Michael Bryan.

Bryan's dictionary of painters and engravers (Volume 4) online

. (page 78 of 82)
Online LibraryMichael BryanBryan's dictionary of painters and engravers (Volume 4) → online text (page 78 of 82)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

In July 1601 he sent him to Rome to make copies
of famous pictures, and while there Rubens came
under the influence of Caravaggio, and painted
the three pictures for the altar of St. Helena in
the church of Santa Croce di Gerusalemme which
are now in the Municipal Hospital at Grasse. He
was recalled to Mantua in 1602, but on March 5
in the following year started for Spain, whither
he was sent by the Duke, on a partly artistic,
partly diplomatic mission, in charge of presents
for the King and others, including a collection of
pictures for the minister, the Duke of Lerma.
These last, during the delays and difficulties of the
journey, were seriously injured by damp, but
Rubens, owing to a fortunate hitch in the arrange-
ments for the presentation, was enabled not only
to restore them but to paint an original work to
add to them which gave great satisfaction. On
his return to Mantua after nearly a year's absence
he began to receive a fixed salary of 400 ducatoons
a year from the Duke, but returned to his studies
at Rome in 1605, and remained there, with the
exception of a short visit to Mantua in 1607 at the
express command of the Duke, until 1608, when
the news of his mother's severe illness drew him
homewards, to be met on his journey by the
announcement of her death. He then settled at
Antwerp, where his brother Pliilip was town secre-
tary, and on October 3, 1609, married Isabella
Brant, the niece of his brother's wife. He was
nominated Court painter to the Archduke, and in
the same year admitted into the Romanist Guild
of St. Peter and St. Paul. On March 21, 1611, his
eldest child, a daughter, christened Clara Serena,
was born, and in the same year he purchased a plot
of land and a house, which he altered and rebuilt
in the Italian style, assisting personally in its
decoration, so lavishly that it is said to have cost
him 60,000 florins, exclusive of the princely collec-
tion of art treasures installed in it, and was not
finished until 1618. In the same year (1611) his
brother Philip died, leaving two children, and
Rubens became the representative of the family.
In 1614 his first son was born, and on June 5 was
christened Albert, after the Archduke, who stood
godfather to the boy ; while four years later, on
March 23, 1618, a second son, Nicholas, was born.
It was during this period that some of Rubens'
finest pictures were painted. He valued his work
at 100 guilders, or about 10, a day, and the
amount that he produced was enormous. His
process was to sketch out his subjects on a small
scale, and have them transferred to canvas by his
pupils under his own close supervision, finally
completing them himself with the vigorous finish-
ing-touches which distinguish his work. There
was no concealment about this co-operation. In a
list of his pictures sent to Sir Dudley Carleton he
carefully distinguishes between those which were
all his own and those which were only his in part,
as "Daniel among many lions. Painted from life.
Original by my hand ; '' or "A Susannah, painted

