school of design, the model of all subsequent
institutions of the kind in France. He published a
' Complete Treatise on Painting,' in four parts, and
was in a literary capacity Associate of the Academies
of Rouen and Lyons. He died at the latter city
in 1785. His historical pictures are of the style
of his age, displaying an abuse of allegory. One
of them is the ' Taking of Besanijon by the
Protestants.' But after the earlier portion of his
career, he abandoned this branch of art for por-
traiture. Among his portraits we may name:
Kobert le Lorrain, sculptor (engraved by J. A".
Gentil Bernard, (engraved by Daulle).
NONZIO, (or ANNUNZIO,) an Italian miniaturist,
was born at Trent, but lived and worked at Milan
in the last half of the 16th century. His daughter,
Fede Galizia (q.v.), was born at Trent in 1575.
NOOMS, RENIER, (or REMIGIUS,) commonly
called ZEEMAN, was born at Amsterdam about 1612
Very little is known of his life. It is supposed
that at one time he worked with the elder Willem
van de Velde. He resided for a long time in
Berlin, where he was painter to the Elector
Frederick William ; he also visited England and
France. On etchings published by him in Amster-
dam, we find the dates 1652, 1654, and 1656 ; on
others published in Paris, 1650 and 1652. He
also etched three plates of the naval fights
between the English, French, and Dutch, which
took place in 1673. The paintings of Nooms
betray the influence chiefly of Backhuysen and
Claude. The date of his death is not known, but
it must have been later than 1673. Isaak and
Enoch Zeeman, who were working in London about
the middle of the 18th century, were most likely
related to Nooms. Paul Zeeman was the son of
Enoch. (See ZEEMAN.) Among the better works of
Nooms we may name :
Amsterdam. JJuseuw. Sea-fight near Leghorn, 14th
View of Amsterdam.
Berlin. Museum. A Quiet Sea.
Seashore with Boats.
Paris. Louvre. View of the old Louvre, from
the South bank of the Seine
(a masterpiece; etched by
Vienna. Eehtdere. A Sea-piece.
The following is a list of his plates :
Two plates of Block-houses.
Landscape with Canal and Boats.
The Dutch Herring Fleet.
A set of eight plates of Shipping ; designed and en-
graved by Reiny Zeeman. 1632.
A set of four Views in Amsterdam. 1636.
A set of four Sea-ports in Holland ; published at
Amsterdam in 1656.
The Four Elements ; in four plates ; Reinier Seetnan,fec.
Two Views in Paris, one of the Faubourg St. Marceau,
the other of the Gate of St. Bernard.
A set of twelve Views of Shipping ; published in
London by Ar Tooker.
NOORDE, COBNELIS VAN, painter and engraver,
was born at Haarlem in 1731. He was the scholar
Buccessively of F. Decker and F. H. Jalgersma,
and afterwards became master of the Haarlem
school of design. He died in 1795. Among his
works may be named :
His own portrait, in chalk and Indian ink.
Portrait of Frans Hals, a mezzotint.
A View of Haarlem, engraving after J. Van Eyck.
A Landscape with Cow (etching).
Van Noorde signed himself C. V. N.
NOORDERWIEL, HENDRIK, a painter on glass,
who was one of the founders of the ' Pictura 1 fra-
ternity at the Hague in 1656.
NOORDT, JAN VAN, was a painter of the 17th
century, who produced emblematical subjects,
bathing nymphs, and also portraits, some of
which have been engraved. Strutt cites him
as an engraver, on account of an etching dated
1645, of a ' Landscape with Ruins,' probably after
P. Lastmann. Bartsch mentions another after P.
van Laer ; and the portrait of Prince Baltazar
Carlos of Spain, inscribed, ' Juan de Noort fecit,'
is probably by him.
NOORT, ADAM VAN, painter, was born at
Antwerp in 1557. He was the son of Lambert
van Noort, and shares with Otho Van Veen and
others the honour of guiding the youthful steps of
Rubens. The facts of his life are obscure. He has
sometimes been represented as a brutalized victim
of dissipation, but considerable doubt hangs about
many of the traditions to that effect. He is said
to be the author of the 'Tribute of St. Peter,'
in the church of St. James at Antwerp, in which
case he must have had a genius for colour only
inferior to that of Rubens. Van Noort's daughter
became the wife of Jordaens, who was his pupil.
