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altar-pieces by him. He was the master of Pietro
Domini. He was born in 1578, and died in 1652.

NOWER, FRANCIS, a herald painter of the
seventeenth century, who died with his children
and servants in 1670 in a fire in Bartholomew
Lane, London. He was the editor of the fourth
edition of Guillim's ' Display of Heraldry,' and lie
supplied all the new illustrations for the work.
He did many coats-of-arms for the City Companies,
and his name constantly appears in their books of
accounts. He also painted banners for the City
regiments, and for two at least of the City Guilds.


NUERI, AVANZIO, painter, was bom at Castello,
near Rome, studied under Pomerancio, and was
employed by Sixtns V. His works are to be found
in the churches of Rome. He was born in 1562
and died in 1629.

and designer, a scholar of A. Scbelfhont, was born
in 1813, and died at the Hague in 1839. In his
sixteenth year he exhibited a landscape at Ghent,
for which he received a prize ; some time after he
obtained a first prize from the Felix Mentis society
at Amsterdam. In 1838 a winter scene, which he
exhibited at Ghent, attracted attention, and led to
his nomination as a member of the Academy of the
Fine Arts at the Hague. He was also a member
of that of Antwerp and of the Netherlands Insti-
tute. His premature death prevented the full
development of his talents. There is a landscape
with ruins by him in the Amsterdam Museum,
which is considered one of his finest works.

NULCK, L., a painter apparently of the Dutch
school, of whose life nothing is known. In the
Collection of M. Ch. Careus, Brussels, there is an
interior with figures by him, signed L.N-idck, 1680.

NUMAN, HEBMANUS, painter and etcher, was
born at Ezinge, near Groeningen, in 1744. He first
designed and painted birds and landscapes, but
devoted himself later on to portraiture in oil and
pastel, and studied engraving under Le Bas at
Paris. He produced many portraits at Amsterdam,
and published in 1797 a series of etchings repre-
senting- Dutch country houses. He died in 1820.

amateur etcher. There are various landscape plates
by him, some after Paul Sandby, and some ' Views
of the Ruins at Stanton Harcourt.' He became the
second Earl Harcourt, and died in 1809.

a Portuguese artist, born at Villa Real de Tras-os-
montes. He entered holy orders in 1591, and took
the name of Fra Philipe das Chazas (of the wounds).
He was one of the most celebrated artists in
Portugal in his time, and author of 'Arte de
pintura, symetria e perspectiva,' 1615.

NUNEZ, JOAN, one of the earliest of the oainters
of Seville, lived at the commencement of the 16th
century, and was a scholar of Sanchez de Castro,
and married Ana de Castro, a relation of that master.
The greater number of his works have been de-
stroyed. In the cathedral of Seville there is still
a picture by him representing the ' Virgin with
the dead Christ in her arms, accompanied by St.
Michael and St. Vincent Martyr;' in the fore-
ground are several figures on their knees adoring
the Virgin. This picture Cean Bermudez compares
to the work of Albert Durer.

NUNEZ, PEDRO, was born at Madrid early in the

.17th century. He studied under Juan de Soto,
and afterwards at Rome, it is said under Guercino.
On his return he painted a series of the Spanish
sovereigns for the theatre of the Alcazar at Madrid.
In 1625, by command of Prieto, General of the
Order of Mercy, he executed some works for the
cloister of the convent of the order. He died at
Madrid in 1654, having unsuccessfully competed
with Angelo Nardi for the post of King's painter.

