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RUFO, JOSEF MARTIN, an historical and portrait
painter, born at the Escurial, and educated at the
academy of S. Fernando. He flourished in the
second half of the 18th century.

RUGENDAS, CHRISTIAN, the son of Georg
Philipp Rugendas, by whom we have a great
number of prints in mezzotint, after the designs of
his father, representing marches, halts, battles, &c.
He engraved about sixty of his father's designs ;
and there are by him about thirty etchings from his
own, which are much esteemed. He died at Augs-
burg in 1781, at the age of seventy -three.

RUGENDAS, GEORG PHILIPP, painter and en-
graver, born at Augsburg in 1666, and first in-
structed in design by Isaac Fischer, a painter of
history ; but his genius leading him to paint battles
and skirmishes of cavalry, he formed his style by
studying the works of Borgognone, and the prints
of Tempesta. He had acquired considerable reput-
ation by his pictures of that description, when he
resolved to visit Italy, and, 1692, went to Venice,
where he passed some time, and was assisted i'i
his studies by Giovanni Battista Molinari. From
Venice he went to Rome, where it was not long

before his talents became known, and he met with
such flattering encouragement in that metropolis,
that he had thought of establishing himself there ;
but the death of his father obliged him to return to
Augsburg, and he quitted Italy with regret in
1695. In a few years after his return to Augsburg,
the war of the Succession broke out, when Rugendas
had an opportunity of personally witnessing those
scenes of slaughter and desolation which his ima-
gination had so frequently enabled him to trace
with his pencil. During the siege, bombardment,
and pillage of Augsburg, by the French and Bava-
rians, in 1703, he exposed himself to the most
imminent danger, to study the attacks of the be-
siegers, which he drew with sang-froid, surrounded
on all sides with carnage and destruction. He
afterwards published a set of etchings from the
drawings thus made.

Rugendas died at Augsburg in 1742. He de-
voted a considerable portion of his time to engrav-
ing, and has executed a grent number of plates,
both etchings and in mezzotint ; among them the
following :

A set of six Plates ; entitled, Canned di Gioraio Filippo

Bugendas. 1698.
Eight Plates; entitled, Diversi Pensierifatto per Gior-

yio Filippo Ruyendas, Pittore. 1699.
A set of eight Plates, representing horsemen.
Six Plates of Cavalry marching.

The Military operations of the French and Bavarian
armies at the siege of Augsburg ; in six Plates. 1704.


Four Plates of Skirmishes between the Prussian and

Hungarian Hussars.
Four Plates of Lion and Tiger Hunts, &c.

painter, born in 1775, at Augsburg, where he be-
came Director of the Academy. He was the great-
grandson of G. P. Rugendas. There are some
etchings and aquatint engravings by him. He
died in 1826.

RUGENDAS, JOHANN MORITZ, a German draughts-
man, the son of J. L. Rugendas, was born at Augs-
burg in 1802. He studied under his father, and
also at Munich. In 1821, he set out on a series of
travels in Brazil with General Langsdorf. These
were afterwards extended to Mexico, Peru, and
other American States. The sketches he made in
these wanderings were published in :

' Malerische Eeise in Brasilien.' Paris. 1835.
' Mexico,' by C. Sartorius. London. 1855-8.

RUGGERI, GUIDO, a native of Bologna, who
flourished about the year 1550. He was a disciple
of Francesco liaibolini, called II Francia, and ac-
companied Primaticcio to France, where he assisted
that master in his great work at Fontainebleau. He
is. however, more known as an engraver than as a
painter. He engraved several plates from the designs
of Primaticcio, which are executed in a style re-
sembling that of Marco da Ravenna ; and it is not
improbable that he learned engraving in the school
of Marc Antonio Raimondi. His plates were usually
marked with a monogram composed of a G. and
an R. joined together, with an F. for fecit. The
etchings attributed to this master partake of the
manners of Giulio Bonasone, Caraglio, and Giorgio
Ghisi ; but there is great uncertainty respecting

brother of Giovanni Ruggieri, was also educated



in the school of Francesco Gessi, whose style he
followed with so much success, that his works are
with difficulty distinguished from those of his
master. Such are his picture of the ' Death of St.
Joseph,' in the church of S. Cristina di Pietra-
lata, at Bologna ; and the ' Virgin and Infant Jesus,
with St. Catherine, and other saints,' at the Servi.