Pictures under the name of Van Noort are very
rare, although in his long life he must have
produced a great number. They pass, no doubt,
as a rule, under the names of his various pupils.
Van Noort died at Antwerp in 1641. Among his
works we may name :
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
Gallery. Christ blessing the Children.
. The Clire of the Lame Man.
A ' Standard-bearer ' at Munich, ascribed to
Hendrik Goltzius, is perhaps by Adam van Noort.
NOORT, AKTHUS VAN, a painter on glass, who
flourished at Nymegiien in the 16th century.
NOORT, LAMBERT VAN, historical painter, was
born at Arnersfort about 1520, and became a
master of the guild at Antwerp in 1547. He was
the father of Adam van Noort. He died in 1571.
In the Antwerp Museum there is a 'Nativity' by
him, signed Lambertus a Noort, Inven : pingebat
Ao. 1555, as well as fifteen other pictures. At
Brussels the Museum possesses an ' Adoration
of the Shepherds,' and a ' Descent from the Cross.'
Lambert designed the windows in St. John's
Church at Gouda, and himself painted two of
them, which were dated 1551 and 1559. He also
practised with success as an architect.
NOORT, PIETEB VAN, a little known Dutch
painter of the 17th century, who painted fish and
NOORTIG, JAN, (orNooRTRTS,) a native of Fries-
land, and painter of genre subjects in the manner
of Bega. According to Kramm he was an amateur.
He flourished about 1660.
NOOTT, WEMMER, a native of Arnhem, who
flourished between 1670 and 1750. He lived chiefly
at Emmerik, where he painted perspectives, and
excelled in the imitation of sculptured surfaces.
NOP, GERRIT, an obscure painter, who was
born at Haarlem late in the 16th century. He
lived for a time in Germany and Italy, where he
painted history and portraits. He died in 1622.
NORBERT, PATER. See BAUMGARTNER, JOB.
NORBL1N DE LA GOURDAINE, JEAN-PIERRE,
a painter and etcher, was born at Misy, near Sens,
in Burgundy, in 1745. He was a pupil of
Casanova. In 1774 he visited Poland, and founded
a school for painters at Warsaw ; he also became
court-painter to King Stanislaus, by whom lie was
subsequently knighted. He returned to France
in 1804, and died in 1830. His most important
works, seventy-seven etchings of scenes from the
Bible, heads, and landscapes, are in the style of
Rembrandt. He signed his plates with the initials
N ; N.f.; N. 1776. W. (that is Warsowiae), or
NORBLIN DE LA GOURDAINE, SEBASTIEN
Louis GUILLAUHE, the son of Jean-Pierre and an
historical painter, was born at Warsaw in 1796.
Taken to Paris when young, he, studied under
Regnault and Blondel, and in the Ecole des Beaux
Arts. In 1823 he obtained the second, and in
1825 the first, grand prix ; which enabled him to
pursue his studies in Rome. He returned to France
in 1882. There are several of his works in the
church of St. Louis en 1'Isle, in Paris, and the
Orleans Museum possesses his 'Death of Ugolino.'
NORBURY, R., painter and sculptor, was born
at Macclesfield in 1815. He held successively the
posts of assistant master to the Schools of Design
at Somerset House and at Liverpool. After his
resignation of the latter appointment he was
elected President of the Liverpool Water-Colour
Society. He was also a member of the Liverpool
and Cambrian Academies. He painted a large
number of portraits, and was also much employed
in decorative design and in book illustration, prac-
tising at Liverpool, but frequently exhibiting in
London. He died April 25, 1886.
NORCINO (or NORCINI). See PARASOLE.
