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advanced to compete with the ablest artists of his

time. An altar-piece for the Certosa, a ' Nativity,'
was considered a marvel of precocity. On his
return to Naples, he was engaged to paint the
tribune of S. Pietro in Majella, which he had not
entirely finished when his career was cut short by
his death, in 1651, at the age of 25.

ROSSI, NiccoL6 MARIA, painter, was born about
1645, at Naples. He was a pupil of Luca Giordano,
and a successful imitator of his style. In some
of his more important works his master furnished
him with designs, for the paintings in the Chapel
Royal at Naples, for instance. He was much
esteemed for his life-like rendering of animals.
He died in 1700.

Vicenza in 1641. Without the instruction of a
master, he is said to have reached a respectable rank
as an historical painter by studying and copying
the best works of the Venetian and Roman schools.
Of his pictures in the churches at Rome, the best
are : ' Christ praying in the Garden,' in S. Carlo al
Gorso ; and the ' Baptism of Christ,' in S. Maria del
Popolo. In the church of the Silvestrini, at Fabri-
ano, there is a 'Madonna' by him; but perhaps
his best production is an altar-piece in the cathedral
at Matelica, representing St. Gregory interceding
for the souls in Purgatory. He also painted gallant
assemblies, musical parties, &c. He died in 1700.
His death has been put as late as 1725.

ROSSI, PBOPEBTIA, a lady of Bologna, best
known as a sculptor and carver, but who also
engraved upon copper, and learnt drawing and
design from Marc Antonio. She is said to have
been remarkable for her beauty, virtues, and talents,
and to have died at an early age in 1530, in conse-
quence of unrequited love. Her last work was a
bas-relief of Joseph and Potiphar's wife I

ROSSIGNOLI, JACOPO, painter, a native of Leg-
horn, who, towards the close of the 16th century,
settled in Piedmont, and was appointed painter to
the Court of Savoy. He was a contemporary of
Ardente and Giorgio Soleri,and a successful imitator
of the style of Perino del Vaga, in his painting of
grotteschi. He died probably in 1604, for a Latin
epitaph on his tomb at San Tommaso in Turin
bears that date.

painter and portraitist in pastel, was born at
Avesnes, on the last day of 1781. He was a pupil
of Vincent and of the Ecole des Beaux Arts.
Among his works we may mention :

The Siege of Missolonghi.
Zenobia greeted by Shepherds.
Death of General Sowinski.

He sent his last picture to the Salon in 1850.

ROSSITER, THOMAS, was born in 1818, at New
Haven, Connecticut, where he made his first art
studies, and where, in 1838, he began his career as
a portrait painter. Two years later he came to
Europe, visiting London, Paris, and Rome, where
he lived for five years. On his return to New York
in 1846, he became known chiefly as a painter of
historical and Scriptural subjects, and in 1849 he
was elected Member of the National Academy, his
Associateship dating from 1840. After a second
European sojourn, he settled at Coldspring, on the
Hudson, in 1860. He died during a visit to Rome,
in 1871. Some of his works have been engraved.
They are carefully and conscientiously executed,
but are deficient in life and animation. Among the
best known are :



The Last Hours of Tasso.

Captive Jews in Babylon.

The Wise and Foolish Virgins.

The Ascension.

Washington in his Library.

Washington's First Cabinet.

The Prince of Wales at Washington's Tomb.


Leipsic in 1752, and was instructed in design by
Frederick Oeser. He engraved a great variety of
vignettes and other plates for books, and also a
few views in the environs of Leipsic. He died at
Leipsic in 1783.

graver, born at Leipsic in 1775, engraved plate;
for Sir Walter Scott's novels after Westall and
Leslie, and also plates for Bulwer Lytton's ' Pilgrims
of the Rhine.' He died at Leipsic in 1858.


ROSSO, IL (MAtTRE Roux). See DEI Rossi.

