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distance. 1853.

Entrance to Bas-Breau, Fontainebleau. 1851.
Spring at Barbison. 1851.

Exit from the Forest of Fontainebleau ; sunset. (Louvre.)
Spring on the Loire. 1857.

' Garrefour de 1'Epine,' Bas-Breau, Fontainebleaa. 1858.
' Gorges d'Apremont,' Fontainebleau. 1860.
' The Stone Oak ' Foutainebleau. 1861.


The End of October, Sologne. 1867.

Sunlight through Storm. 1867.

Evening after Rain, Berry. 1867.

Farm on the Oise. 1867.

Water-colour Landscape. (Havre Museum.)

Water Meadows. (Nantes Museum.)

Cows at the Drinking Place. (The same.)

Cows in a Meadow, Fontainebleau. (Montpellier Mus.)

painter, was born at Saumur about 1825. He was
a pupil of Leon Cogniet, and went to California,
where he died. Examples of ..his work are to be
found at Versailles and in the musee of Saumur.

graver, born at Abbeville in 1831. His studies
were directed by Henriquel-Dupont. and he was
awarded medals at the Salons of 1863 and 1867.
He died in Paris in 1874. Amongst his best plates
are :

Fame and Truth ; after Correggio.

Portrait of a Man (Louvre) ; after Francis.

The Christian Martyr ; after JJelaroche.

Chris' - - -



He also sent to the Salon portraits in chalk of
M. Victorien Sardou and M. Lerminier.

ROUSSELET, GILLES, was born in Paris in
1610. It is not known under whom he learned the
art of engraving, but his style resembles that of
Bloemaert. He was received into the Academy
in 1663. His drawing is correct, and his plates
possess considerable merit, though in some the
lights are too much covered. He was closely
allied with Le Brun. He died blind in Paris in
1686. The number of his plates is considerable ;
the following are the most esteemed :

Charles de Valois, Duke of Angouleme.

Pierre Seguier, Chancellor of France ; after Le Brun.

Richard de Belleval, Chancellor of the University ; after
the same.

The Frontispiece to the Polyglot Bible ; after S. Bourdon.

The Holy Family ; with St. Elisabeth and St. John pre-
senting the Infant Jesus with a Bird ; after Rajfaelle.

La Belle Jardiniere ; after the same.

The Holy Family, with St. Elisabeth, St. John, and two
Angels ; after the same.

St. Michael overcoming Satan ; after the same.

The Annunciation ; after Gitido.

Four plates representing three of the Labours of Her-
cules and his Death ; after the same.

David playing on the Harp ; after Domenichino.

The Entombment of Christ ; after Titian.

The Four Evangelists ; after Valentin (four plates).

Eliezer meeting Rebecca ; after N. Poussin.

Moses saved from the Nile ; after the same.

The Holy Family ; after S. Bourdon.

St. John the Evangelist ; after the same.

The Crucifixion ; after Le Brun.

A Pieta ; after the same.

The Dead Christ supported by an Angel ; after the tame.

The Holy Family ; after the same.

The Penitent Magdalene ; after the same.

St. Bernard kneeling before the Virgin ; after the same.

St. Theresa in contemplation ; after the same.

ROUSSELET, MARIE ANNE, was the wife of
Pierre Tardieu, the engraver, and was probably a
relative of Gilles Rousselet. She engraved several
plates for Buffon's 'Natural History,' and 'St.
John in the Desert,' after Vanloo. She also en-
graved some sea-pieces after Backhuysen, W.
Van de Velde, and J. Vernet. She flourished
about 1765.





ROUVIERE, PHILIBERT, painter and actor, was
born at Nimes in 1805. He was a pupil of Gros,
entering the Ecole des Beaux Arts in 1828. He
exhibited occasionally at the Salon between 1831
and 1864. He died in Paris in 1865. AB an actor
he played ' Lear,' ' Macbeth,' and the ' Duke of
Alva' at the Odeon, and "created" the role of
' Maitre Fa villa.'

ROUVROY, MARIE VON, German portrait painter ;
born July 19, 1826, at Dresden ; a pupil of Scholz
arid of Grosse at Dresden ; also studied with
Bb'ttcher at Diisseldorf. Died at Dresden, July
21, 1893.