of the order of St. John, was born at Seville in
1635, of an illustrious family. He studied painting
for amusement, and placed himself under the direc-
tion of Murillo, to whom he became the most
attached friend. Such was his progress in the art,
that from an amusement it became his constant
occupation. As a knight of the order of St. John,
he was obliged to perform the usual expedition
(las carabanas) ; and on his arrival at Malta he
placed himself under Matteo Preti, called 11 Cala-
brese, who was also a knight of the same order ;
and with him he increased his knowledge, particu-
larly in chiaroscuro. On his return to Spain he
rejoined Murillo, who loved him tenderly, and for
whom he felt such attachment and veneration that
he always resided with him. The two conjointly
founded the Academy of Seville. The master died
in the arms of his scholar. Villavicencio, like
Antolinez, Tobar, and Meneses Osorio, approached
so near to the manner of Murillo in painting chil-
dren, that it is sometimes difficult to decide be-
tween the two ; he was also an excellent portrait
painter. He died at Seville in 1700. There is a
picture by him at Alton Towers, the seat of Lord
Shrewsbury, partaking of the dark manner of Cala-
brese. It represents the Virgin sewing, and Joseph
embracing the child Jesus. The Madrid Museum
contains a picture by him of ' Boys playing with
Dice; ' and the Suermondt Gallery at Cologne had a
' Child Jesus, in a Landscape.' The Carmen Calzado,
at Seville, has also some genre pictures and por-
traits by him, including his own portrait.

was a pupil of Ridolfo Ghirlandaio. He is said to
have visited England in 1531.

graver, born at Nuremberg in 1740, was a son
and scholar of GEORG PAUL NOSBIEGEL (who died
1776). He studied perspective under Stettner,
and attended the Academy at Nuremberg under
Preissler. He engraved several plates and por-
traits for Lavater's works, and executed some
okhers after the designs of Chodowiecki. One of
his best plates is the ' Death of Schwerin,' after
Berger. He died in 1818.

NUTI, GIULIA, the wife of Antonio Marini (5.1).),
frequently painted flowers in her husband's pictures.


NUTTER, WILLIAM, an English engraver, who
studied under J. Smith and Bartolozzi, and practised
in the stippled manner. He was born in 1754.
There are plates by him after Reynolds, Morland,
Westall, Hoppner, Wheatley, and Russell. He
died in Somers Town in 1802.

NUTTING, JOSEPH, was an English engraver,
who resided in London at the beginning of the
17th century. He was principally employed by
the booksellers, and executed among others the
following portraits:

Charles I., with the persons who suffered in his cause.

Mary Capel, Duchess of Beaufort ; after Walker.

Matthew Mead, father of Dr. Meail.


Sir John Cheke.

Lucius Gary, Viscount Falkland.

Robert Pierpoint, Earl of Kingston.

George St. Loo, Commissioner for the Navy.

Henry Sacheverel, D.D.

John Locke.

Aaron Hill.

G. Parker, the Almanack-maker.

Johannes Jacobus Scheuchzerus ; after Melchior Fuss-


William Elder, Engraver ; after Faitliorne.
Dr. Monk, Bishop of Hereford, who died in 1681.

FILO,) was the eldest son of Panfilo Nuvolone, and
was born at Milan in 1008. He received his first
instruction from his father, but was afterwards a
scholar of Giulio Cesare Procaccini. He abandoned
the principles of that master to imitate the works
of Guido Reni, and some of his pictures, particularly
those of the Virgin, approach so near to the style
of the latter, that he acquired the soubriquet of
' the Guido of Lotnbardy.' In the oratory adjoin-
ing the church of San Vincenzio at Piacenza is his
' Purification of the Virgin,' considered his best
work. In the church of San Vittore, at Milan,
is a fine picture by him of ' St. Peter's Miracle at
the Gate of the Temple.' Other works of his are in
public buildings at Parma and Cremona. He
also painted portraits with great success. In the
year 1649, when the Queen of Spain visited Milan,
he was selected to paint her portrait. He died in

the younger brother of Carlo Francesco Nuvolone,
and was born at Milan in 1619. Possessed of a
fervid imagination, and great facility of hand, his
works form a striking contrast to those of his
brother. During a long life, he painted many
altar-pieces for the churches at Brescia, arid other
cities in the states of Venice. A ' St. Jerome ' in
the church of San Tommaso at Piacenza is regarded
as one of his best productions. Towards the latter
part of his life his powers became languid and
feeble, which is not extraordinary, as he continued
to paint till his eighty-fourth year. He died in