NORDEN, FREDERICK LDDWIG, a Danish naval
captain and draughtsman, was born at Gliickstadt
in 1708. He travelled for Christian VI. in Egypt
and Nubia, and coming to England, he published
with his illustrations, ' Travels in Egypt and
Nubia,' and 'Ruins at Thebes' (1741). He died
in 1742. There is another edition in French
(Copenhagen, 1755), in which the plates are en-
graved by M. Tycher.
NORDEN, JOHN, an English artist, was an
eminent engraver of topographical subjects. An-
thony Wood conjectures, with great probability,
that he was the author of several tracts which he
enumerates, and thinks he was born in Wiltshire,
about the year 1546. He was a commoner of
Hart Hall, Oxford, in 1564, and took the degree of
Master of Arts in 1573. He resided at Hendon, in
Middlesex, was patronized by Lord Burleigh, and
his son, Robert, Earl of Salisbury, and was sur-
veyor of the King's lands in 1614. He died about
1626. His principal work, as an engraver, was his
' Speculum BritaiiriiEe,' or an Historical and Topo-
graphical Description of Middlesex arid Hertford-
shire, with a frontispiece and maps. He also
engraved a 'View of London' in 1609, with a
representation of the Lord Mayor's Show ; and a
series of costumes.
NORDENBERG, BENGT, Swedish painter ; born
April 22, 1822, at Kompikalla (Sweden) ; for seven
years he followed the trade of carpenter, and then
began to study art at the Stockholm Acadeni}',
subsequently going to Diisseldorf, where he was a
pupil of Th. Hildebrandt ; painted genre episodes
of Swedish peasant life ; in 1853 went to Dale-
carlia; in 1857 was in Paris, visiting Italy in
1859. His works include: 'Holy Communion in
the Village Church,' ' A Golden Wedding,' and
' A Forest Fire.' He obtained a medal at Lyons
in 1866 ; medals at Stockholm in 1845, 1847, and
1848 : an honourable mention at the Paris Salon
in 1864 ; also at the Vienna Exhibition of 1873 ;
and a gold medal in London 1879. He died in
NORGATE, EDWARD, "limner," was the son
of Dr. Robert Norgate, master of Bennet College,
Cambridge, where he was born. He was brought
up by Nicholas Felton, Bishop of Ely, who married
his mother. He showed early a strong inclination
for Heraldry and Illumination. As he became not
only one of the best artists in the latter branch of
art, but also an excellent judge of pictures by the
old masters, he was sent to Italy by the Earl of
Arundel to make purchases for him in that country.
Fuller speaks of him as the best illuminator of his
time, and he became Windsor Herald and Clerk
of the Signet. Fuller says that he died at the
Herald's Office the 23rd December, 1650, but Dal-
laway says that his 'Miniature, or the Art of Lim-
cing,' in his own hand, is dated 1654. Among his
best works were a letter from James I. to the
'Sophy 'of Persia, and the letters-patent appointing
the Earl of Stirling Governor of Nova Scotia. The
latter was found in the last century, and was at
first attributed to Van Dyck.
NORIEGA, PEDRO, a Spanish historical painter
of little note, who was living at Madrid in 1658.
NORMAND, CHARLES PIERRE JOSEPH, designer,
engraver, and architect, was born at Goyencourt
(Lourme) in 1765. He was instructed by M.
Thierry and Gizors, and in 1792 obtained a prize
and went to Rome, where he pursued his studies.
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
He exhibited in the Louvre in 1800 and 1802,
published a number of works with plates, and pre-
pared others for the 'Annales du Musee,' ' Les
vies des peintres, par Landon,' and ' Nouveau
parallels des ordres d'architecture des Grecs, des
Romaine, et des auteurs modernes ' (1819). Among
his other plates may be mentioned :
The Miracle of the Loaves ; after Raphael.
The Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel ; after Michelanyelo.
He died in Paris in 1840.
NORMAND, Louis MARIE, son of the above, was
taught design by L;ifitte, and engraving by his
father. He was born in Paris in 1789. Besides
the plates for a large number of books, he engraved
the ' Marriage at Cana,' after Paul Veronese, and
other important works.