GESSI, a native of Bologna, was born in 1606, and
for some time a disciple of Domeriichino. He
afterwards became a Bcholar of Francesco Gessi,
whom he accompanied to Naples, and assisted in
some of his principal works in that city, and at
Bologna. He visited Rome in the pontificate of
Urban VIII., when he was patronized by the Mar-
chese Giustiniani, and painted some pictures for
the churches and palaces. His principal works at
Bologna are, three altar-pieces in the church of S.
Barbaziano. Ruggieri died at Rome in 1640.

RUGGIERI, GIROLAMO, painter, born at Vicenza,
1662. Practised at Verona, and painted landscape
and battle-pieces. Died 1717.

RUHL, LDDWIG SIGISJIUND, painter and en-
graver, born atCassel 1794, son of Johann Christian
Buhl, the sculptor. He studied in Germany and
Italy, and first brought himself into notice by his
picture of 'The Three Kings' (Magi), a clever
imitation of the manner of the old masters. His
designs for ' Shakespeare's Plays,' and Burner's
' Lenore,' are well drawn, and show much talent.
He was Director of the Cassel Gallery. His best
known pictures are :
Louis XIV. and James II.
Van Dyck's Studio.
Sleighing by Night.

KUINA, GASPARO, an indifferent engraver on
wood, by whom we have a cut representing the
' Creation of Adam,' which is evidently taken from
the painting by Michelangelo, in the Vatican,
though it is inscribed, Hieronymo de G-randi,
pinxit. Gaspar Euina, fecit. Zani and Brulliot
say he was the engraver who marked his prints
with three darts crossed, sometimes accompanied
with the letter G. There are several historical,
mythological, and allegorical prints by him, signed
Gasparo,/., or Gasparo Buina,f.

born in 1838 at Coblenz ; studied at the Diisseldorf
Academy under Achenbach. After extensive travel
he came to Paris in 1870, and his picture of ' Paris
in the Future' took the first prize in an art com-
petition. He painted portraits, and also historical
and genre pictures. He died at Rilly la Montaigne,
near Reims, May 26, 1898.

RU1SDAEL, ISAAC VAN, the brother of Solomon
and Jacob van Ruisdael, lived at Haarlem. He
combined the trade of picture-dealing and the pro-
fession of painting. His works, which are mostly
landscapes, are found in a few German galleries.
He died at Haarlem in 1677.

RUISDAEL, JAKOB VAN, landscape painter, was
born at Haarlem about 1630. He was the son
of Izaak Ruisdael, a frame-maker, and a pupil of
Everdingen. In 1648 he entered the Guild of
Haarlem, but in 1659 went to Amsterdam, where
his co-religionists, the Mennonites, took him into
their almshouse. It is not known under whom he
studied, but Houbraken informs us that, although
he had given proof of extraordinary ability at the

early age of fourteen, he did not at first follow
painting as a profession, but for some years applied
himself to the study and practice of surgery. He
afterwards lived in habits of intimacy with Nicholas
Berghem, and he is said to have been advised by
that artist to devote his attention entirely to paint-
ing. His success warranted the recommendation
of his friend ; his pictures were purchased with
avidity, and he soon became one of the most popular
painters of his time.

In the pictures of Ruisdael, it is evident that he
designed everything from nature, and he is un-
usually happy in his selection of it. His trees and
broken grounds are pleasing in form, and his skies
light and floating. The talents of Ruisdael were
not confined to landscape proper, he painted sea-
pieces with equal success, and his pictures of fresh
breezes and gales of wind are equal to those of
any other painter of his time. Rmsdael's pictures
are sometimes provided with figures by Adriaan
Van der Velde, or Philips Wouwennan.