ROSSUM, J. VAN, was a Dutch painter of the 17th
century. He worked in the style of Metsu. There
is a picture by him in the gallery at Vienna of
an old gentleman walking in a park. In 1654 he
painted a portrait of the priest, J. A. Husinga,
which was engraved by Matham.

ROSWORM, , a painter, of whom scarcely

anything is known. He was in England about
the year 1665, and copied some of Sir Peter Lely's
pictures in small.

ROTA, MARTIN, an eminent engraver, born at
Sebenico, in Dalmatia, about the year 1540, but who
chiefly resided at Rome and Venice. By whom he
was instructed in the art of engraving is not ascer-
tained. His plates are executed entirely with the
graver, and though not very highly finished, they
are wrought in a neat, clear style. His print
after Michelangelo's ' Last Judgment ' is con-
sidered his masterpiece. This fine print, which is
inscribed Martinus Rota, 1569, has been copied
by Leonard Gaultier, but his version may easily be
distinguished from the original, not only by its
inferiority, but by the fact that the head in the
portrait of M. Angelo in a small oval at the top, is
turned towards his right shoulder in the original,
while in the copy it is towards the left. There is
another copy by J. Wierix. Rota engraved some
plates from his own designs. He usually signed
his plates with his name, but sometimes marked
them with a monogram, consisting of jin M. and

a wheel (rota) by the side of it, JVJ.fcgo) . The
following are his principal plates :


Maximilian II., Rom. Imper. 1575.

The Emperor Rudolph II. 1592 ; with the cipher.

Ferdinand I. in the costume of his tune. 1575.

Henry IV., King of France.

Albert a Lasko.


The Resurrection ; dated 1577. (From his own design, i
The same subject, differently treated. (From his own


The Murder of the Innocents. (From his own design.)
The Last Judgment ; dedicated to Rudolph II. 1573.
Another print of the Last Judgment. This plate was

left imperfect at his death, and was finished by

another hand. (From his oicn design.)
The Scourging of Christ. 1568. (From his own design.)
The Martyrdom of St. Peter ; after Titian.
Mary Magdalene penitent ; after the same.
Prometheus chained to the Rock ; after the same.
Christ appearing to St. Peter ; after Raffaelle. 1568.



berg in 1645, was a historical and portrait painter
of some merit, and also a good draughtsman and
modeller. He died about 1705.


man historical painter, born at Hanover in 1826.
He studied under Bendemann, who at his early
death he died at Salzbrunn, Silesia, in 1859
finished his last work, ' The Dead Christ,' which is
now in the Dresden Gallery.

ROTH, PETER, painter, practised at Cologne,
where he became well known as a skilful restorer
of old pictures, and also as a portrait painter of
some merit. He died in 1866.

ROTH, WILLIAM, an English portrait and
miniature painter, in the second half of the 18th
century. He exhibited at the Incorporated Society
in 1768, and for some time after practised at

ROTHBART, FERDINAND, German painter ; born
October 3, 1823, at Roth-am-Sand ; began his art
studies at Stuttgart and Munich ; won the Wagner
Italian-travel scholarship, and subsequently settled
at Munich, being for a time Curator of the Museum
of Prints and Engravings there. He painted genre
pictures and many water-colours, besides illustrat-
ing works by Schiller and Hebel. He died at
Munich, February 1, 1899.

ROTHEUMEL, PETER F., American painter;
born July 18, 1817, at Lucerne (Pa., U.S.A.).
From 1847 to 1855 was one of the Directors of the
Philadelphia Academy ;. subsequently travelled in
Europe and studied at Munich ; painted historical
scenes and illustrations to Shakspere's ' King Lear' ;
was a member of several Art Academies. He died
in September 1895, near Philadelphia.

ROTHWELL, RICHARD, an Irish portrait and
subject painter, born at Athlone in 1800. In 1815
he commenced his studies in the Dublin Society's
school. He practised in the Irish metropolis for
a few years, and was elected a member of the
Hibernian Academy. Coming to London he
assisted Sir Thomas Lawrence, and occasionally
exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1830 un-
wards. But success did not wait upon him, and
he migrated to Dublin, Leamington, Paris, and
finally to Rome, where he died in 1868. Works :

The Little Roamer. (South Kensington.')

