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of a cousin (Sharp) who had bequeathed him a
small freehold estate in Dorking, and this steady
income made all the difference to his life. For
four months Russell was at Oxford and Blenheim.
Then he returned home, and in 1785 records
that he is "full of business," and in 1786 "still
blessed in temporals." He had now seven children,
an income of 600 a year, and was prosperous.
On May 7th, 1785, he first met John Bacon, and
commenced the closest friendship of his life.
On April 16th, 1786, lie was asked by Bacon, if
he were elected an R.A., would he conform to the
Academy rules? and he probably complied with
the request, but it was not until 1788 that he be-
came a full R.A., and in 1789 the King's Painter.
Russell's removal to No. 21, Newman Street,
which took place in 1789, gave him a larger house,
a most advantageous position, and a closer proxi-
mity to his friend Bacon, who was from this time
united with him in bonds of very intimate friend-
ship. His next door neighbour was Copley, father
of Lord Lyndhurst. In the diary reference is
made to his altered position in these words :
"In outward things the goodness of the Lord
has been very great. I have now been received
as an Academician and King's Painter. Though
large my family, I have been able to support
them with plenty. My income is above 1,000
a year, and probably on the increase." Pros-
perity is attained at last, and continues steadily
from that time down to the artist's death in

His Royal appointments were made in 1790 and

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in f/ir f<i//f>-f/i'ii c/ . // '"it <//' til '{/'iiiil'/fi'fiiii '.


1792. In 1790 the principal picture he exhibited
at the Royal Academy was No. 25, ' Her Majesty
the Queen,' and in that year he was styled " Painter
to the King and Prince of Wales," while in 1792
he was called "Painter to the King and Prince
of Wales, and also to the Duke of York." The
first portrait Russell painted for the Royal Family
in London was one of Dr. Willis, the celebrated
physician. The King thereupon gave instruc-
tions for portraits of the Queen and the Prince
of Wales. In 1796 he received Royal com-
mands to execute a portrait of the Princess of
Wales, with the infant Princess Charlotte on
her knees, and this portrait, the first likeness of
Princess Charlotte taken in this kingdom, was sent
as a present to the Duchess of Brunswick. In
her turn the portrait was executed of Augusta,
Duchess of Brunswick ; and the Prince of Wales
was again painted in his costume as President of
the Royal Kentish Bowmen, and this portrait was
exhibited in the Academy in 1792. In addition
to these, Frederick, Duke of York, was painted
four times, and all four portraits, together with
the one of the Duchess of Brunswick, all being
in pastel, are still the property of the Crown.
One of the Duke of York is at Claremont, the
others being at Buckingham Palace. For the
Prince Regent, when at Brighton, Russell did
several pictures, and the Prince had the portraits
painted of two Brighton celebrities, Martha Gunn
and Old Smoaker. Another picture which Russell
did for the Prince at Brighton was of Mrs. Fitz-
herbert. It is one of his very finest and most perfect
works. Exquisite in its drawing, subdued and rich
in colouring, it contains evidently the artist's very
finest work. This portrait belongs now to Mr. Basil
Fitzherbert. A great portion of Russell's later life
was spent away from London, and lengthened so-
journs were made in Yorkshire, especially at Leeds,
York, and Stamford, where he painted a great
number of pictures. Early in 1801 he was painting
for Earl Fitzwilliam at Woodhouse, and then, on
September 1st of that year, his labours were sud-
denly arrested by an accident. He caught his
forefinger in a steel trap and seriously injured it, so
much so as to prevent his working for some weeks.
In Hull another accident befell the artist, as he
injured himself by a fall through a broken cellar-
flap on December 23rd, 1800, and on January 4th
of the following year his diary comes to an abrupt
end. Russell in 1804 had become deaf, and in
his trouble consulted his good friend Hey, of
Leeds, whose nephew Jowett, Ann Russell, his
daughter, had married. An attack of cholera had
come on in 1803, and his deafness had ensued
from that. Hey gave him a little relief, and
early in 1806 he left on his last journey for Hull.
He went into lodgings at a Mr. Benson's, in Story
Street, and there had a visit from Kirke White.
In April 1806 he was taken ill with typhus fever,
which made rapid progress, and on April 20th,
1806, he died, in the sixty-third year of his age.
His body was interred in Holy Trinity Church,
Hull, in the middle aisle of the choir, and a tablet
was erected to his memory, which is, however,
now covered by the wooden floor of the choir
stalls. Three pictures by his hand appeared that
year in the Academy, one of which, that of Miss
Constable, of Burton Constable, was unfinished as
he left it.