ROUX, CARL, German painter ; born at Heidel-
berg, August 14, 1826 ; a pupil of K. Hiibner ;
studied at Diisseldorf, Munich, Antwerp, and Paris ;
lived at Munich and Carlsruhe until he was ap-
pointed Director of the Mannheim Art Gallery in
1882. He painted historical and genre pictures ;
also animals. His 'Pillaging a Town' is in the
Carlsruhe Gallery. Obtained several decorations
and a medal at Melbourne. He died at Mannheim,
July 21, 1894.

and engraver, born at Jena in 1771, studied first in
his own city and then at Dresden. His ' Falls of
the Rhine at Schaffhausen' is a careful production,
and his illustrations to Tiedemann's work on the
arteries are good. His attempts to make use of
wax as a vehicle were 'finally successful, and in
this manner he painted a ' Head of Venus,' after
Titian, and a portrait of the Councillor Paulus. He
etched the 'Student Riot at Jena of 1792,' and a
' Painter's Journey down the Rhine from the Vosges
to the Siebengebirge.' He died at Heidelberg in

ROUX, Louis PROSPER, French painter ; born in
Paris, Feb. 13, 1817 ; a pupil of Delaroche ; gained
the second Grand Prix de Rome ; made his ddbut
at the Salon of 1839 with a remarkable portrait ;
in 1846 the Ministry of the Interior bought his
picture of ' St. Roch priant pourles Pestiferes,' now
in the Luxembourg ; this gained him a third-class
medal at the Salon ; he decorated many churches,
notably the Ste. Madeleine of Rouen, where twenty-
four of his paintings are to be seen ; the diversity
of his style is noteworthy, for he could paint the
elegant ' Salon de Mme. Epinay ' or the heroic
'Mortdu Prince AdamCzartoriscky' ; his portraits
of Mme. Aubry and the Vicomtess Delaborde
are considered excellent. In 1857 he obtained a
second-class medal for ' L' atelier de Rembrandt'
(in the St. Petersburg Academy) ; in 1859 arappd
for ' Episode de la Fronde ' and ' L' atelier de Paul
Delaroche,' the last-named being a tribute to the
memory of his old master. He died in Paris,
April 6, 1903.


ROUX, POMPEYO, was an engraver of religious
prints at Barcelona in the 17th century.

assisted him in his works, and executed a large
number of paintings, both in fresco and oil, for
the city of Milan. The three brothers were also
called Rossetti, and more generally still Fiammin-
ghini, from their father.

17th century at Turin, the only record of whom
was a curious painting which he left in the convent
of St. Francis at Turin. The subject was ' Death,'
and the Figures of Adam and Eve were introduced


in company with those of the three Fates. It was
inscribed: "Jo. Bapt, a Ruere Taur, f. 1627." An
artist of the same surname was employed at Turin
in connection with the court collection of pictures
from 1626 and onwards, but his Christian name

GHINO, (FlAliiNGO,) painter and engraver, was born
at Milan in 1570, of parents of Flemish origin.
He was brought up under the Procaccini, whose
style he followed, particularly that of Giulio Cesare.
He painted history with some success. His altar-
piece, the ' Last Supper,' in the church of S. Angelo
at Milan, is a good picture, and so are his battle-
pieces and landscapes with animals. Some en-
f ravings by him of such subjects, after his own
esigns, are marked J. M. R. F. GIOVANNI BATTISTA
ROVERE, brother of Giovanni Mauro Rovere, painted
architectural perspectives, and showed consider-
able talent. He died in 1640. Several others of
the same family practised painting.

ROVERIO, BARTOLOMMEO, a Milanese painter
of the 17th century, seems to have been identical
with MARCO GENOVESINI, who has been sometimes
confused with CALCIA, called IL GENOVESINO, a
painter of the same epoch (q. v.). He practised
in the manner of the " : Machinist!." Oretti men-
tions a picture by him in the church of the
Certosa, Carignano, signed Bartol. Roverio. D.
Genovesino, and dated 1626, and a 'Crucifixion'
in the refectory, dated 1614, and he painted
numerous works in Milan, notably for the Augus-
tines, among them a genealogical tree of the


painter and engraver, was born at Valencia in 1693.
It is not known under what master he first studied,
but it is certain that he assisted in the studio of
Evaristo Mufioz, where, solely by application,
he became an excellent engraver. In his 30th
year he started for Rome. On his arrival there he
devoted himself to study with such ardour that he
passed days and nights without other sustenance
than bread and water. He never undressed ; and
his enthusiasm was so great that his boast was?
that he had copied every picture which had given
him pleasure. But his privations had their effect
on his faculties, and on kis return from Rome
his work was not equal to what he had done
before his departure thither. He had there, how-
ever, painted the portrait of the General of the
Dominicans ; and on Rovira's return to Madrid
the reverend father was at the court. The queen,
Isabel Farnese, was desirous of having a portrait
of Luis L, and the General spoke so highly of the
talent of Rovira, that he was sent for to execute
the work. After beginning well, mental disturb-
ance led him to spoil his picture, and he fled to
Valencia in complete destitution. Here the Mar-
quis de Dos Aguas took him into his house, and
got him a commission to paint in fresco the vault
of the sanctuary of S. Luis, which he finished
without exhibiting the least aberration of mind.
It was at last, however, found necessary to place
him in an asylum, the Casa de Hisericordia,
where he died in 1765. In the first volume of the
'Museo Pictorico" of Palomino, there are several
prints by him. which show his talent as an engraver.

