paralysis of the
limbs, and was removed to a cottage atBirchington-
on-Sea, where he died on April 10, 1882. During
the clouded years of his later life a devoted band
of friends watched over him, amongst whom may
be mentioned his brother, Mr. Theodore Watts
(now Mr. Watts-Dunton), Ford Madox Brown,
and William Bell Scott. To sum up Rossetti's
qualities as an artist would be too long a matter.
His chief distinguishing characteristic was a
mediaeval cast of thought which derived alike from
his nationality and his reading. Of robust and
almost brutal frankness, so far as the externals of
life were concerned, he lived an inner life of
mystical, many-coloured romance. It was no
straining after effect that led him to his choice of
subjects. They came naturally as the fruit of his
ideas. Many who tried to follow him have
acquired this tone of thought artificially, or without
full perception, and have failed in consequence.
For this reason there is no real Rossetti School,
such as most original painters leave behind them.
Those who came genuinely under his influence
had to apply it in different lines of their own.

Works: Rossetti painted two pictures, and
two only, in oil during his pre-Raphaelite days.
These were 'The Girlhood of Mary Virgin' (1849)
and ' Ecce Ancilla Domini ' (1850), the latter of
which is now in the Tate Gallery. Both were
attempts to realize, by simple symbolic imagery,
the inner mystical life of the Virgin ; but the
outcry against pre-Raphaelite work, in which
the ' Ecce Ancilla ' specially shared, deterred him
from further efforts in this direction, and for
several years his output consisted of pen-and-ink
drawings or small, brilliantly-coloured water-
colours, mostly from romantic subjects and from
Browning's poems. Of these the most memorable
were: 'The Laboratory' (1849); ' Borgia,' a picture
of two children dancing before the famous Lucrezia;
' Beatrice denying her salutation at the Wedding
Feast,' and ' How they met Themselves,' from
the legend of the Doppelganger (1850); 'Giotto
painting Dante ' and ' The Meeting of Dante and
Beatrice' (1851) ; 'King Arthur's Tomb' (1854) ;
' The Annunciation ' and ' Dante's Vision of Rachel '

(1855) ; 'Fra Pace' and 'Dante's Dream,' a small
and very poetical version of the later large picture

(1856) ; 'The Blue Closet,' 'The Wedding of St
George,' and ' A Christmas Carol ' (1857) ; ' Marv
in the House of St. John,' 'Before the Battle,' and




r> /^v ///./

' , - .' '</ :",'.



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



'My Lady Greensleeves ' (1858); ' Bonifazio's
Mistress, 1 'Dr. Johnson at the Mitre,' 'Lucrezia
Borgia poisoning her Husband' (1859); 'Roman
do la Rose,' ' Monna Pomona,' and ' The Madness
of Ophelia' (1864); and 'The Merciless Lady'
(1865). His pen-and-ink drawings included
' Genevieve,' a sketch from Coleridge (1848) ;
'Taurello's First Sight of Fortune,' from Browning's
' Sordello,' ' Dante drawing the Angel,' and the first
design for the diptych of 'II Saluto di Beatrice'
(1849); 'Hesterna Rosa' (1853); 'Hamlet and
Ophelia,' and one of the finest of all his works,
' Mary Magdalene at the Door of Simon the
Pharisee' (1858). Amongst his earlier work should
also be included the drawings for woodcuts to
illustrate Moxon's 'Tennyson' (1857), the de-
signs for Allingham's ' Elfen Mere,' (1855), and for
Christina Rossetti's 'Goblin Market' (1861). Of
chalk drawings and studies, first from Miss Siddal
and later from Mrs. Morris, a very great number
exist ; and throughout his career Rossetti made
finished chalk drawings for his pictures which are
highly prized. His early record in oil painting is
small. In 1853, after a failure with a large com-
position from Browning's ' Pippa Passes,' he began
the important picture of ' Found,' representing a
countryman taking a calf to market, and recogniz-
ing in a fainting woman of the streets his former
love. This picture occupied Rossetti at intervals
to the end of his life, and was commissioned succes-
sively by many patrons, but never reached com-
pletion. After his death Sir Edward Burne-Jones
put some finishing touches to it, and it was sold,
but changed hands later and is now in America.
In 1860 Rossetti completed a triptych in oil for
Llandaff Cathedral, the subject being the Nativity
of Christ, with figures of King David on either
side. In 1861 and 1862 he painted some unim-
portant oil pictures, and in 1863 he began the
series of his greater works with ' Beata Beatrix,'
now in the National Collection. This was followed
in 1864 by ' Lady Lilith ' (since altered and much
impaired) and 'Venus Verticordia'; by 'The
Blue Bower' (1865); 'The Beloved' (from The
Song of Solomon), 'Monna Vanna," and 'Sibylla
Palmif era ' (the most perfect trio of his works, and
jointly and severally his highest attainment in
painting), all finished or delivered in 1866 ; ' A
Christmas Carol,' 'Monna Rosa,' and 'The Loving
Cup' (1867); the portrait of Mrs. Morris, lent to
the Tate Gallery (1868) ; 'Mariana,' a companion
portrait to the last, but made into a picture by the
addition of a singing page (1870); 'Pandora'
(1871) ; ' Veronica Veronese ' and ' Proserpine '
(1872); 'La Ghirlandata' (1873); 'The Roman
Widow,' ' The Blessed Damozel,' and ' Marigolds'
(1874); 'La Bella Mano' (1875); 'Mnemosyne'
(1876); 'Astarte Syriaca' and 'The Sea-Spell'
(1877); 'Fiammetta' (1878); 'La Donna Delia
Finestra' (1879); 'The Day-Dream' and some
unfinished pictures (1880); 'Dante's Dream,' in
the Liverpool Corporation Art Gallery (completed
1881).