Noviciate Mendicants. (The same.)

The Very Picture of Idleness. (The same.)

Portrait of Huskisson. (National Portrait Gallery

Field-Marshal Lord Beresford. (The same.)

ROTHWELL, THOMAS, an obscure engraver.
He was born in 1742, and died at Birmingham
in 1807.

ROTTENBAMER, THOMAS, painter, practised in
Germany in the 16th century. An artist of this
name was employed in connection with the ducal
stables at Munich.

ROTTENHAMMER, JOHANN, born at Munich in
1564, was instructed in the rudiments of design by
an artist named Donauer. At an early period of
:iis life he went to Rome, where it was not long
before he distinguished himself by painting small
pictures of historical subjects, which, though they
retained somewhat of the German taste, were in-
geniously composed, and handled with neatness
and spirit. He had acquired some reputation by






Nat. Galltri/

Paris. Louvre.

Petersburg. Hermitaye.

his easel pictures, when he was commissioned to
paint an altar-piece for one of the churches at
Rome, and discovered unexpected ability. A
desire to better his colour prompted him to
visit Venice, where he particularly devoted him-
self to studying the works of Tintoretto, in the
Scuola di S. Rocco, and he appears to have imitated
the style of that master with some success. During
his stay at Venice he painted a few pictures for the
churches. Ferdinand, Duke of Mantua, employed
him in several considerable works. After a resid-
ence of many years in Italy he returned to his
native country, and established himself at Augs-
burg, where he met with great encouragement.
He was patronized by the Emperor Rudolph II.,
for whom he painted a capital ' Feast of the Gods.'
His cabinet pictures are by no means uncommon.
The backgrounds are frequently painted by Jan
Breughel, and sometimes by Paul Brill. He was
fond of decorating his compositions with rich and
splendid accessories, and of introducing nude
figures. Rottenhaimner died at Augsburg in 1623.
Works :

Museum. The Arts: Poetry, Music, Paint-

ing, and Architecture.
Gallery. Virgin and Child, with Angels

bringing fruit and flowers.
Gallery. Banquet of the Gods.

Adoration of the Shepherds.

Pan and Syrinx.

Judgment of Paris. 1605.

The Last Judgment.

Diana and Actaeon.

Holy Family ; in a landscape

by J. Brueghel.
Death of Adonis.
Holy Family.
Two ' Banquets of the Gods.'


ROTTMANN, FRIEDRICH, painter and draughts-
man, born at Handschuhsheirn, near Heidelberg,
a self-taught artist, known chiefly by his water-
colour sketches of military life. He became teacher
of drawing at the University, and was commissioned
to make sketches of local scenery by the Duke of
Nassau. He died in 1817. By him are the follow-
ing pictures, which he also etched :

The Fight for the Nectar Bridge.
Battle near Handschuhsheirn.
Storming of the Bridge at Heidelberg.

ROTTMANN, KAEL, son of Friedrich Rott-
mann, was born at Handschuhsheim, near Heidel-
berg, in 1797. He studied for a short time under
Xeller. and first brought himself into notice by
his ' Heidelburg at Sunset' (a water-colour), and
his ' Castle Elz.' In 1822 he settled at Munich,
and devoted himself to the delineation of Bavarian
scenery. Later he spent much of his time in
Italy and Greece, and the scenes of classic an-
tiquity furnished him with many subjects. He
was appointed painter to the Bavarian court, and
was commissioned by Louis I. to paint a series of
Greek landscapes, twenty-three in number, which
now hang in a room by themselves, known as the
' Rottmann Saal,' in the New Pinacothek. Several
of these were executed by an encaustic process.
He also painted the arcades of the ' Hofgarten 1 at
Munich with a set of twenty-eight Italian land-
scapes in fresco. He died at Munich in 1850.
The following are some of his works :

Berlin. Nat. Gallery. The Amner Lake.
Frankfort. Stddel Mus. Keggio and Etna. 1829.