by one of my pupils, but entirely retouched by my
hand," and he carefully calls attention to the fact
that the retouched pieces are cheaper. Amongst
these pupils or collaborators were Justus von
Egmont, Peter van Mol, Cornelis Schut, Jan van
der Hoecke, Simon de Voa, Deodato van der Mont
or Delmont, Nicholas van der Horst, Jan Wildens,
Jakob Moermans, Willem van Panneels, Peter
Soutmanns, Erasmus Quellin, David Teniers the
younger, Theodore van Thulden, Abraham van
Diepenbeeck, Frans Wouters, Gerard van Herp,
Jean Thomas, Matthew van den Berg, Samuel
Hoffman, Jan van der Stock, Pennemakers, and Jan
Victor Wolfvoet; but those who did him the best
service were Anthony van Dyck, Jacob Jordaens,
and Frans Snyderg. In the beginning of 1622 he
was called to Paris at the request of the Queen,
Marie de' Medici, who entrusted to him the decora-
tion of the great gallery in the Palace of the
Luxembourg. The work was carried on at Ant-
werp with such energy that in August 1623 he
was able to deliver some of it in person, and in
1625 to revisit Paris with the remainder. In the
course of this last visit he became known to the
Duke of Buckingham, who had come to France to
escort Henrietta Maria to her husband, Charles I.
of England, and painted his portrait, chiefly as a
veil for diplomatic interviews ; while in the follow-
ing year he completed the transfer to the Duke of
his own fine collection of statues, pictures, and
other works of art for the sum of 100,000 florins.
His daughter Clara had died in 1623, and on June
20, 1626, he lost his wife, Isabella Brant, to whom
he had been happily united for sixteen years. He
was not, however, permitted to nurse his grief in
idleness, even if he had desired to do so. 'The
Infanta Isabella, who on the death of her husband
had become Governor of the Spanish Netherlands,
had long appreciated the honesty and discretion
of her Court painter, and had realized the ad-
vantage of employing the services of so apparently
innocent an agent. She kept him constantly
engaged, either openly or secretly, in the delicate
intrigues going on between Spain, France, and
England, and finally, in 1628, sent him to Madrid
in response to a somewhat grudging invitation
extended to him by Philip IV. at her urgent
suggestion. The King's Spanish pride could ill
brook so ignoble an intermediary, but Rubens had
not been long at the Court before his infinite tact
and exquisite charm of manner had entirely won
the reluctant autocrat. He was specially recom-
mended to the attention of Velazquez, the Court
painter, given a painting-room in the Palace, and
frequently visited by the King, who also sat to
him for his portrait. Nevertheless, the negotiations,
in which he was chiefly concerned, progressed
slowly, and though he occupied himself by making
full-sized copies of the Titians in the royal galleries,
besides painting portraits and a few original works,
he began to weary for his home. The assassination
of Buckingham in 1628 further complicated matters,
and in the spring of 1629 the minister Olivares
determined to dispatch Rubens as an envoy to
London, and, having been nominated Secretary to
the Privy Council of the Netherlands, he left
Madrid on April 29, 1629, with full instructions,
for Brussels, reaching Paris on May 10, and London,
after a brief pause of two or three days only at
Antwerp, on June 5. There he was received with
great honour and cordiality, had frequent inter-
views with the King, and finally brought to a



successful issue the intricate and delicate com-
missions with which he had been charged. Am-
bassadors were exchanged between England and
Spain, and Rubens, who had three days previously
received knighthood at Whitehall, left London on
March 6, 1630, and returned to the Netherlands.
Among the works that he painted during his nine
months' sojourn in England were the ceiling at
Whitehall and ' Peace and War,' now in the
National Gallery. On December 6, 1630, Rubens,
being then fifty-three years old, married his second
wife, Helena Fourment, the daughter of his deceased
wife's sister. She was a girl of sixteen, and her
pleasing appearance is familiar to the world in a
great number of her husband's pictures. In 1633
the Infanta Clara Eugenia Isabella again employed
him in a diplomatic mission to the States-General
of Holland, but he was badly, even insultingly re-
ceived, and her death in the last month of the
year brought the affair to an end. His health
now began to fail. He suffered much from gout,
and in 1635, in order to escape from the constant
interruptions of a city life, he purchased the
Chateau de Steen, between Vilvorde and Mechlin,
where he subsequently passed the summers, em-
ploying himself in painting landscapes. In the
winter of the same year he was engaged to arrange
for the triumphal entry into Antwerp of Archduke
Ferdinand, the new Spanish Governor of the
Catholic provinces, and his designs for the pageant
were afterwards engraved and published with a
written description by Gervaerts in 1642. In 1636
he was made Court painter to Ferdinand, and
designed a number of decorations for the Torre
della Parada, a hunting-box which the Spanish
King had built for himself near Madrid. His
health continued, however, to get worse and worse,
and his letters became full of excuses for the con-
sequent unavoidable delay in the execution of his
commissions. His latest completed work, for
example, the altar-piece for the church of St. Peter
at Cologne, which in his prime he could have
finished in sixteen days, was several years in hand,
and even then was largely carried out by pupils.
He died on May 30, 1640, and was temporarily
interred in the vault of the Fourment family, but
two years later his body was removed to a special
chapel built out from the church of St. Jacques at
Antwerp for its reception. A catalogue was made
of the works of art in his possession, which sold
for the then enormous sum of 25,000. His
eldest son, who was a distinguished scholar and
antiquarian, succeeded to his office of Secretary to
the Privy Council, but died at an early age. In
addition to his paintings, Rubens etched a few
plates, made some designs for silversmiths, and
many for printers like Moretus, for whom he
sketched numerous titles and culs-de-lampe, as well
as eight illustrations for a history of cameos to be
written by his friend Peiresc, which was never
published. He furthermore made designs for
several sets of tapestry, of which 'The Life of
Achilles,' in eight pieces, 'The History of Constan-
tine,' in twelve (Garde-Meuble, Paris), and two
' Triumphs of the Church,' one in seven, and the
other in fifteen pieces (Carmelites, Madrid), are the
most important, The amount of his pictorial work
was prodigious. A list, drawn up by the Com-
mission anvcrsoise charge'e de reunir I'ceuvre de
Rubens en gravures ou en photographies, and
probably incomplete, records no fewer than 2,253,
exclusive of 484 drawings. The Munich Gallery