John Russell, R.A., is undoubtedly one of the
most fascinating portrait painters of the later por-


tion of the eighteenth century. Although he
worked almost wholly in pastels, his portraits have
a charm and an individuality that place them on a
but slighter artistic level than the far-famed por-
traits by that great trio of English artists, Rey-
nolds, Gainsborough, and Romney. John Bacon,
in writing of Russell, says: "Our neighbour in
Newman Street was certainly the finest painter
in crayons this country ever produced;" and
Redgrave styles him "the prince of crayon por-
trait painters." His work must be viewed from
the standpoint of pastel art, because, though he
did some pictures in oil, and executed a few in
water-colour, and though the tool of the engraver
was not unfamiliar to his hand, yet it was by his
works in crayon that his reputation was made,
and from their beauty that his name will survive.
Russell's work is distinguished in its early days
by a very florid colouring. He loved colour for
its own sake, and revelled in powerful notes of
vigorous and somewhat crude colour. Toward the
close of his life this fault of too great prominence
in colour became much less marked, and greater
care was given to the careful delineation of the
lace and gauze draperies of his figures. Still, even
to the very last, his portraits are noticeable for a
brilliant and luminous colour, and he delighted in
the deep blues, purples, and reddish-browns of the
velvet in which the men of his time were clothed.
He was a good chemist, and his pastels were pure
in their pigments, and made by himself, and hav-
ing no oil or resin to yellow or darken them, have
continued to this day fresh as when first applied.
" The intimate commixture of chalk with the pure
colour," says Professor Church, "is the very means
of their preservation from the destructive agencies
that attack other pigments." Cotes's pictures had
frequently a white and chalky texture, but so well
did Russell make his crayons, that the chalky
note is absent from his work, and the tones are
so carefully blended as to melt into one another
with a delicate cadence that is characteristic of
the master's hand. The main attraction of Rus-'
sell's work is, however, the power he possessed of
seizing the salient points of individuality of his
sitters, and making the figures portraits in every,
sense and interesting. The colours were sweet-
ened, to use Russell's own phrase, with the finger.
They were softened in outline and united, colour
to colour, by lightly passing the finger over them,
keeping the finger free from each separate colour
by constantly wiping it. He was very cautious,
however, not to produce a thin or scanty surface
by sweetening, but with a body of colour aimed
at producing a rich effect. It was in this rub-
bing-in that the great difference existed between
Russell's crayons and those of his contempor-
ary, Ozias Humphreys, R.A. " Russell blended his
crayons," says Bacon, " rubbing them in ; but in
Humphreys' pictures you could perceive the
marks of the crayon as first touched in by the
hand of the artist." So closely do the colours
lay to the material, and so well are they, in por-
tions of the pictures, rubbed in by the fingers, that
they adhere with remarkable tenacity to their
groundwork, and Russell's, better than any other
pastels, withstand removal from place to place, and
often change of position. In oil he was not so
successful. Traces of the pastel method are notice-
able. Colour overlays colour and gleams through.
His surfaces are dull and neat, and the dark masses
of his backgrounds stubborn and solid. In flesh,



work and in draperies, however, his hand has fuller
play, and the delicate, dainty treatment of flesh
tints so characteristic in his pastel, is equally
noticeable when he works in oil. Russell was a
great friend of Sir William Herschell, and no mean
mathematician himself, acquired a great love of
astronomy from his friend. He invented a com-
plicated piece of mechanism called the seleno-
graphia, for exhibiting the phenomena of the
moon, published a pamphlet explaining his ma-
chine, and prepared a great map of the surface
of the moon, from which he engraved a series of
plates to form a globe showing the seven-twelfths
of the surface of that planet which is visible
from the earth. After his decease a still further
pamphlet was issued by his son, descriptive of the
work which the artist had never been able to com-
plete. His lunar work was marked by great abi-
lity, and was the subject of much praise, but it was
never taken up by the public, to whom abstruse
astronomical problems had very slight attraction.
Russell wrote an important book called ' Elements
of Painting with Crayons,' which he published
in 1772, and dedicated to the Duke of Chandos.
It ran into two editions. He also wrote an ' Essay
on Oil-Colours,' one on ' Prosaic Numbers,' and one
on 'Taste,' and contributed many articles to a
religious magazine called ' The Evangelical Maga-
zine.' He taught himself shorthand on the Byrom
system, and left behind him a number in a great
many volumes written in this complex system of
stenography. From this diary the facts in the
foregoing biography are taken, and for fuller de-
tails as to the life and works of the artist, the
student is referred to the writer's richly illus-
trated biography of Russell, published by Bell in

18 94. O.C.W,

RUSSELL, WILLIAM, an English portrait and
subject painter, born in the latter part of the 18th
century. He was the son of John Russell, R.A.
He practised in London, and exhibited at the
Academy from 1805 to 1809, after which year no
trace of him can be discovered.