In addition to these, mention might be made of
the large number of replicas produced of some of
the more important or popular pictures, such as
'Lilith,' 'Proserpine,' 'The Loving Cup,' 'Dante's
Dream,' 'Venus Verticordia,' 'Beata Beatrix,' and
'The Blessed Damozel.' A subject not given in
the above list, ' Joan of Arc,' was also repeated
more than once. Some of these replicas are in
themselves important works, but many are the



reverse, and bear unmistakable signs of an as-
sistant's hand. It was Rossetti's habit, especially
early in life, to repeat his subject in more than one
medium ; thus of the pen-and-ink design ' Dante
painting the Angel' a later water-colour version
exists, which is in the Taylorian Museum at Oxford.
The ' Saluto di Beatrice ' subject, a pair of designs
representing Dante meeting Beatrice in Florence
and in Paradise, was repeated in water-colour, and
also in oil on the doors of a cabinet made for Mr.
William Morris's house at Upton. For the Morris
firm Rossetti designed several stained-glass
windows, which may be seen at St. Martin's
Church, Scarborough, and elsewhere. He also
designed some of the panels for the ' Seddon
Cabinet.' His portraits in oil, water-colour, and
crayon, would furnish in themselves a formidable
list, and include, besides the members of his
family, Robert Browning (1855), Algernon C.
Swinburne and John Ruskin (1861), Miss Herbert
(1863), Mrs. Vernon Lushington (1865), F. Madox
Brown (1867), Mr. and Mrs. Stillman (1869-70),
the Misses Morris (1871), and Mr. Watts-Dunton
(1874). Of studies which never reached the stage
of pictures, but remain either in pen-and-ink or
crayon, may be mentioned : ' The Boat of Love,
a grisaille now in the Birmingham Corporation
Gallery; 'Cassandra warning Hector' ; 'Silence ;
'Michael Scott's Wooing'; 'The Death of Lady
Macbeth'; ' Aspects Medusa '; ' Madonna Pietra'
(from Dante); 'The Sphinx' (finished in pencil) ;
' Domizia Scaligera'; and ' Gretchen, or Risen at
Dawn."