alone contains 77 canvases catalogued under his
name, and the Louvre 54, while there is scarcely
a collection of any importance, public or private,
which does not include at least one of his works.
Under these circumstances it is clearly impossible
to attempt giving anything like a complete list of
them here, and the following, therefore, only
mentions some of the more remarkable of those
which are easily accessible. M, B.

Antwerp. Cathedral.

S. Jacques.





Cologne. Ch. ofSt.Peter.
Darmstadt. Museum.



Dublin. Nat. Gallery.



Pitti Palace.

Frankfort. Staiiel lust.

Raising of the Cross. (Fine
sketch for it in Capt. HolforcCs
Collection, Dorchester House.)

Descent from the Cross.

Assumption of the Virgin.

The Resurrection.

Adoration of St. Bonaventura.

The Crucifixion. (Le Coup de

Adoration of the Magi.

Communion of St. Francis of

The Education of the Virgin.

Christ a. la Faille.

Triptych of Nicolas Rockox.

St. Theresa.

The Virgin with the Parrot.

Coronation of the Virgin.

Diana at the Chase.

Neptune and Amphitrite.

Portrait of Helena Fourment.

The Resurrection of Lazarus.

Perseus and Andromeda.

The Garden of the Hesperides,

Venus and Adonis.

Christ carrying his Cross.

The Virgin beseechiug Mercy
for the "World from Christ.

A Pieti.

Coronation of the Virgin.

Adoration of the Magi.

Martyrdom of St. Lievin.

Portraits of Jean Charles de
Cordes and his Wife.

Portraits of Archduke Albert
and his AVife.

Martyrdom of St. Peter.

Diana and her Nymphs.

Diana and her Nymphs.

A Lion Hunt.

The drunken Hercules.

' Quos Ego ' ; Neptune com-
manding the winds to be still.

Victory Crowning a Hero, who
sets his foot on the neck of


The Boar Hunt.

Tigress with Young.

Daughter of Herodias.

Mercury and Argus.

Portraits of his Sons.

The Garden of Love.

St. Francis receiving the Stig-

St. Peter and the Tribu

Henry IV. at Ivry.

Venus and Adonis.


The Graces.

Portrait of Isabella Brant.

Landscape: Ulysses.

Rubens and his Brother with
Lipsius and Grotius.

St. Francis.

The Horrors of War.

A Holy Family.

Portrait of the Duke of Buck-

Portrait of a Child.

David harping.



Hanfitaiigl fhoto]


[National Gallery


Glasgow. Gallery.

London. Nat, Galltry.

Dulwich Gall.

Wallace, Coll.


^ Whitehall.



Gall try.



The Many-breasted Goddess.
A Boar Hunt.
The Rape of the Sabines.
Peace and War.
The Brazen Serpent.
Judgment of Paris.
The Triumph of Julius Caesar.
(A free copy from Manteana.
The Horrors of War. (Sketch

for the large picture in. the
Pitti Palace.)
The Triumph of Silenus.
The Conversion of St. Bavon.
Apotheosis of William the

The 'Chapeau de Faille.