RUSSI, GIOVANNI, or FRANCO, DE', miniature
painter, a native of Mantua. In 1455-61 he illumin-
ated the ' Este ' Bible for Borso, Duke of Modena,
in conjunction with Taddeo Crivelli.

RUSSO, GIOVANNI PIETHO, a painter of Capua, of
some local celebrity, who lived in the 17th century.

RUSTICI, CRISTOFORO, painter, the son of IL
RUSTIOO, practised in Italy in the 16th century, and
imitated the style of his father.

about the year 1595, was a pupil of Francesco
Vanni. He for some time imitated the style of
Michel-angelo Caravaggio, while his subjects re-
semble those of Gerard Honthorst. He studied
at Rome the works of Annibale Caracci and Guido,
and painted some pictures there for the public
edifices and private collections. His best picture
is an ' Annunciation,' at Siena. In the Pitti Gallery
there is a fine ' expiring Magdalene ' ; and in the
Palazzo Borghese at Rome, there is a ' St. Sebastian '
by Rustic!. He died in the prime of life, in 1625.

RUSTICI, VlCENZO, painter, practising in Italy
in the 17th century, was a member of the artist
family of Rustici, but less famous than the rest.
He was a pupil of Casolano.

RUSTICO, IL, painter, practised at Siena in
the 16th century, and was a pupil of Sodoma.
He devoted himself mainly to the treatment of
grotesque subjects.


German painter; born April 11, 1810, at Werl
(Westphalia) ; studied at the Diisseldorf Academy ;
also at Frankfort; travelled in England, Italy,
and the Netherlands ; after a stay in Paris he
accepted the post of Art Director at the Stuttgart
Gallery. His ' Gebet beim Gewitter' is in the
Berlin National Gallery. He obtained the grand
gold medal and various other decorations. He
died at Stuttgart, January 12, 1900.

RUSUTI, FILIPPO, (RDSEROTI,) was the author of
some mosaics in the church of Santa Maria Mag-
giore, Rome, which were executed about the year
1380, and represent Christ in the act of benediction,
various Saints, and the legend of the Church's

RUTA, CLEMENTI, painter, born at Parma, 1668,
a pupil of Spolverini and of C. Cignani, came to
Naples in the train of Charles de Bourbon. He
became blind towards the close of his life, and died
in 1767.

RUTGERS, , called OLD RUTGERS, was an

excellent designer of landscapes witli the pen and
in water-colours, of whose life there is no account
His manner is broad and vigorous, and his figures
well grouped.

animal painter who is known to have been in
Italy from about 1660 to 1680, and to have stayed
some time in Venice : further details of his life
are entirely wanting. His pictures, representing
stag and bear hunts, are found in most German
galleries. In the Dresden Gallery are four pictures
signed with his name: 'Ulysses and Circe;' 'Stags;'
' Stags pursued by Dogs ; ' and a picture of large
dogs used in bear hunts. In the Louvre there is
also a 'Bear Hunt.'

RUTTEN, JAN, painter of interiors, was born
at Dordrecht in 1809. He was a pupil of A. Van
Stry, whose granddaughter he married, and of G.
A. Schmidt.

According to Dorninici, this painter was a native of
Spain, though he was brought up at Naples, where
he flourished about the year 1540. Having seen
some of the works of Polidoro da Caravaggio at
Naples, whither he had fled from the sacking of
Rome, he became his disciple, and followed the
style of that artist with so much success, that he
acquired the name of II Polidorino. His principal
works at Naples are a 'Dead Christ, with the Virgin
Mary and St. John,' in the chapel of the Courts of
Justice ; and the ' Descent from the Cross,' in that
of the Vicaria Criminale.

Friesland, in 1750, was a self-educated painter of
portraits and landscape. He died at Buitenpost in

RUYSCH, ANNA, a painter of flowers and fruits,
after the manner of Rachel Ruysch, to whom she
is supposed to have been related. She practised in
Holland towards the end of the 17th century.