The dispersal of Rossetti's pictures since the
sales of the great collections formed by Mr. F. J.
Leyland and Mr. William Graham, not to mention
others, and their frequent appearance singly in
auction-rooms, makes the compilation of a list with
owners' names attached specially difficult. A
large number have come into the possession of
Mr. Charles Fairfax Murray, and may eventually
find a home in the Birmingham Corporation Art
Gallery, to which one section, the black-and-white
drawings, have already been consigned. The
chronological list attached to the present writer's
' Dante Gabriel Rossetti, A Memorial of his Art
and Life ' (George Bell & Sons, 1899), was prac-
tically correct at the time it was compiled, and in
the main is probably still so. The following
selection, at any rate, may be accepted as accurate :

The Girlhood of Mary Virgin (oil). Lady Jekyll.

Ecce Ancilla Domini (oil). Tate Gallery.

Taurello's First Sight of Fortune (pen-and-ink). F. G.

Stephens.

Hesterna Rosa (pen-and-ink). F. G. Stephens.
Dante drawing the Angel (pen-and-ink). C. F. Murray

(sent to Birmingham).

The Laboratory (water-colour). C. F. Murray.
Dante drawing the Angel (water-colour). Taylorian

Museum.

Borgia (water-colour). L. Hacon (?).
"Hist," said Kate the Queen (oil). C. E. Spring

Eice.
Giotto painting Dante (water-colour). Sir John Aird,

M.P.

Arthur's Tomb (water-colour). S. Pepys Cockerell.
The Annunciation (water-colour). Mrs. Boyce.
Rachel and Leah (water-colour). Beresford Heaton.
Dante's Dream (water-colour). Beresford Heaton.
Fra Pace (water-colour). Lady Jekyll.
The Chapel before the Lists (water-colour). Mrs.

George Kae.
The Tune of Seven Towers (water-colour). Mrs.

George Rae.

The Blue Closet (water-colour). Mrs. George Rae.

283



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



The Wedding of St. George (water-colour). Mrs.

George Rae.

A Christmas Carol (water-colour). C. F. Murray.
Hamlet and Ophelia (water-colour). G. F. Murray

(sent to Birmingham').
Mary Magdalene at the Door of Simon (pen-and-ink).

Charles Eicketts.

Before the Battle (water-colour). Prof. Charles Norton.
Bocca Baciata (oil). C. F. Murray.
Salutation of Beatrice (panels). F. J. Tennant.
Bouifazio's Mistress (water-colour). C. F. Murray.
Dr. Johnson at the Mitre (water-colour). C. F. Murray.
Lucrezia ~Borg\&l(water-colour). Mrs. George Rae.
The Seed of David (triptych; oil). Llandaff Cathedral.
Paolo and Francesca (water-colour). "W. Jt. Moss.
Cassandra (pen-and-ink). Col. Gillutn.
Beata Beatrix (oil). Tate Gallery.
Fazio's Mistress (oil). Mrs. George Eae.
Found (oil). S. Bancroft, junr.
Lady Lilith (oil). S. Bancroft, junr.
Venus Verticordia (oil). (?).

Venus Verticordia (water-colour). Mrs. George Rae.
The Blue Bower (oil). Exors. of J. Dyson Perrin.
The Merciless Lady (water-colour). C. F. Murray.
The Beloved (oil). Mrs. George Rae.
Monna Vanna (oil). Mrs. George Rae.
Sibylla Palmifera (oil). Mrs. George Rae.
A Christmas Carol (oil). Mrs. George Rae.
The Loving Cup (oil). Mrs. Ismay.
Return of Tibullus to Delia (water-colour). C. F.

Murray.

Mariana (oil). F. W. Buxton.
Pandora (oil). Chas. Butler.
Proserpine (oil). Chas. Butler.
Fiammetta (oil). Chas. Butler.
The Bower Meadow (oil). William Dunlop (?).
Veronica Veronese (oil). W. Imrie.
The Roman Widow (oil). T. Brocklebank.
Marigolds (oil). Lord Davey.
La Bella Mano (oil). Sir Cuthbert Quilter.
The Sphinx (pencil). C. F. Murray.
Astarte Syriaca (oil). Manchester Corporation.
The Sea-Spell (oil). (?).
La Donna Delia Finestra (oil). W. R. Moss.
The Blessed Damozel (oil). Exors. of J. D. Perrin.
Dante's Dream (oil). Liverpool Corporation.
Dante's Dream (oil, smaller). W. Imrie.
The Day-Dream (oil). lonides Collection, South

Kensington.
La Pia (oil). Russell Rea. Hi C. M,

ROSSETTI, GIOVANNI PAOLO, painter, a native
of Volterra, flourished about the year 1568. He
was a nephew of Daniele Ricciarelli, called di
Volterra, under whom he studied at Rome, and
is said to have painted history with considerable
success. After the death of his uncle he left
Rome, and returned to Volterra, where he executed
some altar-pieces for the churches, of which one
of the most esteemed was a ' Descent from the
Cross,' in S. Dalmazio. He is said to have been
still alive in 1600.