Munich, ffew Pinakothek.

Gallery. Landscape in Greece.
The Island of Egiua.
Museum. View of Corfu.

The Copa'is Lake; two pictures.
Three Views in the Bavarian


The Acropolis at Corinth.
The Island of Ischia.
Monreale, near Palermo.

Etna from Taormina.
The Grave of Archimedes at

ROTTMANN, LEOPOLD, landscape painter, born
at Heidelberg in 1813, was a brother of Karl Rott-
mann, and a painter of some popularity. He was
patronized by King Max of Bavaria. Many of his
works are more topographical than pictorial. He
died in 1881.

MICHAEL, (ROTHIIETER,) a painter, born at Laufen,
near Salzburg, in 1652, studied under Karl Loth in
Venice, but afterwards returned to Salzburg, where
he painted several pictures for the churches in that
city. He then went to Vienna, and became court-
painter to the Emperors Joseph I. and Charles VI.,
and was made a baron. The ceiling of the large
hall in Pommersfeld is his most important work.
He died at Vienna in 1730.

ROUBAUD, BENJAMIN, painter, was born at
Roquevaire, Bouches-du-Rhone, in 1811. He was
a pupil of Hersent, and was chiefly occupied in
making drawings for ' L'lllustration.' He died at
Algiers in 1847.

(nee JASER,) a French miniature painter, was
born at Nancy in 1782. She was the pupil success-
ively of Isabey, Aubry, and Regnault. She ex-
hibited at the Salon regularly down to 1844,
winning a medal in 1835. She died in 1873.

ROUCHON, , miniaturist, a Benedictine
monk of the 16th century, who illuminated a
beautiful breviary for the church of S. Jacques de
la Boucherie, in Paris, a work on which he is said
to have spent some twenty-two years.

ROUGEMONT, EMILIE, (nee GOHIN,) a portrait
painter, born in France in 1821, was a pupil of
Leon Cogniet. She died in 1859.

ROUGERON, JEAN, a French painter, born .it
Gevray-Chambertin, Cote d'Or, in 1841. He
worked principally in Spain, and was the friend
of Henri Regnault, whose picture of ' Les Lances,'
left unfinished at Regnault's death during the siege
of Paris, he completed. He died in 1880. Works :

The Spanish Letter-writer.

Dance of Gypsies.

Wedding in a Spanish Village.

Brawl in a Posada.

Child's Funeral in Andalusia.

Taking the Habit at the Carmelites.

Departure of the Torrero for the Bull-fight.

ROUGET, GEORGES, French painter ; born May
2, 1784, in Paris ; was a pupil of David and of
Gamier. Won the second Prix de Rome in 1803
with his ' JEneas and Anchises.' His works include
' Les Princes frangais viennent presenter leurs
hommages an Roi de Rome' (1812), 'Portrait du
Due de Coigny,' and many others. He often helped
David in the completion of his more important
canvases. He obtained a second-class medal in
1814, the Legion d'Honneur in 1822, and a first-
class medal in 1855. He died in Paris, April 9,
1869. Of his portraits we have :



Louis David.
Louia XVIII.
Charles X.

Eugene Beauharnais.

Victor Kellerman.


St. Cyr.



St. Louis receiving the Envoy of the Old Man of the

Mountain, at Ptolemais, 1251.
The Death of St. Louis.
Francis I. at Rochelle.
Henry IV. before Paris.
Henry IV. and his Children.
Henry IV. abjuring the Roman Catholic Faith.
The Marriage of Napoleon with Marie Louise.
The Death of Napoleon I.

Besides these pictures there were also several on
religious and mythological subjects :

CEdipus and Antigone.

Ecce Homo.

Christ on the Mount of Olives.

