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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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esteemed for his life-like rendering of animals.
He died in 1700.

ROSSI, Pasquale, called Pasqualino, bom at
Vicenza in 1641. Without the instruction of a
master, h.e is said to have reached a respectable rank
as an historical painter by studying and copying
the best works of the Venetian and Roman schools.
Of his pictures in the churches at Eome, the best
are : ' Christ praying in the Garden,' in S. Carlo al
Corso ; and the ' Baptism of Christ,' in S. Maria del
Popolo. In the church of the Silvestrini, at Fabri-
ano, there is a ' Madonna ' by him ; but perhaps
his best production is an altar-piece in the cathedral
at Matelica, representing St. Gregory interceding
for the soiils in Purgatory. He also painted gallant
assemblies, musical parties, &c. He died in 1700.
His death has been put as late as 1725.





ROSSI, Pbopeetia, a lady of Bologna, best
known as a sculptor and carver, bat who also
engraved npon copper, and learnt drawing and
design from Marc Antonio. Sbe is said to hare
been remarkable for her beauty, Tirtues, and talents,
and to have died at an early age in 1530, in conse-
quence of unrequited love. Her last work was a
bas-relief of Joseph and Poriphar's wife !

ROSSIGXULI, Jacopo, painter, a native of Leg-
horn, who, towards the close of the 16th cenmry,
settled in Piedmont, and was appointed painter to
the Court of Savoy. He was a contemporary of
Ardente and Giorgio So!eri,and a scccessful imitator
of the style of Perino del Vaga, in his painting of
grotte.sJU. He died probably in 1604, for a Latin
epitaph on his tomb at San Tommaso in Turin
beats that date.

ROSSIGXOX, Louis Joseph Toussatst, historical
painter and portraitist in pistel, was bom at
Avesnes, on the last day of 1781. He was a pnpfl
of Vincent and of the Ecole des Beaux Arts.
Among Lis works we may mention :

Ibe Si^e of Missolongbi.
Zenobia greeted by Shepherds.
Death of General Sowinski.

He sent his last picture to the Salon in 1 850.

ROSSITER, Thomas, was bom in 181'?. at Xew
Haven, Connecticnt, where he made his first art
studies, and where, in iJ?-??, he began his career as
a portrait painter. Two years later he came to
Europe, visiting London, Paris, tnd Rome, where
he lived for five years. On his return to New York
in 1846. he became kno^\-n chiefly as a painter of
historical and Scriptural subjects, and in 1849 he
was elected Member of the National Academy, his
Associateship dating from l*!"!). After a second
European sojonm, he settled at Coldspring, on the
Hudson, in 1860. He died during a visit to Rome,
in 1871. Some of his works have been engraved.
They are carefully and conscientiously executed,
but are deficient in life and animation. Among the
best known are :

He last Hoots of Tasso.

Captive Jews m Baby km.

The Wise and Foolish Yii^;ins.

The Ascenaon.

Washington in his lihraiy.

Washington's First Cabinet.

The Prince of Wales at Washington's TOmb.

ROSSLER, JoHAXs "Kxw.. See RCslee.

ROSSMAESSLER, Johaxx August, was bom at
Leipsic in 1752. and was instructed in design by
Frederick Oeser. He engraved a great variety rf
vignettes and other plates for books, and also a
few views in the environs of Leipsic. He died at
Iieipsic in 1783.

ROSSMAESSLER, Johasx Fmedkich, an en-
graver, bom at Leipsic in 1775, engraved plates
for Sir Walter Scott's novels after Westall and
Leslie, and also plates for Bnlwer Lytton"s " PUgrima
of the Rhin&' He died at Leipsic in 1858.

ROSSO. AsTosio. Stjc Rossl

rosso! Il (MaItre Boux). See Dei Rossi.

ROSSCM. J. TAX, was a Dutch painter of the 17th
century. He worked in the style of MetsiL There
is a picture by him in the gallery at Vienna of
an old gentleman walking in a park. In 1654 be
painted a portrait of the priest, J. A. Husinga,
which was engraved by Matham.

ROSWORM, , a painter, of whom scarcely

anything is known. He was in England about


the year 1665, and copied some of Sir Peter Lely's
pictures in small.