NUVOLONE, PANFILO, was a native of Cremona,
and flourished about the year 1608. He was one
of the ablest disciples of Giovanni Battista Trotti,
and painted history in the style of that master. In
the church of the monastery of SS. Domenico and
Lazzaro at Milan, is one of his principal works,
representing the ' Rich Man and Lazarus ; ' and in
the cupola of the church of La Passione, the ' As-
sumption of the Virgin.' Zani places his death in



NUZI, ALLEGRETTO, (or Nncci DI NDZIO,) called
Fabriano in the 14th century, and first appears on
the Register of Florence in 1346, at which date he
may be said to have brought to that city the man-
ner of the Umbrian school. Nothing is known of
the details of his life, and the earliest picture signed
and dated by him is a ' Madonna and Child, between
the Archangel Michael and St. Ursula,' with the
six donors kneeling on each side of the throne,
which bears the date of 1365. In 1369 he executed
the altar-piece now in the sacristy of the cathedral
of Macerata ; and in 1372 he completed the ' Virgin
and Child,' now in the possession of Signer Romo-
aldo Fornari, of Fabriano; the same gentleman

also possesses an ' Ecce Homo ' that can be assigned
to Allegretto. In the Gallery at Berlin are two
panels by this artist, viz., a 'Virgin and Child,
between SS. Catherine and Bartholomew,' and a
' Crucifixion.' Crowe and C'avalcaselle have attri-
buted to this artist an altar-piece now in the
sacristy of the Fabriano cathedral, containing the
' Virgin and Child, with SS. Bartholomew, John
the Evangelist, and Mary Magdalene ; ' as also the
' St. Augustine between SS. Nicholas of Tolentino
and Stephen,' in the sacristy of Sant' Agostino,
in the same city. According to Ricci, Allegretto
is the author of the frescoes in Santa Lucia of
Fabriano, which represent the ' Death and Coron-
ation of the Virgin,' the ' Crucifixion,' and other
sacred subjects, executed between 1345 and 1349.
Other paintings by him are to be found at Cancello,
near Fabriano. in which church he was buried in
1385. He signed his pictures, Alleyrettus Nutii
de Faljriano.

DELLA PENNA, was born at Penna, in the diocese
of Fermo, in 1603, and was a scholar of his uncle
Tommaso Salini, a flower painter. He chiefly
resided at Rome, where his pictures of fruit and
flowers were held in the highest estimation. But
from using something of a noxious quality in the
preparation of his colours, his works soon lost their
original freshness, and many of them have almost
entirely perished. He was in 1657 made a member
of the Academy of St. Luke, and died at Rome in
1673. He was much employed in painting garlands
to decorate figures of the Virgin, Saints, and other
religious subjects. The church of Sant' Andrea
della Valle at Rome contains a wreath of flowers
painted by him round Andrea Camassei's portrait
of St. Cajetanus. A 'Bird Concert' was engraved
after him in mezzotint by Earlom.

DIONIJR VAN, son and scholar of Elias, was born at
Rotterdam in 1705. He painted similar subjects
to those by his father, and also excelled in por-
traiture. It is related that at the age of eighty-
one he painted, without the aid of spectacles, a
perfect likeness of a young lady. His crayon
drawings are also much esteemed. He died in
1798 or 1799.