NORRIS, CHARLES, an eccentric well-to-do
amateur artist who resided in Pembrokeshire and
whose claim to fame rests upon his drawings of
the architectural antiquities of Wales, and especi-
ally upon those of the Cathedra! of St. David's,
which he published in 1811. He was also a
talented etcher, and did many delightful plates
illustrating Tenby and the castles, such as Manor-
bere and Llamphey, in its neighbourhood. He
was born in London in 1779, early left an orphan
with a considerable estate, was an officer in the
army for a few years, but on his marriage resigned
his position and gave up his time to art and to
the study of architecture. He died at Tenby in
NORSINI (or NORSINO). See PARASOLE.
NORTH, MARIANNE, the sister of Mrs. John
Addington Symonds, and perhaps one of the best
and most accurate flower painters who ever lived,
was born at Hastings in 1830, and died in
Gloucestershire in 1890. She was the daughter
of Frederick North, member for Hastings, who in
1865 retired from Parliament, and she travelled
with him through many lands, and from him
acquired her passionate love of flowers. She
painted them in every quarter of the globe,
exploring the forests of Java and Borneo, Australia
and Chili, in search of new blossoms which she
could depict with loving skill. Her whole collec-
tion she presented to Kew, adding to her generosity
the gift of a gallery in which they might be
exhibited, and arranging them herself with the
utmost patience and diligence. She is believed to
have been offered a peerage by Queen Victoria,
who very highly esteemed her, and who was most
grateful for her generosity to the nation and her
services to botanical science. She was a woman
of marvellous charm, great refinement, and con-
siderable learning, but united with the pleasant
and even affectionate manner in which she treated
her friends a very stiff and formal if not stilted
demeanour to others. Her work cannot be too
highly praised for its perfect accuracy, and students
of botanical science owe very much to her profound
knowledge and her assiduous industry and patience.
She ruined her own health by her travels in
tropical regions in search of flowers, and a tropical
fever which she first of all obtained in Borneo
was the eventual cause of her decease. Her auto-
biography, edited by her sister, Mrs. J. A. Symonds,
appeared in 1893 in two vols., called ' Recollections
of a Happy Life,' and in the same year was issued
'Further Recollections of a Happy Life,' being
selections from her journal, edited by the same
sister. fl. c W,
NORTHCOTE, JAMES, an English historical and
portrait painter, was born at Plymouth in 1746.
His father was a watchmaker, and he for some
time assisted in the same business, but with his
whole mind bent upon being a painter. The fame
of his countryman, Joshua Reynolds, inflamed his
desire ; and the kind view that some of his towns-
men took of his attempts in art, and their friend-
ship or acquaintance with the President, introduced
Northcote to his notice. In his 25th year he was
permitted to enter the studio of Sir Joshua, and he
remained in the employment of that master for
about five years. In 1777 he went to Rome, to
see, as his biographer says, " if fame reported truly
of the prime works of the chiefs of the calling." The
journey at least enabled him to talk of Michelangelo,
Raphael, and Titian. This he never ceased doing,
and his productions served as commentaries. North-
cote returned to England in 1780, and applied him-
self to the long life's work which did not come
to an end till more than fifty years had passed.
Among his best pictures may be named, 'The
Death of Wat Tyler ' (City of London Gallery) ;
' The Murder of the Children in the Tower ; ' 'The
Entry of Bolingbroke and Richard II. ;' ' Hubert
and Arthur ;' ' The Earl of Argyll asleep ; ' ' Lady
Jane Grey ;' 'Prospero and Miranda ;' ' A Vulture
and 8nake ; ' 'A Lion Hunt,' and some others of
the like kind, in which he showed a considerable gift
for animal painting. His portraits are numerous ;
but whatever veneration he felt for Titian, or for
his master Sir Joshua, he failed to emulate their
works. In 1796 he published a series of ten en-
gravings from his own pictures, the subject being
the contrasted careers of 'A Diligent' and 'A
Dissipated Maidservant,' a sort of female version
of Hogarth's ' Idle and Industrious Apprentice.'
It is a very feeble performance. There is a por-
trait of Northcote, by himself, in the National
Portrait Gallery, and another in the gallery of
Haarlem. In the former collection there are also
portraits by him of Jenner and Lord Exmouth.