The Birth of Venus. (Grisaille.)
Holy Family, with St. George

aud other Saints.
Landscape, with a View of the

Chateau de Steen.
Landscape, sunset.
Landscape sketch.
Three, Women with Cornucopia.
Portrait of Helena Fourment.
St. Barbara flying from her


The Three Graces dancing.
Venus, Mars, and Cupid.
Portrait of Isabella Brant.
The Rainbow.
The Crucifixion.
The Holy Family.
Mercury and Hebe.
St. Theresa.

Apotheosisof Jamesl. (Ceiling.)
Triumph of the Catholic


I \ inn and the Cloud.
Abraham dismissing Hagar.
The Brazen Serpent.
The Adoration of the Magi.
Holy Family.
A Pieta,

The Supper at Emmaus.
St. George and the Dragon.
Eleven figures of the Apostles.
The Centaurs and the Lapithse.
Kape of Proserpine.
Achilles and Ulysses.
Perseus and Andromeda.
Orpheus and Eurydice.
The Creation of the Milky Way.
The Judgment of Paris.
The Three Graces.
Diana and Calisto.
Pan and Ceres.
Mercury and Argus.
Nine figures of Gods and Classic

The Garden of Love.
Adam and Eve.
Rape of Europa.
Dance of Peasants.
Portrait of the Archduke


Portrait of Philip II.
Portrait of the Infanta Isabella,

Clara Eugenia.
Portrait of Marie de' Medicis.
Portrait of Don Ferdinand of

Portrait of Sir Thomas More.

(Copy after Holbein.)
Death of Seneca.
Virtue victorious over Licence.
Martyrdom of St. Laurence.
The Rape of the Daughters of

The Fruit Garland.
The Flower Garland.
Diana Sleeping, watched by

Diana Resting.

Munich. Gallery. Defeat of Sennacherib.

., Conversion of St. Paul.

Lion Hunt.

Christ Enthroned on the
Clouds, among Saints and

r The Fall of the Rebel Angels.

The large ' Fall of the


The small 'Fall of theDamned.'
The Woman of the Apocalypse.

The Nativity.

Descent of the Holy Ghost.

n The Battle of the Amazons.

" Samson taken by Philistines.

' .. Susannah and the Elders.

> ,, Christ and the Penitent Sinners.

,, Christ on the Cross.

Reconciliation of the Romans

and Sabiues.

" Silenus.

" ,, War and Peace.

,, The Massacre of the Innocents.

,, Pastoral: portraits of Rubens

and his second wife.
" St. Christopher.

n Sixteen sketches for the His-

tory of Marie de' Medicis in
the Louvre.
i> Portrait Group of Rubens and

his first Wife.

,, Portrait of Philip Rubens.

i> ., Portrait Group of Thomas

Earl of Arundel and his Wife,
with their Dwarf and Jester.

Portrait of Philip IV. of Spain .

it Portrait of Elizabeth of Bour-

bon, wife of Philip IV.
Portrait of Don Ferdinand of

>i ,. Portrait of an Old Woman.

Portrait of a Young Girl.

Three portraits of Helena Four-

Portrait of Helena Fourment

with her little naked son.
Rubens and Helena Fourment

in a Garden.

,, Portrait of a Scholar,

i, ii Portrait of Dr. van Thulden.

Paris. Louvre. The Flight of Lot.

,, Elijah in the Desert.

The Adoration of the Magi.

A Tournament.

The Virgin with the Innocents.

Thomyris, and the head of


History of Marie de' Medici.

(Twenty-one pictures, painted

by his pupils, but animated by

his own finishing touches.)

Portrait of Helena Fourment

and two of her Children.
' Kermesse ' in a Flemish


Two Landscapes.

Five portraits of Members of

the French Royal Family.

Petersburg. Hermitaye. Abraham dismissing Hagar.
Christ in the House of Simon

the Pharisee.

,i Ecce Homo.

Coronation of the Virgin.

Venus and Adonis.

Two ' Bacchanals ' ; one iden-

tical with the picture at
Munich known as 'Silenus.'
Perseus and Andromeda.

Rape of the Sabines.

Portrait of Philip IV.

Triumphs of the Cardinal In-

fante Ferdinand.
., Four Sketches for Pictures in

Medici series.

,. The City of Antwerp (allei/ory).