At Fontainebleau there are several tapestries
executed at the Gobelins after designs by Rouget.
(ne LENOIR,) born in Paris in 1801, a pupil of
Saint, of Delacluze, and of her husband, Jean
Sebastien Rouillard. She won honours at the
Salon, where her works were exhibited between
1819 and 1833. She died of cholera in 1832.

Paris in 1789. He was a pupil of David, and
painted historical subjects and many portraits. His
works appeared at the Salon between 1817 and
1850; he was often premiated. He died in Paris
in 1852. Works :
Air. Musee. Portrait of Charles X. in his

coronation robes.

Amiens. Musee, Portrait of Marshal Grouchy.

Versailles. Musee. Portrait of Marshal Schomberg.

The Marquis de


General Vandamme.

Camille Desmoulins.
General Marbot

ROULLET, JEAN Louis, an engraver, born at
Aries, in Provence, in 1645, was first instructed in
the art of engraving by Jean Lenfant, but he after-
wards became a pupil of Francois de Poilly, and
was the ablest of his scholars. On leaving that
master he went to Italy, where he passed ten years,
and acquired a purity and correctness of drawing
which enabled him to engrave with success after
the great masters of the Italian school. His plate
of the ' Marys with the dead Christ,' after the
picture by Annibale Carracci, formerly in the
Orleans Collection, now in the possession of the
Earl of Carlisle, is admirable. He became ^an
agree of the Academic Royale in 1698, and died
in Paris in 1609. The following are his principal
works :


Louis XIV. ; a half-length.

Fran9ois de Poilly, Engraver to the King, advivum. 1680.

Jean Baptiste Lully, Musician to the King ; after Mig-

Ascanius Philamarinus, Cardinal Archbishop of Naples.

The three Marys, with the dead Christ ; after An.


The Virgin and Infant Jesus ; after Me same.
To pendentives of the dome of the Jesuit's church at

Naples, representing St. Matthew and St. Luke ; after

Lanfranco. The two other pendentives, with St.
Mark and St. John, are engraved by F. de Louvenwnt,

The Visitation of the Virgin to St. Elisabeth ; after

The Virgin, with the Infant Jesus in her arms, who is
holding a Bunch of Grapes ; after the same, and in-
scribed to Madame de Maintenon.

See Mariette, vol. v. pp. 41 51.


EODQDET, JEAN ANDRE, enamel painter, born at
Geneva about 1702. He came to London, where he
practised for many years in the manner of Zincke,
and was well known in literary and artistic
circles in the reign of George II. He afterwards
settled in Paris, where he became a member of the
Academy of Painting, in 1753, by the special order
of the king, and in spite of his Protestant prin-
ciples. He interested himself much in researches
concerning the processes of his art, and was the
author of some works on painting. In 1746 he
published in Paris a ' Lettre de M. . . . a un de sea
amis pour lui expliquer les estampes d'Hogartb,'
and in 1755 , a very laudatory work on British Art,
called, ' L'Etat des Arts en Angleterre,' a trans-
lation of which appeared subsequently in London,
and in the same year a satire suggested by Diderot's
' Peinture en Cire,' entitled ' L'Art nouveau de la
peinture en fromage, ou ramequin, invent^ pour
suivre le louable projet de trouver graduellement
des fa9ons de peindre inferieures a celles qui
existent.' Rouquet had rooms assigned to him in
the Louvre, but, becoming insane, was removed
to Charenton, where he died in 1759.

ROUSSEAU, ANTOINE, a French painter of the
17th century, and friend of Philippe de Champagne,
was in 1645 painter in ordinary at the French

ROUSSEAU, EDME, a French miniature painter
of little note, the pupil of Augustin, born in 1816.
He died in Paris in 1858, and a notice of his life
appeared in ' Le Monde Dramatique ' for the 28th
January, in that year.