NYMEGEN, ELIAS VAN, was born at Nymeguen
in 1667, and was taught the first elements of the
art by his elder brother, who was an indifferent
painter of flowers and portraits ; but on the death of
his instructor, when he was little more than fourteen
years of age, he resolved to dispense with further
assistance, and applied himself to the study of
nature till he became a tolerably correct designer
of the figure, and acquired a competent acquaint-
ance with perspective and architecture. He also
excelled in painting landscapes and flowers. His
principal occupation was ornamenting the ceilings
and saloons of mansions in Holland, with emblem-
atical and historical subjects, embellished with
bas-reliefs and other accessories. His talents re-
commended him to the patronage of the Princess
of Orange, who employed him in adorning the
apartments of her diflerent palaces, in which he
was occupied several years. He died at Rotterdam

in 1755.

NYMEGEN, GERARD VAN, was the son of Dionrjs,
and was bom at Rotterdam in 1735. He was in-
structed by his father, and at a very early age painted
the portrait of Prince William V., which was en-
oraved by Beauvarlet ; but he applied himself more



particularly to landscape, in which he made the works
of Ruysdael, Everdingen. and Pynacker his models.
His best pieces are mountainous landscapes, and
forest scenery with rivulets, ornamented with
animals ami figures. He painted many portraits,
and made drawings and copies after Jacob Ruys-
dael, Wynants, Hackaert, and Hobbema. There
exist twenty-one etchings of landscapes by him.
He died at Rotterdam in 1808.

VIJGH, the wife of Gerard van Nymegen, has left
several drawings of landscape of some merit. She
died in 1805.

NYMEGEN, TOBIAS VAN, the younger brother of
Elias van Nymegen, was born at Nymeguen about
the year 1670. His technical education was similar
to that of Elias ; and he pursued the same branch
of the art. He was invited to the court of the
Elector Palatine, in whose service he remained till
his death, the date of which is not ascertained.

of Haarlem, was admitted as master into the
Guild of St. Luke, at Delft, in 1684. He was cele-
brated for imitating engravings with the pen. He
died in 1698.

N YPOORT, JUSTUS VAN (or VAN DEB), painter and
etcher, a little-known artist, who is, nevertheless,
of some importance. He painted scenes of peasant
life, often humorous, several of which he etched
in the style of Ostade. He flourished about 1680.
Plates :

Pat. Joan. Maldonatus ; an Angel beside him and Death
in the distance.

Zoylus ; " De gustibus non est disputandum."

Peasants in a Room.

Interior of Farm-house, with the Farmer and his Family.

A Knife-grinder before a Farm-house.

A Peasant with his Wife and Child.

Peasants drinking and playing Cards.

Peasants and Children in an interior.

Three Peasants smoking and drinking.

Group of three Boors in a Cottage.

The Fruit-dealer.

A company of Peasants

Three Card-players.

A Boor looking into an empty Jug.

A village Surgeon aud a Boor with toothache.

Landscape, with a Sacrifice.

A Genius laying a Halberd on the breast of a winged
old man asleep under a tree.

A book-plate for the Prince-Bishop, Carl von Olmutz.


0. See VAN DER 0.

OAKES, JOHN WRIGHT, a landscape painter of
eminence, was born at Sproston House, Middlewich,
Cheshire, the home of his family for several genera-
tions, on July 9, 1820. Early in life he was brought
to Liverpool, where he was educated, and appren-
ticed to a house painter. In 1839 Oakes made his
first appearance as an exhibitor, at the Liverpool
Academy, with a picture of 'Fruit,' priced 5
guineas. His residence in the following year and
until 1846 was 4, Parker Street. He continued to
exhibit fruit pieces for several years, but in 1843
he began modestly as a landscapist with a three-
guinea ' Sketch on the Lancashire Coast.' W. J.
Bishop is credited with being his chief preceptor in
art, and he seems to have attended classes at the
Liverpool Academy, but his training was in all
probability desultory. Oakes continued a house