landscape painter in water-colours, born at Dublin
in 1823. His father was an artist, and by him he
















was taught. From shortly after his birth until he
was twelve he lived at Bristol. He made several
sketching tours, beginning in 1847, through Wales,
Scotland, Normandy, and Italy. From the latter
country many of his subjects were taken. Suc-
ceeding his father, he taught drawing at the naval
school at New Cross. He joined the Water-Colour
Institute in 1858. In his later years he restricted
himself practically to Italian subjects, and as a
rule to those with sea or a lake in them. His style
was sunny, but florid, decorative, and non-natural.
He died at Kensington in 1875, leaving his family
ill-provided for. Two of his drawings are in the
Kensington Museum.

ROWLANDSON, THOMAS, a celebrated designer
and etcher of caricatures and humorous subjects,
was born in the Old Jewry, London, in July 1756;
the same year as Isaac Cruikshank, six years after
Bmibury, and a year before Gillray: He attended
Dr. Barrow!s Academy in Soho Square along with
Jack Bannister and Henry Angelo, and even at
this early period gave presage of his innate talent
for caricature by making humorous sketches of his
schoolmaster and fellow-scholars on the margin of
his books. In his sixteenth year he went to Paris
at the invitation of his widowed aunt, a French
lady (Chattelier, her maiden name) who had
married his uncle Thomas. He entered as a
student in one of the drawing-schools there, and
made rapid advances in the study of the human
figure. On his return to London he resumed his
studies at the Royal Academy, where he had been
admitted a student before his visit to Paris. In
1775 he exhibited at the Academy ' Delilah paying
Samson a visit while in prison at Gaza.' In 1777
he settled at Wardour Street, and devoted himself
to painting portraits, which he exhibited at the
Academy from 1778 till 1781. At this time he
seems to have begun to forsake the pursuit of
serious art for caricature, and his exhibits in 1784
'An Italian Family,' ' Vauxhall,' and 'The
Serpentine River' were signs of the change.
He showed four similar works in 1786 and 1787
respectively, and then his name disappears from
the catalogues. During this time his father, who
was a city tradesman, became embarrassed from
injudicious speculation, and young Rowlandson
would have been without support but for the
liberality of his aunt in Paris. This lady amply
supplied him with money, and to this indulgence,
perhaps, may be traced those careless habits which
attended his early career, and for which he was
remarkable through life. At her decease she left
him seven thousand pounds, besides other valuable
property. He then gave way to his bent towards
dissipation. In Paris he had imbibed a love for
gaming ; and he now frequented the most fashion-
able playhouses in London, where he alternately
won and lost without emotion, until he had dis-
sipated more than one valuable legacy. It is said
that he once sat uninterruptedly at the card-table
for thirty-six hours. He has been known, after
having lost all he had, to sit down coolly to his
work, and exclaim, "I've played the fool, but
(holding up his pencils) here is my resource."
From about 1782 Rowlandson found a ready
market for his caricatures with Fores, Tegg,
Ackermann, and other printsellers. The excite-
ment of the famous Westminster election of 1784
carried him into political satire, and he found
similar inspiration in the career of Napoleon, and
thn "inquiry into the corrupt practices of the