ROUSSEAU, JACQUES, landscape painter, was
born in Paris in 1630. After being instructed in
the elements of design in his native city he went
to Rome, where he applied himself to the study of
perspective and landscape, and drew the most re-
markable scenes in the vicinity. He formed a
friendship with Herman Swaneveldt, whose sister he
married, and, assisted by his advice and instruction,
became an able painter of landscapes and architec-
tural views. On his return to Paris he met with
a favourable reception. He was employed by
Louis XIV. at Marly and St. Germain-en-Laye,
and was made a member of the Academy. He
was at the height of his reputation at the Revocation
of the Edict of Nantes, when, as a Protestant, he
fled to Switzerland, whence Louis XIV. invited him
to return. He however preferred to go to Holland,
whence he was invited to England by the Duke of
Montague, and was employed, in conjunction with
Charles de la Fosse and John Baptist Monnoyer, in
decorating Montague House. He was afterwards
employed to paint several landscapes and per-
spective views for the palace of Hampton Court.
The landscapes of Rousseau generally represent
classic scenery, embellished with magnificent archi-
tecture. In this he appears to have taken Nicholas
Poussin for his model. He etched nineteen plates,
of much merit, which are now very rare. He died
in London in 1693.

ROUSSEAU, JEAN FRANQOIS, a French engraver,


who resided in Paris about the year 1760. He has
engraved a great number of vignettes and other
ornaments for books, after the designs of Gravelot
and others. We have also the following separate
plates by him :

The Virgin and Infant Christ ; after Vander Werf.
St. Jerome ; after P. F. Mola.

ROQSSEAU, PHILIPPE, was born in Paris on
the 22nd February, 1816. He was a pupil of Gros
and of Bertin, and made his debut at the Salon of
1834, with a ' View in Normandy,' but about ten
years later turned his attention to those still-life
subjects in which he made his reputation. He
won the orthodox honours at the Salon, culminating
in the officership of the Legion of Honour in 1870.
He died in 1887. Works:

St. Martin, Gisors. 1838.

Interior of a Farm. 1850.

The Intruder. 1850. (Music du Luxembourg.)

Storks taking a Siesta. 1855. (The same.)

Kid eatingFlowers. 1855. (The same.)

The Gala Day. 1859.

The Monkey Photographer. (Exors. of Princess

Flowers. (The same.)

The Wolf and the Lamb. 1875.

O ma tendre Musette ! 1877.

La Fete Dieu. 1877.

The Two Friends. 1882.

scape painter, born in Paris in 1812, was the son of
a tailor, and, in boyhood, was placed in some
humble capacity with a relative who had a steam
saw-mill in Tranche Comte. He studied under Pau
de St. Martin, Re'mond, and Guillon-Letbiere. In
1834, 1835, and 1838 he exhibited at the Salon,
betraying in his work a disregard for convention
which was then quite new. After that time his
works were rejected by the Paris Salon on the
ground that they were not classical ; and it was
not till 1848, when the Jury of Members of the
Institute fell, that his struggles against adverse
fortune came to an end. Meanwhile Rousseau
had taken refuge in the forest of Fontainebleau,
in that village of Barbison which he has done
almost as much as Millet to immortalize. There
he lived until, with opening fortunes, he added to
hie retreat a home in Paris. In 1849 his pictures
were again admitted to the Salon, and won a medal
of the first class. In 1852 he received the cross
of the Legion of Honour, at the 1855 exhibition
a first-class medal, and in 1867 a mgdaille d'hon-
neur and the higher grade of the Legion of Honour.
Rousseau did not show the courage and magna-
nimity of Millet, and his failure to win acceptance is
said to have shortened his life. The credit of an
early appreciation of Rousseau's genius belongs
to the Americans. He died at Barbison on the
22nd December, 1867. Of his works we may

A Glade in a wood, Compiegne. 1834.

The Forest of Fontainebleau, at sunset. 1849.

Hoar Frost.

Group of Oaks.

A Group of Oaks in a hollow.

Huts under the Trees.

A Swamp in the Landes, the Basses-Pyrenees hi the

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