ROSSETTI, LUCY MADOX. This clever painter
was the only daughter of Ford Mad ox Brown by
his first wife, and was born in 1843. She was in-
structed in art by her father, and exhibited several
pictures, notably ' Apres le Bal ' (1870), ' Romeo
and Juliet in the Vault ' (1871), ' The Fair Gerald-
ine' (1872), 'Ferdinand and Miranda playing
Chess ' (1872), and ' Margaret Roper receiving the
head of her father' (1875). She married Mr. W.
M. Rossetti in 1874, and died in the Riviera in
1894. She was a very talented artist, inheriting
much of her father's great genius. She was also
distinguished in literature, and her essays and
poems are of remarkable merit,

ROSSI (or Rosso), ANTONIO, the elder, painter,
born at Zoldo in Cadore, in the second part of the
15th century. He is said by Lanzi to have been
the first master of his great compatriot Titian, arjd

284



painted numerous works in tempera, in an archaic
and angular style. His period of greatest activity
extends from 1472 to 1507. Numerous works of
his now lost or obliterated are mentioned in
ancient records. Of those still extant there are :
Altar-piece in the church of San Lorenzo, at Selva in
Cadore; painted in 1472, and signed Antonius Rubens
de Cadubrio pinxit.

Fresco of Christ and the Twelve Apostles, in the church
of San Silvestro sulla Costa, near Serravalle ; signed
Anto Eoso de Cadore.
Altar-piece (St. Martin sharing his Cloak) in the church

of Vigo di Cadore. (1492.)

Virgin and Child with SS. Bartholomew and Sylvester,
formerly in the church of Nabiu, now in the posses-
sion of Signer Righetti of Venice. This last picture
is signed Antonius Zaudanus {Antonio of Zoldo).
Altar-piece lately in the possession of Signora Lando-

nelli, at Venice ; signed and dated 1494.
Virgin with Saints ; signed and dated 1494. Formerly

in the church of Liban, near Belluno.
Virgin with St. Sebastian and a Bishop ; signed ; Fonzaso,

near Feltre.
See Crown and Catalcaselle, ' Painting in N. Italy,' vol.

ii. pp. 172-3.

ROSSI, ANDREA, an Italian engraver, born about
1726. There are several heads of popes engraved
by him, and subjects after Carracci, Novelli, Frezza,
and others. He died in 1790. The following
prints may be named :
Portraits of Joseph II. and the Archduke Leopold ;

after Pompeo Battoni.
A Bust of the Virgin ; after Carlo Dolci.
St. Margaret of Cortona kneeling before a Crucifix;
after Pietro da Cortona.

ROSSI, AGNOLO, a Genoese painter, born in
1694. He was a priest, and the best-known pupil
of Domenico Parodi. In style he was a disciple
of Maratti, but he also treated humorous subjects
with success. He died in 1755.

ROSSI, ANIELLO, painter, born at Naples about
1660. He was one of the favourite scholars of
Luca Giordano, and, with Matteo Pacelli, accom-
panied his master to Spain, and remained with
him as his assistant during his long sojourn at
the court of Charles II. and Philip V. His services
were rewarded by a handsome pension, and return-
ing to Italy with his master in 1702, he settled at
Venice, where he lived in ease and independence
till his death in 1719.

ROSSI, ANTONIO, born at Bologna in 1697 (1700),
was educated in the school of Cavaliere Marc An-
tonio Franceschini, of whom he was a favourite
disciple, and who recommended him, in preference
to his other pupils, to execute the commissions he
himself was incapable of undertaking. Of the
numerous pictures he painted for the public edifices
at Bologna, his ' Martyrdom of S. Andrea,' in the
church of S. Domenico, is perhaps the best. He
was much employed in painting figures in the archi-
tectural views of Orlandi and F. Brizzi. He died
in 1750 or 1753.