U 2

Commander-in-Chief " in 1813. He was a prolific
worker, and during this " delicate investigation ''
frequently drew and saw published two fresh
caricatures a day. The ' Miseries of Life,' the
' Comforts of Bath,' and the ' Cries of London '
were all series extending over a year or two, and
published later in a collected form. Coarse, hasty,
and slight as were the generality of his humorous
designs, his early works were wrought with care ;
and his 'Academies' of the human figure were
scarcely inferior to those for which Mortimer was
famous. His style, which was purely his own,
was quite original. He drew a bold outline with
the reed pen, in a tint composed of vermilion and
Indian ink, washed in the general effect in chiaros-
curo, and then slightly tinted the whole with the
proper local colours. His caricatures were issued
by hundreds with cheap, garish colouring, hastily
applied ; but the case is quite different with the
splendid coloured aquatints issued under the
direction of Ackermann. When Rowlandson was
too idle to invent subjects or seek employment,
Ackermann was his best friend and adviser, supply-
ing him with ideas for the exercise of his talent.
The ' Tour of Dr. Syntax in search of the Pic-
turesque' appeared first in Ackermann's 'Poetical
Magazine,' with text by W. Combe, in 1809. Re-
published in 1812, it was followed by a magnificent
series of books with coloured plates, which formed
Rowlandson's principal work till his death in 1827.
For all these illustrations he supplied the original
water-colour, and etched the outline on the copper
plate, the aquatint and colour being applied after-
wards in imitation of liis drawing. Some of his
water-colours, and a few of the original drawings
for ' Dr. Syntax,' are in the Victoria and Albert
Museum. The following are the principal books
containing his coloured plates :

Hungarian and Highland Broadsword Exercise. 1799.

The Loyal Volunteers of London. 1799.

The Microcosm of London. 1808.

Tour of Dr. Syntax in search of the Picturesque. 1812.

Poetical Sketches of Scarborough. 1813.

The Military Adventures of Johnny Newcome. 1815.

Naples and the Canipagna Felice. 1815.

The Grand Master, or Adventures of Qui Hi in

Hindostan. 1815.
The English Dance of Death 1816.
The Dance of Life. 1817.

Tour of Dr. Syntax in search of Consolation. 1820.
Tour of Dr. Syntax in search of a Wife. 1821.
The Vicar of Wakefield. 1821.
History of Johnny Qu;e Genus. 1822. M. H.

ROWLETT, THOMAS, an etcher and draughts-
man, practising in London about the middle of the
18th century. He has left an etching after a
portrait of William Dobson, the painter.

Seville, who practised painting as an amateur, and
actively contributed to the foundation and support
of the Academy in the years 1670-73.

ROY, JEAN BAPTISTE DE, commonly called DE
ROY of Brussels, a landscape and cattle painter,
was born at Brussels in 1759. From his early
childhood he showed a great disposition for draw-
ing, and his father took him to Holland that he
might have the opportunity of studying the cele-
brated Dutchmen. These and nature were his
only teachers ; but by assiduous attention to both
lie soon attained to considerable eminence as a
painter. The pictures of Paul Potter, Cuyp, and
Berchem, decided his choice of subject ; but the
style he adopted differs from theirs, and is more



like that of Ommeganck. His subjects are gener-
ally horned cattle standing in groups, or grazing
in meadows. In the Brussels Museum there is a
good picture by him. He died in 1839.

ROY, JOSEPH, a French painter of the 17th cen-
tury, employed at a fixed salary by the town of
Bordeaux in 1611. He painted the portraits of
many of the municipal authorities.


ROY, SIMON, a French painter of the 16th cen-
tury, the friend of Clouet. He was one of the
artists employed in 1548 in the decoration of

ROYEN, WILLEM F. VAN, a Dutch painter of
still-life, born at Haarlem in 1654. In 1689 he
settled at Berlin, and became painter to the court,
working at Berlin and at Potsdam for mauy years.
Nagler states that he received a considerable
pension from the Prussian court. He died in 1723.


EOYER, PIEHRE, a painter and architect, work-
ing towards the end of the 18th century. He was
of French birth, but seems to have worked chiefly
in London. He exhibited at the Royal .Academy
between 1774 and 1778, and at the Salon down to
1796. Most of his subjects were taken from London
and its neighbourhood. Among them were a
' View of Garrick's Villa, at Hampton,' ' Hyde
Park Corner,' ' Chelsea and Battersea Bridge.'


ROYNARD, VINCENT, a French artist of the 17th
century. In 1642 he received commissions for vari-
ous portraits and pictures from Anne of Austria.

was born in Paris, May 5, 1840. He made his
debut at the Salon in 1869, and from that date
onward he was a regular exhibitor of pictures
representing fruit and flowers, such as 'Panier
d'Isabelle la Bouquetiere,' ' Le Bouquet de Violettes,'
&c. He gained a third-class medal in 1876, and a
second-class medal in 1880 ; also a bronze medal
at the Universal Exhibition of 1889. He died in
Paris in May 1901.

ROZZOLONE, PETER, 14841525. His earliest
authenticated painting ia a 'Christ on a Cross' in
the church at Termini. Other works at Palermo,
Chiusi, and Alcamo.