RU YSCH, RACHEL, (RuiscH,) flower painter, born
at Amsterdam in 1664, was the daughter of Fred-
erick Huysch, a celebrated professor of anatomy.
At a very early age, without the instruction of a
master, or any other assistance than that of copying
the prints that accidentally fell in her way, she
gave such proofs of an unusual gift for art, that
her father placed her with William van Aelst, an
eminent flower painter. She soon surpassed her
instructor, and being recommended by her extra-


[Collection of />,/// k 11. ll'M, Esq.


ordinary talents was appointed paintress to the
Elector Palatine. She married, when young, a
portrait painter, Jurian Pool, and is sometimes called
by his name. They lived together about fifty years,
and had ten children, yet she always signed her
pictures with her maiden name. She was more
successful in painting flowers than fruit, and she
chose exotics in preference to those that were
indigenous to her country. She is admirable in
her manner of grouping as well as in pencilling;
and each flower is relieved by its neighbour, and
all kept in perfect harmony. With great taste and
judgment she introduced among her flowers the
insects peculiar to the country whence they were
derived ; and these she depicted with microscopic
accuracy. The labour she bestowed on her works
prevented their being numerous ; two, a flower
and a fruit piece, are said to have occupied her for
seven years ; and these she bestowed on one of her
daughters as a marriage portion. Rachel Ruysch
continued the exercise of her talent until she had
reached a very advanced age, and died at Amster-
dam in 1750. Works :

Amsterdam. Museum.













Gallery. _


A Bouquet.


A Bouquet.

Flowers and Fruit.

Three pictures of Flowers and


Flowers in a Vase.
Flowers and Insects.
Two Flower Pictures.
Five pictures of Flowers and


Large Flower-piece.
Two pictures of Flowers and


RUYTEN, JOANNES MICHAEL, painter, bom at
Antwerp, 1813. He first studied under Regemorter,
then in Holland under W. J. Nuyen. He painted
chiefly views of towns and coast scenery, into
which he introduced figures ; and he was fond of
trying effects of light, which were not always
happy in execution. He also etched a few plates.
He died in 1881.

KUYTENSCHILDT, ABRAHAM, painter, born at
Amsterdam, 1778, a pupil of J. Andriessen and of
P. Barbiers, painted landscape and genre pictures.
He died in 1841.

RDYVEN, PIETEE VAN, born at Leyden, 1651,
was a pupil of Jakob Jordaens. and an historical
painter of talent. He painted the triumphal arch
for the entry of William of Orange, King of Eng-
land, into the Hague. He died in 1716.

RDZULONE, PIETRO, living at Palermo in the
15th century, was the contemporary, and probably
the pupil, of Vigilia. The Duomo of Termini
possesses a ' Crucifixion ' by this artist, where the
Virgin, Evangelists, and Mary Magdalene, the
Pelican and Serpent, are on one side ; with the
Resurrection, and the symbols of the Evangelists,
on the other; it was painted in 1484. He is known
to have been living up to 1517, but the dates of
his birth and death are alike uncertain.


RYALL, HENRY THOMAS, an English engraver,
born at Frome in 1811. He was a pupil of Sam.
Reynolds, and practised on copper and steel,
adopting a combination of the line and stipple
manners. His works won him a considerable reput-
ation, and he was appointed historical engraver to
X 2

See DE

From his

the Queen. Specimen works are to be found in
'Eminent Conservative Statesmen ' (1836-46), and
in Lodge's Portraits. He died at Cookham in 1867.
Amongst his best single plates are :

Columbus at La Eabida ; after ffilkie.
Coronation of Queen Victoria ; after Hayter.
There's Life in the Old Dog yet ; after Landseer.
Christening of the Princess Royal ; after Leslie
The Holy Well ; after Burton.

Portraits of the Queen and the Prince Cousort ; after
miniatures by Sir William Ross.

at Delft in 1566, was first placed under the tuition
of Jacob Wittemeszen, but he afterwards became
a scholar of Hubrecht Jacobszen. On leaving that
master he went to Italy, and passed some years at
Venice, where he formed his style by studying the
works of Giacomo Bassano. He painted history
and pastoral subjects, which were esteemed in his
time. He died at Delft in 1628.