painter, until success as a picture-maker enabled
him to dispense with ladders and pails. This pro-
bably was about 184G, when he exhibited ten
landscapes, of local or Welsh subjects, at the
Liverpool Academy. In the following year he was
elected an associate of that body, removed to 100,
Bold Street, and exhibited ' Nant Frangcon, Car-
narvonshire,' at the British Institution. About this
date Oakes married a lady who had a prosperous
business as a dressmaker. In 1848 his pictures at
Liverpool included some subjects in the Lake
District, one of them, 'On the river Greta, Keswick,'
having previously been shown (his first appear-
ance) at the Royal Academy. Thereafter, with a
single exception, he was always represented at the
Royal Academy, where in all (according to Mr.
Graves) he showed ninety works ; his London
record otherwise being twenty-eight at the British
Institution, eleven at Suffolk Street, and twenty-six
at other Exhibitions. In 1850 Oakes became a full
member of the Liverpool Academy, and the sub-
jects of his work at its Exhibition give evidence of
a visit to Scotland. Two years later he exhibited
some Irish subjects. In 1853 Oakes became
Secretary of the Academy, a post he filled until
1855, when he removed to 28, Victoria Road,
Kensington, London. The innovation of printing
prices in the exhibition catalogue of 1853 was
probably due to the practical sagacity of Oakes.
None of his own four exhibits were for sale. In
1854 his highest price was 150 guineas for
'The Vale of Bersham'; in 1855, 100Z. each
for ' Twll-du ' and ' Loch Ranza, Arran.' After
going to London, Oakes remained a non-resident
member of the Liverpool Society, and continued to
send to its Exhibitions. In 1858 he showed :it the
Royal Academy ' The Warren,' and ' Maldreath
Sands rain passing off,' in 1859 ' Marchllyn-
Mawr,' in 1860 'Aberaffraw Bay,' and in 1861
' A Carnarvonshire Glen,' which all rank among
his finest achievements. 'The Forest, Glen of the
Gardewalt,' shown in 1865, is evidence of a foreign
tour, and it was followed in 1866 by ' Morning at
Angera, Lago Maggiore.' In the next year there
were three Scottish subjects (two of the Bass
Rock), and in 1868 he showed nothing. In 1869,
the first year of Burlington House, ' Early Spring'
was Oakes' sole contribution. It is said to be in
the Glasgow Corporation Gallery, but the curator
states that this is incorrect ; that it at one time
belonged to the Glasgow Institute of Fine Arts,
and was sold with all the other pictures belonging
to that institution about 1880. Its present location
has not been traced. In 1871 the 'Linn of
Muick, near Ballater,' was one of three pictures at
the Royal Academy, and to the first Corporation
Autumn Exhibition at Liverpool, Oakes sent four
works, of which the most important was ' Morning
in the Bay of Ceri, Lake of Lucerne" (Royal
Academy, 1870). which was priced 367 10s. in
the catalogue. In the following year he again
sent four pictures to Liverpool, and ' A North
Devon Glen, Autumn ' (367 10s.) was purchased
for the Permanent Collection. It is now in the
Walker Art Gallery. The size is 48 by 96
inches. In 1873, when he removed to Learn
House, Addison Road, ' A Mountain Stream, Glen
Derry, Aberdeenshire' (367 10s.), was shown both
at the Royal Academy and at Liverpool. In the
following year Oakes was elected Associate of the
Institute of Painters in Water-Colours, but in 1875
he resigned, doubtless having in view the As-


sociateship of the Royal Academy, which fell to
him in 1876.