Northcote was elected A.R.A. in 1786 ; R.A. in
1787 ; and died in 1831.
Northcote exercised the pen as well as the pencil.
His earliest known literary productions are some
papers published in ' The Artist,' entitled ' Origin-
ality of Painting;' 'Imitators and Collectors;'
' A Letter from a discontented Genius ; ' 'Character
of John Opie ; ' ' Second Letter of a discontented
Genius ; ' ' On the Imitation of the Stage in Paint-
ing ;' 'The History of the Slighted Beauty; ' 'The
Dream of a Painter, an allegory.' His most im-
portant performances as a writer, are his ' Life of
Sir Joshua Reynolds,' containing anecdotes of many
distinguished personages, and a brief analysis ; to
which are added, ' Varieties on Art,' published in
1813, in quarto. A supplement appeared in 1815;
and an octavo edition in 1819, with considerable
additions. In 1828 he published an octavo volume
of ' One hundred Fables,' original and selected,
with engravings on wood from his own designs. In
1830 appeared the ' Life of Titian ; ' and, after his
decease, a second volume of Fables, published under
the title of 'The Artists' Book of Fables,' and
illustrated with numerous woodcuts, executed
under the direction of Harvey. The curious
process Northcote made use of in designing these
cuts has been often described. He clipped figures
of animals out of all kinds of iiooks, papers, &c.,
and selecting such as fitted the fable to be embel-
lished, pasted them down to paper in the required
places, filling in backgrounds with his pencil. The
PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.
designs thus made were freely interpreted by the
NORTHEN, ADOLF, battle painter, was born at
Miinden in Hanover, in 1828, studied from 1847
to 1851 at the Academy of Diisseldorf. In his
first productions he painted scenes from the wars
of Napoleon I., and brought himself especially into
notice by his ' Battle of Waterloo' (1855), which
is in possession of the King of Hanover, and at a
later date he executed several lively and charac-
teristic sketches from the Franco-German war.
He died at Diisseldorf in 1876. The following are
some of his best pictures :
Guerillas with captured French Soldiers. 1852.
The Skirmish on the Gohrde. Hildcsheim Mus. 1852.
Napoleon's Retreat from Russia.
Episode at Gravelotte.
The Prussian Guards at Konigratz.
Attack of the 16th Uhlan Regiment, near Vionvifle.
NORTON, CHRISTOPHER, an English engraver in
the latter half of the 18th century. He studied in
the St. Martin's Lane Academy, and at Rome in
1769, gaining a Society of Arts' premium the same
year. There are plates by him after Pillement,
Vaudevelde, Canot, &c.
NOSADELLA. See BRIZZI, FBANC.
NOTER. See DE NOTEB.
NOTER, ADGUSTE HERMAN DE, the son of P. F.
Noter, was born at Ghent in 1806. He painted
landscapes and scenery in winter in the style of
the Wouvermans. He died in 1839.
NOTER, PIERRE FRANCOIS DE, was born at Wai-
hem, near Malines. He was the son of an architect
and a pupil of Van Gheel the sculptor, but in 1811
devoted himself entirely to painting, in which he
rose to some eminence. His pictures represent
landscapes, shipping, and above all streets and
the interiors of churches. In 1824 he was a
member of the Academy of Amsterdam, and Pro-
fessor in that of Ghent. In most of the Museums
of Belgium, Holland, and the north of France his
pictures are to be found. He died in 1842.
NOTERMANN, EMANUEL, animal and genre
painter, was born at Oudenarde in 1808, and
studied in the Academy at Ghent, but in 1830 he
became a scholar of Maes-Canini, and finished his
art education under Peter Kremer. His paintings
represent domestic scenes by day- and candle-light,
consecrations of churches, carnivals, &c. He died in
1863. His best known works are : ' A Spaniel,' and
' A Poacher bewailing the Loss of his Dog.' Among
his etchings, which are rare, ' The Death of Anton
Van Dyck,' after P. Kremer, is the best.