RYCKE, BERNARD, painter, born at Courtrai,
was made a member of the Guild of St. Luke at
Antwerp in 1561. At the church of St. Martin at
Courtrai there are two pictures by him : ' Christ
bearing the Cross,' and the 'Beheading of St.
Matthew.' In 1589 he was chosen by Raphael van
Coxcie as one of the experts who were to decide
upon the merits of the ' Last Judgment,' painted
by that artist for the town of Ghent. He died at




born at Antwerp about the year 1620.
style, it is probable that he was a pupil of Paul
Pontius. His plates are executed with the graver
in a neat, formal manner, and his drawing is
generally incorrect. We have, among others, the
following prints by him :

The Adoration of the Magi ; after Rulens. The best

impressions are before the address of either Gas.

Huberti, or Corn, van Blerlen.
The Entombment ; after the same.
The Holy Family ; after the same.
Christ and the Twelve Apostles ; after the same ; thirteen

plates. The best impressions are before the address

of E. Coninck.
Achilles discovered by Ulysses at the Court of Lyco-

medes ; after the same.

RYCX, JAN, born at Bruges, in 1585. Of his life
and works there is no record. He was the father
of three sons, Paul (q. v.), Mathias, and Nicolas
(q. v.), whose names are all found in registers of
the painters of the period. Died 1643.

RYCX, NICHOLAS, (RycKX,) the son of Jan, was
born at Bruges in 1637. It is not said by whom
he was instructed ; but having learned the rudiments
of design, he embarked in a vessel bound for the
Levant, and travelled through Palestine, where he
made designs of the most remarkable views in the
vicinity of Jerusalem, and delineated with great
precision the customs and costumes of the Orientals,
their caravans, camels, and modes of travelling.
On his return to Flanders he painted pictures of
those subjects, which were much esteemed. In
1667 he was received into the Academy at Bruges,
where he died after 1695.

RYCX, PAUL, the elder, son of Jan Rycx, born at
Bruges, 1612, was a historical painter, and became
a member of the Corporation of Bruges in 1635.



In the Eglise S. Sauveur at Bruges tnere is a S.
Jerome by him, signed P. rycz,fe., 1644.

RYCX, PAUL, the younger, born at Bruges, 1649,
was an active member of the Corporation of
Painters at Bruges between 1672-77. Died, 1690.

RYDER, THOMAS, an English engraver, born in
London in 1746, was one of the artists employed
by Boydell to engrave the Shakespeare Gallery,
for which he executed eight of the large plates.
They are among the best, and are after Fuseli,
Stothard, Smirke, Northcote, Ramberg, Durno,
Hamilton, and J. F. Rigaud. He also engraved
after Angelica Kaufmann, Shelley, and others. He
executed several plates in the dotted manner,
which possess great merit. Among others, are the
following :

The Captive ; after J. Wright.
The Last Supper ; after West.
The Murder of James I. King of Scotland ; after Oje.


RYLAND, WILLIAM WYNNE, an eminent English
engraver, born in London in 1732, was a pupil of
Simon Fransois Ravenet, who was at that time
established in England. On leaving that master
he went to Paris, where he studied design for some
time under Roubillac, and received the instruction
of J. P. le Bas in engraving. After a residence of
five years in Paris, where he engraved several
plates, he returned to England, and was soon after-
wards appointed engraver to the king. He en-
graved two whole-lengths of his Majesty, after
Ramsay, and a portrait of the Queen, after Cotes.
In the latter part of his life he applied himself to
engraving in the chalk manner, partly after draw-
ings by the old masters, but principally from the
pictures of Angelica Kauffmann. This style he
is said to have first introduced into England, and
he certainly improved it. In the work entitled
' A Collection of Prints in Imitation of Drawings,'
published by Charles Rogers, in 2 vols. folio, there
are fifty-seven by Ryland, besides the admirable
mezzotint portrait oif Rogers at the commence-
ment. These, with few exceptions, are after the
old masters, chiefly the Italian. Ryland held the
appointment of engraver to George III., with a
pension of 200 per annum ; and he carried on an
extensive business as a printseller. Towards the
end of his life he entered into a liaison with a young
woman, who involved him in great expenses, to
provide for which he stepped from the path of
honesty. In 1783 he was tried on a charge of
forgery, condemned, and, in spite of the efforts of
his friends, hanged. His brother had very narrowly
escaped the same fate the year before, on conviction
of highway robbery. A short memoir of William
Ryland was published in 1784. The following are
perhaps the best of his 200 plates :

George III. : after Ramsay.

Queen Charlotte ; after Cotes.

John Stuart, Earl of Bute ; after Ramsay.

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