In 1883 Oakes was elected an honorary member
of the Royal Scottish Academy. Two or three
years before this lie had fallen into chronic ill
health due to asthma, which interfered with the
practice of his art. He continued to exhibit
regularly, however, at the Royal Academy, his last
contributions, in 1887, being ' Barnton Mill' and
' Hailstorm at the Devil's Bridge, Pass of St.
Gothard.' He died at Learn House on July ',),
1887, and was buried at Brompton Cemetery. In
the 1888 Exhibition at Burlington House Oakes was
represented for the last time by ' The Warren." On
March 10, 1888, his remaining pictures were sold at
Christie's: they realized 3,848. The range in land-
scape of Oakes is fairly well indicated by the titles of
pictures which have already been quoted. He had
a passion for the scenery of mountainous country,
and particularly loved North Wales, but he also
chose subjects from Scotland, Ireland, the Isle of
Man, England, and occasionally the Continent.
Extensive prospects pleased him better than " bits,"
and he exhibited in his treatment of such themes
a brilliant, almost unerring, sense of composition,
a fine perception of light, atmosphere, and colour,
and the poetry of nature. The work of his early
years was particularly brilliant, but after going to
London he did not progress as his early admirers
anticipated. Although he was closely associated
with the Liverpool pre-Raphaelites, the style of
Oakes was not affected by them. One of his con-
temporaries has described him as a man of sturdy
appearance, more like a sea-captain than a painter,
much marked by small-pox, and addicted to wear-
ing black satin waistcoats. He habitually had his
left hand in his pocket. Unlike most artists he
would never allow any one to see him paint. A
son, FREDERICK OAKES, was intended for an artist,
and did some good work in his youth, but event-
ually entered upon a business career. He died
young. E.E.D,

OAKLEY, OOTAVIDS, a painter in water-colours,
was born in 1800. After having practised as a por-
trait painter at Leamington and at Derby, he came
to London ifi 1842, was elected an Associate of the
Water-colour Society, and a full member in 1844.
His pictures consist chiefly of rustic figures, groups
of gypsies, &c., and in his later years of landscapes.
He began to exhibit at the Royal Academy in 1826,
and ceased in 1860. Most of his contributions to
that exhibition were portraits. Oakley died at
Bayswater in March, 1867.

OAKMAN, JOHN, an English wood engraver,
born at Hendon, who practised about the middle
of the 18th century. He was chiefly employed
on illustrations for children's books. In his later
years he turned ballad and novel writer, and died
in indigence in 1793.

OBACH, KASPAR, painter, engraver, and litho-
grapher, was born at Zurich in 1807, and was a
pupil of Fiissli. He went to Stuttgart in 1825,
and made many landscape sketches in pencil, which
he reproduced in water-colours or lithographed.
He died at Stuttgart in 1865.

OBEET. A good Flemish picture of still-life
(fruit, oysters, and goblets) in the Madrid Museum
bears this name.

OBERMANN, ANTONIS, painter and etcher, was
born at Amsterdam in 1781, and died in the same
city in 1850. He painted landscapes, horses and
cattle, flowers and fruit, and was a member of

the Academy of his native place. At Haarlem
there is a ' Vase of Flowers ' by him. He etched a
series of twenty ' Studies of cattle, sheep,' &c.

OBERMULLNER, ADOLF, Austrian painter;
bom September 3, 1833, at Wels, Upper Austria ;
studied at the Vienna Academy under Steinfeld
and subsequently with Zimmermann ; travelled
through France and Holland : then returned to
Vienna, where he settled in 1860, painting Alpine
scenery, glaciers and the like with striking truth
and vigour. He died at Vienna, October 29, 1898.

OBERTO, FRANCESCO DA, an artist who painted
at Genoa in 1368. His name appears in the Register
of Painters of Genoa immediately before that of
Lodovico Brea, but nothing is known of his life.

OBIDOS, JOSEPHA DE, a Portuguese artist, was
the daughter of Balthazar Gomes Figuiera, said to
have also been a painter, and was born at Seville
about 1630. She must have studied painting and
other arts in Spain ; but she was still young when
her father returned to Obidos, in Portugal, taking
her with him. She painted in that country a
number of pictures in oil for the churches ; also a
portrait of Marie Francoise Isabel! de Savoie, which
was sent to Victor Amed^e, Due de Savoie, before
their marriage. She likewise painted flowers, fruit,
&c., and engraved ; for in the ' Statutes of the Uni-

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