NOTHNAGEL, JOHANN ANDREAS BENJAMIN, a
German painter and engraver, was born at Buch,
in the principality of Saxe-Coburg, in 1729. He
resided at Frankfurt, and worked at the manufacture
of wall-papers under Lentzner, after whose death
he married his widow and continued the business
himself. He acquired considerable reputation as a
painter of landscapes with merry-makings, in the
style of Teniers ; but he is now more known as an
engraver. His best productions are a number of
heads and busts, in which he has imitated the style
of Rembrandt with great success. His plates
amount to sixty-five, marked with N. and a nail,
or B.N.F. He died at Frankfort in 1804.
NOTTI, GHERARDO DALLE. See HONTHORST.
NOUAILHIER, (or NOTLIER,) was the name of
a family of enamel painters of Limoges from the
16th to the 19th century : COOLY, or COLIN, was
burgomaster from 1513-31. JACQUES was born in
1605, and flourished under Louis XIV. ; he painted
the 'Adoration of the Magi,' after Van Aken, in
the Louvre at Paris. PIERRE, was born in 1657,
and flourished 16861717. JEAN-BAPTISTE was
born in 1752, and died in 1804. A collection of
the works of these artists is in possession of M. de
Lille-Loture at Orleans.
NOVA, PECINO DE. There were several artists
at Bergamo of this name. Tassi quotes documents
which prove that Pecino and PIERO DE NOVA were
two different men. The former was the son of
ALBERTO DE NOVA, a painter. Pecino worked at
intervals at Santa Maria Maggiore, Bergamo, from
1363 to 1381. In 1375 Piero, who was probably the
brother of Pecino, Pecino, and Michele de Roncho,
a Milanese, were all working in conjunction at the
above church. Fragments of frescoes by one of
the Novas can still be seen in the belfry, together
with a ' Virgin and Saints, 1 ' The Epiphany,' and
other Scripture subjects. On the front of a house
in the Contrada Sant' Andrea, Bergamo, some re-
mains of frescoes by one of the Novas can also be
seen. We may also name two altar-pieces at
Virgin and Child, with SS. Catharine, Francis, and
Virgin and Child, with SS. Bartholomew and Agatha.
There are other works of theirs in the Locchis
Pecino de Nova was still working at Bergamo
in 1399, and was buried there 6th June, 1403.
NOVARRA. See RICCI.
NOVELIERS, PIERRE. In 1605, a painter of this
name was appointed conservator of the pictures in
the p ilaces of Brussels and Tervueren.
NOVELIERS, SALOMON, son of the last-named.
In 1618 he succeeded to the office of his father, and
was also named painter to the court. In 1613 he
was commissioned to catalogue the pictures left by
Charles de Croy, Due d'Arschot. A certain DAVID
NOVELIERS is supposed to have been a second son
NOVELLANUS. See NEUVEL.
NOVELLARA. See OBSI.
NOVELL!, FRANCESCO, the elder, an engraver,
was born at Venice in 1764. After learning the
principles of his art under his father, he attended
the Academy of his native place for some time,
and then went to Rome. In conjunction with
Cumano he etched the works of Rembrandt with
such skill that his copies have been often mistaken
for the originals ; he also imitated the designs
of Mantegna with success, and engraved that
artist's 'Madonna della Vittoria' (about 1800),
The date of his death is not recorded. He was a
member of several academies. He signed his prints
with a monogram in a circle. His son of the same
name was also an engraver.
NOVELLI, PIETRO, painter and engraver, called,
from his birthplace, MONREALESE, or MORREALESE,
was born in 1603. He resided for a long time in
Palermo, but in later life, it is said, he visited
Rome, which city, as well as the former, possesses
several pictures from his hand. He was living up
to 1660. His masterpiece is the ' Marriage at
Cana,' in the refectory of the Benedictines at Mon-
reale. Novelli's style is a little like that of (Jara-
vaggio. His life was published by Agostino Gallo
NOVELLO, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, a painter of
Castelfranco, and pupil of the younger Palma. ID
A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF
the neighbourhood of Castelfranco are some good