Petersburg. Hermitage. The Temple of Janus.

Two Sketches for the "White-

hall ceiling.

Portrait of Helena Fourment

with an Ostrich Feather
(From the Walpple Collection.]
Fourteen other Portraits.

., Two Lions and a Lioness.

Vienna. Gallery. Votive picture of the Brother-

hood of San Ildefonso.
,i Holy Family under an Apple-


St. Ignatius Loyola.
St. Francis Xavier preachiug.
The Assumption of the Virgin
The Temptation of Christ
signed P. P. RUBENS F.
The Penitent Magdalen.
Ambrosius repulsing Theodo-

sius from the Church door.
Meeting between Ferdinand of

Hungary and Prince Charles
Ferdinand of Spain, at No'rd-
lingen, in 1634.

The Feast of Venus.

Cymon and Iphigenia.

Jupiter and Mercury with Phi-

lemon and Baucis.
,, The Hermit and the Sleeping


>, .. A Stormy Landscape, with

Jupiter, Mercury, Philemon
and Baucis.

,, Portrait of Maximilian I.

>i Charles the Bold, Duke of


St. Pipin, Duke of Brabant,

with his Daughter, St. Bega.

,, His own Portrait ; signed P. P.

Portrait of Helena Fourment,

nude, making for her Bath.
., Eleven portraits and Single

Figure studies.

Liechtenstein Col. The Story of the Death of
Decius Mus. (A series of
six pictures.)

,, The Triumph of Rome.

Assumption of the Virgin.

,, Erecthonius and the Daughter

of Cecrops.

,, The Two Sons of Rubens.

The Toilet of Venus.

Ajax and Cassandra.

Windsor Castle. Landscape ; going to Market.

His own Portrait.

St. George and the Dragon.

,. Farm at Laeken.

Landscape ; snowstorm.


J. F. Michel, ' Histoire de la vie de P. P. Rubens.'

Brussels, 1771.
A. Van Hasselt, ' Histoire de P. P. Rubens.' Brussels


Alf . Michiels,' Rubens et 1'ecole d'Anvers.' Paris, 1877.
Paul Mantz, ' Rubens.' Gazette des Beaux Arts, 1881-

M. Rooses, ' Geschiendenis der Antwerpsche Schilder-

school,' pp. 247-94. Ghent, 1879.
G. F. Waagen, ' Peter Paul Rubens, his Life and Genius.'

London, 1840.
F. Von Ravensburg, ' Rubeus und die Antike.' Jena,

A. Baschet, ' Pierre-Paul Rubens, peintre de Vincent

de Gonzague, due de Mautoue . . . d'apres ses lettres

et autres documents in6dits." Gazette des Beaux

Arts, 1866-1868.
Gachard, ' Histoire politique et diplomatique, P. P.

Rubens.' Brussels, 1877.


Villaamil, ' Rubens diplomatico Espanol.' Madrid, 1874.
Ch. Ruelens, ' P. P. Rubens. Documents et Lettres.'

Brussels, 1877.
Eugene Fromentin. ' Les maitres d'autrefois,' pp. 27-

125. Paris, 1877 [3rd Ed.].
' Le Bulletin-Rubens.' Antwerp, 1882, 1897.
Max Rooses, ' L'reuvre de P. P. Rubens.' 1886.
Catalogue of the Tercentenary Exhibition at Antwerp

in 1877. (' L'ceuvre de P. P. Rubens.')
A. J. Wauters, ' Flemish School of Painting ' p 379

London, 1885.
E. Michel, ' Rubens, his Life, his Work, and his Time.'

English translation, London, 1899.

portrait painter, who resided in England many
years. He painted dead game and still-life, and
sometimes portraits, but his chief occupation was
painting draperies in the pictures of others. He
was a member of the St. Martin's Lane Academy,
and died in London about the year 1763.


RUBIALES, PEDRO DE, was a native of Estre-
madura, and flourished about the year 1545. Little
is known of his works in Spain, as he resided the
greater part of his life at Rome and Florence,
where he studied under Francesco Salviati, whom
he assisted in many of his works. He was also at
one time a coadjutor of Giorgio Vasari. Rubiales
painted as late as 1560, but the date of his death
is not known.