It is said that Ruisdael visited Italy, but the
assertion rests on no sure foundation ; there is more
probability that he lived for some time on the
borders of Germany, and there found those valleys
between ranges of mountains, with the remains of
ancient chateaux, the solemn woods and groves,
or impetuous waterfalls he so often painted. Some
have made him a student of the wild scenery of
Norway ; but with no authority beyond the subject
of his pictures. In spite of his fondness for paint-
ing the wilder appearances of nature, it is scarcely
too much to say, that the comparatively uneventful
pictures from the neighbourhood of Haarlem are
those in which he charms us most. Smith's Cata-
logue describes four hundred and forty-eight pic-
tures by Ruisdael, leaving out those that properly
belong to Everdingen, and a few duplicates or
copies. Ruisdael has left a few slight but effect-
ive etchings. He died at Haarlem in 1682. Of
his pictures we may name :

The "Waterfall.
The Castle of Bentheim.
Winter Landscape.
Wooded Landscape.
View from Haarlem.
Three Landscapes.

The Jewish Burial Ground.
A Landscape ; with figures by

Van de Welde.
A Stream running through

A "Waterfall ; and nine other

landscapes of a similar kind.
The Wind-mill.
A Woody Landscape.
Wood scene on the banks of a

river ; identical with picture

at Glasgow.
Landscape with figures by Ber-

chem (not Wouwermann) ;

an early work.
View across Katwijk, of the

North Sea.

Landscape and figures.
Landscape with ruins and

Wood Scene on the banks of

a river ; as at Edinburgh.
A Landscape with Ruins (Bre-

derode Castle).
Forest Scene.
Two Watermills.
Rock Landscape with Torrent.

Amsterdam. Museum.

Antwerp. Museum.

Brussels. Museum.

Castle Howard.
Dresden. Gallery.

Dublin. 3~at. Gall.

Edinburgh. 3'ar. Gall.

Glasgow. Gallery, 878.



London. JVnf. Gall.

















[National Gallery



London. Nat. Gall. Watermills and Bleachers.

An Old Oak.

The Broken Tree.

n The Plain of Holland, from

Brederode Castle.

i, ,1 Four Landscapes with "Water-


Duhrich Gallery. TwoWindmillsnearaPathway.

A Waterfall.

., The Edge of a Wood.

Srir/gewater Gall. Six Landscapes.

St. John's Lodge \ Interior of a church at Amster-

(Marquisof Bute). J dam.
Madrid. Museum. Two Landscapes

Munich. Pmakothek. A Waterfall.

A Torrent.

Seven Landscapes.

Oxford. To"**!- Col- 1 Wooded Lands ea F e.

Paris. Louvre. The Storm.

.. Forest, with Cattle.

Landscape known as ' Le Buis-

Landscape kuown as ' Le Coup

de Soleil.'

,. Two more Landscapes.

Petersburg. Hermitage. Mountain, with still water.
The Hague. Museum. A View of Haarlem.

A Waterfall.

RUISDAEL, JAKOB VAN, a cousin of the cele-
brated painter of the same name, ia recorded as a
painter by Van der Willigen. He was Master of
the Haarlem Guild in 1664. Other details of his
life are unknown, as also are his works. He died
at Haarlem in 1681.

RUISDAEL, SOLOMON VAN, the uncle of Jakob
van Ruisdael, was horn at Haarlem at the com-
mencement of the 17th century. He painted land-
scapes and views of rivers in Holland, in which he
modelled himself on Van Goyen. He was par-
ticularly successful in the representation of water.
In 1648 he was Dean of the Haarlem Corporation.
He died in 1670. Works :

Amsterdam. Museum. The Halt.

,, The Village Inn.

Antwerp. Museum. Calm at Sea.

Berlin. Museum. Five Landscapes.

Brussels. Museum. The Ferry.

,, Landscape.

Dresden. Gallery. Three Landscapes.