ROSSI, BERNARDINO DE. See DEI Rossi.

ROSSI, CARLANTONIO, a Milanese painter, born
about 1581. He painted a 'San Siro' for the
cathedral of Pavia, in the manner of the Procac-
cini, and is said to have been the master of Carlo
Sacchi. He died in 1648.

ROSSI, ENEA, a Bolognese painter of the 17th
century, mentioned by Malvasia as a pupil of the
Carracci, and an artist of some merit. He painted
numerous works for the churches of Bologna and
its neighbourhood.

ROSSI, FRANCESCO DEI. See DEI Rossi.



DANTE'G. ROSSETTI




LADY LILITII



of II illiain Rosselti, Esq.



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



ROSSI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, an engraver, to
whom is attributed a set of perspective views of
Rome, published in 1640.

ROSSI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, painter, a native of
Rovigo, born about 1627. He was a pupil of Dario
Varotari, and practised for a time at Padua, where
he painted a picture for the church of San Clemente.
He settled later at Venice, where he was still
living in 1680.

ROSSI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, called IL GOBBING,
(the little hunchback,) a Veronese painter of the
17th century. He was one of the best known of
the disciples of Alessandro Turchi, and practised
with credit for many years at Verona.

ROSSI, GIROLAMO, called DE RDBEIS THE ELDER,
born at Rome about the year 1630, was brought
up at Bologna, under Simone Cantarini. His
instinct led him more to engraving than painting,
and he has left several plates after Bolognese
painters, which possess considerable merit ; among
them are the following :

The Portrait of Pope Pius V. ; after Sctpione Gaetano.

Two Cupids playing ; after Guercino.

The Virgin and Child, with St. Jerome and St. Francis ;

after Lodovico Cm-ram, inscribed, Hieronimus de

Rubeis pictor, delineavit, incidit.
S. Carlo Borromeo kneeling before a Crucifix ; after

An. Carracci.

A half-length figure of the Virgin.
St. John the Baptist ; after Ghuido.
Two Children ; after the same.

ROSSI, GIBOLAMO, called DE RUBEIS THE YOUNGER,
eon of Girolamo Rossi, was born at Rome about the
year 1680, and chiefly resided in bis native city,
where he engraved a variety of plates after the
Italian painters. He also executed several portraits
of the cardinals of his time, for a series which was
afterwards continued by Pazzi and others. They
are feebly engraved. We have also by him the
following prints :

The Virgin and Infant Jesus ; after Carregyio.
The Martyrdom of St. Agapita ; after Gio. Odazzi.

Nagler gives a list of twenty-one prints by the
younger Rossi, among which he enumerates those
of Pope Pius V., and of S. Carlo Borromeo kneel-
ing, attributed above to his father. According to
Zani, he was at work as late as 1749, but none of
the dates quoted by Nagler come near to that
period.

ROSSI, GIUSEPPE, engraver and draughtsman.
He practised at Florence in the first half of the
19th century, and his drawings and engravings,
particularly some of the ' Campo Santo ' at Pisa,
show considerable talent, but his promise was cut
short by his death in 1848, while still a young man.

ROSSI, LORENZO, an Italian painter of the Floren-
tine school, a pupil of Pier Dandini. He imitated
the manner of the Flemish artist, Lieven Menus,
and painted small pictures of much delicacy and
elegance. He died in 1702.

ROSSI, LORETTO D'UGOLINO, painter. Of this
artist nothing is known, but a ' Crucifixion ' at
Berlin bears the following inscription : " Questa
tavola sefatte fare per Loretto d'Ugolino de Rossi
la quale a fatteta fare beltrame distoldo de Rossi,
1475."

ROSSI, Muzio, painter, was born at Naples in
1626, and was for some time the disciple of Massimo
Stanzioni. From the school of that master he went
to Bologna, where he frequented the academy of
Guide, and at the age of eighteen was sufficiently



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