RQBINI, an Italian painter of little note, who
practised at Treviso about 1650.

RUBIO, ANTONIO, a Spanish painter and pupil
of Antonio Pizarro. He was appointed painter to
the chapter of Toledo in 1645, and died in 1653.

RUBIRA, ANDRES DE, a Spanish painter, was
born at Escacena del Campo, and was a scholar
of Domingo Martinez, at- Seville. His application
and activity were very useful to his master in the
different works which he was commissioned to
paint ; for, it is said, he sketched the greater part
of the pictures in the ancient chapel of the Cathe-
dral, which were completed by Martinez. On his
return to Seville, from a visit to Lisbon, he was
soon employed on works of great importance, such
as the pictures in the chapel of the Holy Sacrament,
in the college of San Salvador, a great part of
those in the college of S. Alberto, and most of
those that decorate the cloister del Carmen calzado.
He also occasionally painted conversation pieces,
and bambocciati. Rubira died at Seville in 1760.

RQBIRA, JOSEF DE, son of Andres de Rubira,
was born at Seville in 1747. Though only thirteen
at his father's death, he would not submit to be
instructed by another master. He was an excellent
copyist of the works of Murillo. He died in 1787.

RUCHOLLE, PIERRE, an indifferent French en-
graver, who flourished about the year 1690. He
engraved a few portraits, amongst which we have
those of:

Charles Emanuel, Duke of Savoy ; after I'andyck ; with

the address of J. Meyssens.
Louis XIV. ; after H. Riyaud.

RUDDER, Louis HENRY DE, historical painter,
was born in Paris, October 17, 1807 ; he was a
pupil of Gros and of Charlet, entering the Ecole
des Beaux Arts in 1827. He exhibited regularly
at the Salon between 1834 and 1880, and was
much employed on decorative work for America.
Be lithographed forty plates for Prince Soltykoffs
Voyage dans L'Inde, 1 and a great many for
Duvier's ' Anatomie Compare^.' He died in Paris
in May 1886. Pictures :


The Divine Message. (Ministere de I'lnttrieur, Paris.)

Women Bathing. (The same.)

Ecce Homo. (Ministere de L'tat.)

Christ in the Garden of Olives. (The same.)

The Alchemist, Nicholas Flamel. (Luxembourg.)

Ecce Homo. (Museum, St. Etienne.)

Portrait of E. Pasquier. (Versailles.)

RDDE, SOPHIE, (nde FHHIET,) was born at Dijon
in 1797. She was a pupil of David, and painted
historical and still-life pictures, and portraits. She
married Francois Rude, the sculptor, and died in
Paris in 1867. Of her pictures we may name :

The Sleep of the Virgin. (Dijon Museum.)

Charles I. parting from his Children. (Ministere dr

The Duchess of Burgundy stopped at the gate of

Bruges. (Dijon Museum.)
Faith, Hope, and Charity. (Chapel of Mi. St. Michel.)

RUDELL, PETER EDWARD, German painter ;
born in 1854 ; mainly a painter of pleasing land-
scapes, and for a time worked in New York. He
died June 20, 1899.

RUDOLF, SAMUEL, portrait painter, born in
Germany, 1639, practised at Nuremberg and at
Erlangen. He died in 1713.


RUDOLPH D'ANVERS, painter, practising at
Antwerp in the middle of the 16th century. In
1553 he painted an altar-piece for the church of
Saint- Victor, at Xanten.



RUEL, GABRIEL DE, a Spanish historical painter,
resided at Granada at the commencement of the
17th century. There are several pictures by him
in that city. He was appointed painter to the
cathedral of Toledo in 1633. He died on Christmas
Eve, in 1641.

RUEL, JOHANN BAPTIST, painter, born at Ant-
werp in 1634, went as a singer to the cathedral
at Mayence, and there studied under Johann
Thomas, called Ipenaer. He practised as an his-
torical and portrait painter, visited Vienna, where
he painted altar-pictures and portraits, and died
at Antwerp about the beginning of the 18th


Online LibraryMichael BryanBryan's dictionary of painters and engravers (Volume 4) → online text (page 78 of 82)