Dublin. Nat. Gallery. View of Alkmaar in Winter.
Munich. Gallery. Three Landscapes.

Rotterdam. Museum. The Maas at Dordrecht.

RUISSCHER, J., engraver, practised in Holland
about the middle of the 17th century. He en-
graved landscape, and frequently treated subjects
introducing cascades and rushing water.
born in Madrid about the middle of the 17th cen-
tury. He was the pupil of Francisco Camilo and
of Juan Carreno. He died at Madrid in 1704.
Works :
Madrid. Hospital de ) Frescoes .

Montserrate. J

Sto. Tomas. Assumption and Coronation of

the Virgin.

RUIZ-GONZALEZ, PEDRO, was born at Madrid
in 1633. He studied under Juan Antonio Escalante
and Juan Carreno. Three of his best pictures were
burnt with the church of S. Millan in 1720, in
which church he himself had been interred eleven
years before, in 1709.

RUIZ GIXON, JUAN CARLOS, lived at Seville,
about the year 1677. It would seem that he had
practised under Herrera the younger, as his style
entirely resembles that master's. This is particu-

larly observable in a picture of the Immaculate
Conception, surrounded by numerous angels, in the
cathedral at Seville, to which Ruiz has signed his

RUIZ, JUAN SALVADORE, painter, was a member
of the Academy of Seville in 1671.

RUIZ-SARIONO, JOAN, painter, born at Higuera
de Aracena, 1701, was a pupil of his cousin, A. M. de
Tobar. He practised at Seville, painting historical
subjects, but without much skill, and died in that
city in 1763.

RULE, WILLIAM HARRIS. This remarkable
linguist deserves mention in these pages, as he was
for some years a portrait painter in the west of
England. He was born in 1802, the son of an
army surgeon, who turned him out-of-doors at the
age of seventeen when in a fit of passion. Rule was
educated in languages at Falmouth by the rector of
the place, and in art by a strolling painter, and he
worked very hard at his profession in Devonport,
Plymouth, and Exeter. In 1822 he came to London,
became a school-master, then a Wesleyan preacher,
and eventually an important writer. He was
master of fourteen languages, and a very eloquent
and scholarly preacher. He died in 1890.

RULLMANN, painter, born at Bremen in 1765,
first studied at the Academy in Dresden, and then
went to Paris, where his portraits gained him con-
siderable reputation. His studies from the old
masters in religious and historical subjects show
considerable talent. He died in 1822.

RUMEAU, JEAN CLAUDE, a French painter,
pupil of David and of Isabey, practised in Paris
early in the 19th century. There are by him,
' Charlemagne receiving the Ambassadors of
Haroun-al-Raschid,' ' Blue-Beard,' &c. His last
appearance at the Salon was in 1822.

GENEVE,) Madame, born at Grenoble, 1799, was a
pupil of Regnault, and painted portraits and genre
pictures. There are by her, ' Venus and Cupid,'
' Holy Family,' &c. She exhibited at the Salon
from 1808 to 1839, and died in 1849.

painter, who in 1486 painted a picture and a re-
table for the church of L^au.

1816 at Hillerod, in Denmark, studied art under
Sund at Copenhagen. He began his career as an
historical painter, and executed the ' Presentation
in the Temple' for the church of Gronholt, but in
1846 he turned his attention towards landscape
painting, and won for himself a name high among
the artists of Denmark. In 1855-56 he travelled
in Norway, and the two following years were spent
in Germany and Italy. In 1866 he was made a
member of the Academy of Copenhagen, and in
1874 a Professor. He died at Frederiksborg in
1880. The following are among his best works :

Copenhagen. Nat. Gall. View near Frederiksborg.

Landscape, Morning.

View in Scebygaard Forest.

View near Skjcergaarden.

Woodmen, Frederiksborg.

Moltke Coll. The Four Seasons (a series').