RUBE, AUGDSTE ALFRED, a French painter, was
born in Paris in 1815 ; became a pupil of Ciceri ;
chiefly famous for his theatrical work ; painted
act-drops for the Paris Grand Opera and the Opera
Comique ; also some effective landscapes obtained
the Legion of Honour in 1869. He died in Paris,
April 13, 1899.

RUBEN, CHRISTIAN, a painter, born at Treres
in 1805. His first master was Cornelius, at Diissel-
dorf, but he afterwards studied at Munich. In
the summer of 1835 he produced an ' Ave Maria'
and ' Scenes from Monastic Life,' also a series of
cartoons for the cathedral of Ratisbon. In 1848
he was appointed Director of the Art Academy
at Prague, in which year he also produced some
cartoons for the Belvedere at Vienna, of which
he was made Director. His last works were ten
cartoons from Bohemian history. He died in an
asylum near Vienna in 1875.

RUBENS, A., an obscure artist, who practised
at Brussels, and died in distressed circumstances
about 1824.

RUBENS, PETER PAUL, was thus christened
because he was born at Siegen in Westphalia on
the day dedicated to those two saints, June 28, in
the year 1577. His father, Jan Rubens, a lawyer,


was an alderman of Antwerp, who, in the time of
the religions persecution, had been very deservedly
denounced as a Calvinist, and fled to Cologne just
in time to avoid the consequences of being pro-
scribed by the Spanish Governor, the Duke of Alba.
There he entered the service of Prince William of
Orange, called the Silent, but, after two troubled
years, became involved in an intrigue with the
Princess Anne of Saxony, his patron's second
wife, and, after narrowly escaping the capital
punishment provided by German law, was im-
prisoned firstly at Siegen and later in the Castle of
Dillenburg. At the end of five years of rigorous
captivity he was released on a bail of 6000 thalers,
chiefly owing to the unremitting exertions of his
injured wife, and permitted to live, under a very
strict surveillance and subject to constant oppres-
sion by the Nassau family. In 1578 the family
were at last allowed to return to Cologne, where
they lived in a small house in the Steeren-Gasse
for the following nine years, and where Peter Paul
began his education at the Jesuits' school. In
1587 the father died, and on March 1 of that year
his widow, having re-embraced the Catholic faith,
was allowed to betake herself and family to Ant-
werp. The endless exactions of the revengeful
Nassaus had reduced them to extreme poverty,
but the mother, Maria Pypelinx, was a woman of
character and determination, and managed to
obtain for her son a sound education at a school
behind the Cathedral, kept by Rombout Verdonck,
a learned and pious man, from whom, and from
his mother, he acquired the profoundly religious
spirit which marked his career. It was seemingly
owing to the family indigence that, when his
schooling was ended, he entered as a page the
household of a princess of the family of Ligne, the
widow of Count Antoine van Lalaing, formerly
Governor of Antwerp, but it was doubtless to this
servitude that he owed the courtliness and grace
of manner which proved so invaluable to him in
after life, and for which he was distinguished
above his compeers. This experience was, how-
ever, brief, for he was only thirteen years of age
when he entered upon the serious study of art
under Tobias Verhsecht, a landscape painter of
considerable reputation at the time, who was
probably selected because he was a kinsman of
Rubens' mother. But landscape work, though he
fell back upon it in his later years, was not enough
to satisfy the ambitions of the young student, who
was already dreaming of great historical pictures,
and he remained, therefore, only a short time with
his first instructor, removing to the studio of Adam
van Noort, where, in the company of Jordaens
and others, he studied for four years. Great im-
portance has been attached to the influence of Van
Noort upon Rubens and Jordaens, and through
them and his other pupils, of whom thirty- two are
mentioned in the archives of the Painters' Guild,
upon the whole Flemish art of the period ; but, as
no work assuredly by him is known, the credit
bestowed on him rests on slender foundations. At
the age of nineteen Rubens was transferred to the
studio of Otto van Veen often called Otho Venius
a man descended illegitimately from a noble
family, who had been military engineer to Alexander
Farnese, and, after studying under Zucchero at
Rome, had been appointed Court painter to the
Archduke Albert and the Infanta Isabella. He
imbued his promising pupil with a desire to visit
Italy, while he was able to forward his wish |
through the favour of the Archduke. On May a,

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1600, consequently, having been made free of the
Guild in 1598, Rubens set out for Italy. Nothing
is on record of the incidents of his journey or of
his arrival, beyond the circumstance that at Venice
he became known to the magnificent Vincenzo
Gonzaga, the reigning Duke of Mantua, who at
once became his patron and protector, carrying
him first to Florence whither he was journeying
to attend the marriage of Marie de' Medici with
Henry IV. of France and subsequently to Genoa.

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