RUMPF, PETER PHILIPP, German painter and
etcher; born December 19, 1821, at Frankfort-on-
the-Main ; a pupil of Rustige and Becker ; studied
at Dresden, Italy, and Paris ; much influenced by
Courbet's work ; painted genre pictures, such as
'Rendezvous' and 'Girls at Work'; also water-
colours, and executed some etchings that be-



came popular. He died at Frankfort, January

16, 1896.

BUNCIMAN, ALEXANDER, historical painter, was
born at Edinburgh in 1736. He is said to have
served his apprenticeship to a coach-painter, and
by dint of mere practice to have acquired facility of
hand and a considerable intelligence in colouring,
though he was still uninstructed in drawing the
figure. He travelled to Italy, where he studied for
rive years, and painted a ' Nausicaa at play with
her Maidens.' On his return he lodged for a time
with Hogarth's widow in Leicester Square, and
exhibited some pictures in 1772. The next year
he settled at Edinburgh, where he conducted the
recently established Academy of Arts, and painted
some historical pictures, among which was an altar-
piece for the episcopal chapel in the Cowgate. He
was patronized by Sir James Clerk, who employed
him to decorate his mansion at Pennycuick with
some subjects from Ossian. He died suddenly in
1785. There are a few etchings by Runciman from
his own designs, among which are the following :
Sigismunda weeping over the Heart of Tancred.
A View of the Netherbow Port, Edinburgh.
RUNCIMAN, JOHN, a Scotch historical painter,
and brother of Alexander Runciman, was born at
Edinburgh in 1744. He executed few works during
his short career, in which he showed very high
promise. About 1766 he accompanied his brother
to liome for the purpose of study, but his health
gave way, and he died at Naples in 1768. There
is a monument to him in the Canongate Church,
Edinburgh. Among his works are :
Christ and the Disciples on the road to Emmaus.

(National Gallery, Edinburgh.)
King Lear in the Storm. (The same.)
Portrait of himself. (The same.)
Judith and Holofernes.

RUNGALDIER, IGNAZ, engraver and miniature
painter, the son of a silver worker, born at Gratz in
1799, had his earliest lessons from Kauperz, and
in 1816 entered the Vienna Academy. His best
plates are: 'Ossian,' after Krafft ; 'Jupiter and
Thetis,' after Fuger ; ' St. Sebastian,' after Guido
1,'nii; 'Madonna,' after Kadlik ; a portrait of
Fuger the younger, after Fuger. _ He also became
very successful in portrait painting in miniature.
He died at Gratz in 1876.

RUNGE, PHILIPP OTTO, a painter, born at
Wolgast in Pomerania in 1776, studied first at
Copenhagen under Abildgaard and Juel, and then
m Dresden. He made himself a name by an
allegorical representation of the 'Four Seasons,'
painted at Hamburg, and was afterwards much
employed in wall painting. He died at Hamburg
in 1810.

RUNK, FERDINAND, a German landscape painter,
born at Fribourg, Brisgau, in 1764. He acquired
a reputation by his ' Twenty-four Views in the
Tyrol,' aquatinted by Piringer, and by a series of
eight pictures of ' Nature, from the sea-coast to the
mountain-tops.' He died at Vienna in 1834.
There is a 'Tyrolese Landscape' by him in the
Vienna Gallery.

RUOPPOLI, GIUSEPPE, a painter of flowers and
tVuit, who particularly excelled in the representation
of grapes, was born at Naples in 1600, and died
there in 1659.

RUPERT, PRINCE, the third son of the Elector
Tdatine of the Rhine and Princess Elizabeth of
England, who played so considerable a part in
our Civil War as leader of his uncle, the king's,


avalry, was born at Prague in 1619. At one time
16 was looked upon as the inventor of the art of
mezzotint engraving, but it has been shown that
16 learned it of Ludwig von Siegen, a Lieut.-
Jolonel in the service of the Landgrave of Hesse,
ind introduced it into England. He died in London
in 1682. The following is a list of those prints in
mezzotint which can be assigned with some con-
idence to ' Prince Rupert of the Rhine.' He made

ise of the annexed monogram :

1. A Magdalene in contemplation ; after M. Merian.

2. An Executioner holding a Sword in one hand and a

Head in the other, after Spagnoletto, knowa as ' The
Great Executioner.'

3. The Executioner's head, known as ' The Little Exe-

cutioner,' done for Evelyn's Xculptura, who informs
us that it was presented to him by the Prince him-
self, as a specimen of the newly invented art.

4. A Standard-Bearer (three-quarter length figure).

5. The same Figure to the shoulders.

fi. Bust of an Old Man with bald head and flowing

7. Portrait of a Young Man, leaning on his left arm.

8. Head of aa Old Man with moustache (right profile) .

9. A Woman's Head, looking down.

10. Boy with basket of fish, on sea-shore; after

Tenters (?).

11. Magdalen, turned to our right, her hands crossed on

her bosom.

12. Boy with lighted candle ; after Schalcken (?).

Ue is also credited with the following etchings :

1. A Mendicant Friar, with rosary; in the manner of


2. A Beggar singing ; Do.

S. Landscape with man driving a waggon.

4. (?) Old Beggar resting on staff.

5. (?) A Man with a basket on a stick over his


6. Scene on Sea-shore, a man carrying a sack in the


RUPP, LADISLAUS, a Viennese architect and
engraver, was born in 1790. He was a pupil of
the Academy in his native town, but also studied
in Italy. The date of his death has escaped

painter, etcher, engraver on wood, and architect,
was born at Oberzeun, near Anspach, in 1779.
After receiving some preliminary instruction at
Nuremberg, he went to Dresden and improved
himself by copying the pictures of Claude, Titian,
Paul Potter, and other old masters ; and also turned
his attention to architecture and perspective ; ac-
quiring considerable knowledge of both. In 1802
he made a tour through the south of Germany to
study landscape, but it being war time he met
with much interruption, and, to support himself,
was compelled to have recourse to portrait paint-
ing. He became acquainted with General Drouet,
whose portrait he painted, and those of several of
his officers, and for some time accompanied the
former through Germany as his interpreter. Rup-
precht's water-colour landscapes are drawn with
great minuteness, and finished like miniatures.
He is, however, better known by his etchings ; he
also did a few woodcuts and a lithograph. As an
architect Rupprecht was employed to restore the
old cathedral of Bamberg to its primitive state,
and he prepared the plans, models, and drawings
for that purpose, and for some years superintended
the work, but did not live to witness the com-
pletion. The cathedral possesses about a hundred


and thirty of his drawings, some of which are
interesting to the antiquary, as representing curious
objects of ancient date discovered during the
restorations. In other respects, Rupprecht pos-
sessed much knowledge, particularly of history,
and showed much critical sagacity in matters con-
nected with the fine arts. An enlarged account of
his life and works was published at Bamberg in
1843, by J. Heller, and there is a portrait of him
after Klein. He died at Bamberg in 1831.


1. Portrait of E. T. A. Hoffmann, for that writer's

' Phautasiestiickeu,' published in 1819.

2. Cover for ' Germany's Celebration of the Battle of

Leipsic,' by K. "W. Fasser. 1815.

3. A Peasant counting Money ; signed aud dated 1814.

4. The Chapel in the "Wunderburg, near Bamberg. 1815.

5. The same subject with variations. 1815.

6. Mary with the Child, and two Angels.

7. The Chapel of St. Elizabeth, at Bamberg.

8. The Alteuberg. 1816.

9. The Monument of Count Adelbert von Babenberg.

10. View of the Ruins of the Castle of Babenberg.

11. Monument of Adelbert in the wood near Alteuburg.

12. Title to B. v. Hornthal's ' Deutsche Friihlingskranzen '


13. Bamberg, from the north side. 1817.

14. View of Capuchin Church, Bamberg. 1817.

15. The same, with variations.

16. Church of the Carmelites, and Convent of St. Theo-

dore, in Bamberg, with Russian carriages, and

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