ROTA, Maetd.-, an eminent engraver, bom at
Sebenico, in Dalmatia, about the year 164<J. but who
chiefly resided at Rome and Venice. By whom he
was instructed in the art of engraving is not_ ascer-
tained. His plates are executed entirely with the
graver, and though not very highly finished, they
are wrought in a neat, clear style. His print
after Michelangelo's ' Last Judgment ' is con-
sidered his masterpiece. This fine print, which is
inscribed Martinus Rota, 1569, has been copied
by Leonard Gaultier, but his version may easily be
distinguished from the original, not oijy by its
inferiority, but by the fact that the head in the
portrait of M. Angelo in a small oval at the top, is
tnmed towards his right shoulder in the original,
while in the copy it is towards the left. There is
another copy by J. Wierix. Rota engraved sorae
plates from his own designs. He usually signed
his plates with his name, but sotnetimes marked
them with a monogram, consisting of an )L and

a wheel (rota) by the side of it, ^\£ . ^M . The

following are his principal plates :


Uaxiimlian TT ^ Bom. Imp^. 1575.

The Emperor Bodoli^ IL 1592 ; witli the ophra:

Ferdinand I. in the costmne of his time. 1373l

Henzy IT., King of France.

Albert a Lasko.


The Besonectiora ; dated 1577. (From Us mm desiffm.')
The same subject, diffeze^iily ^»ited. (From kis oru

The Murder of the Innocents. {From kis om desiffn.')
The Last Jndgmoit ; dedicated to Bodolph IL 1573.
Anotiier print of the Last Jadgment. This piste was

left imperfect at his deaiii, and was finished fcy

another hand. (From his on desiffiL)
l%e Scffinging of Christ. 1563. {From Jus arm <&£»>.)
"BiiB 'Umijidomot St. Feist; after IJtiaa.
21.17 Uagdalaie pontait ; after Hu same.
Fromethens chamed to the Bo^ ; after tie same.
CiuJst aiqieaiiiig to St. Peter ; ^ier BafaeBe. 1563.

BOTABI, PiKTBO. See Dei Botael

ROTENBECK, Gecegb Da>-iix, bom at Xurem-
berg in 1645, was a historical and portrait painter
of some merit, and also a good draughtsman and
modeller. He died about 1705.

ROTEPtM-iXS. See RcDERm>rr.

BOTERMUXD, Julius Wilhelm Louis, a Ger-
man historical painter, bom at Hanover in 18-6.
He studied tinder Bendemann, who at his eariy
death — he died at Salzbmnn, Silesia, in 1859 —
finishe-i his last woit, ' The Dead Chr^' which is
now in the Dresden Gallery.

ROTH, Petkb, painter, practised at Cologne,
where he became well known as a skilful restorer
of old pictures, and also as a portrait painter of
some merit. He died in 1866.

ROTH, WlLUAM, an English portrait and
miniature painter, in the second half of the 18th
century. He exhibited at the Incorporated Society
in 1768. and for some time after practised at

BOTHWKLL, RicBABD, an Irish portrait and
subject painter, bom at Athlone in 1800. In 1815
he commenced his studies in the Dublin Society's
schooL He practised in the Irish metropolis ifor
a few years, and was elected a member of the
Hibernian Academy. Comir.g to London he




assisted Sir Thomas Lawrence, and occasionally
exhibited at the Boyal Academy from 1830 on-
wards. But success did not wait npon him, and
he migrated to Dublin, Leamington, Paris, and
finally to Borne, where he died in 1868. Works :

The Little Boamer. (South Kensington 2taseam,)

Xovici&te Uendicants. {1 he same.)

The Very Pictare of Idleness. (The same.)

Portrait of HnsUssoa. (National Portrait Gallery,

field-Marshal Lord Beresfotd. (The same.)

ROTHWELL, Thomas, an obscure engraver.
He was bom in 1742, and died at Birmingham
in 1807.

ROTTENHAilEB, Thomas, painter, practised in
German J- in the 16th century. An artist of this
name was employed in connection with the ducal
stables at Munich.

BOTTEXHAMMER, J0HA2W, bom at Munich in
1564, was instructed in the rudiments of design bv
an artist named Donaner. At an early period of
his life he went to Bome, where it was not long
before he distinguished himself by painting small
pictures of historical subjects, which, though they
retained somewhat of the German taste, were in-
geniously composed, and handled with neatness
and spirit. He had acquired some reputation by
his easel pictures, when he was commissioned to
paint an altar-piece for one of the churches at
Bome, and discovered unexpected ability. A
desire to better his colour prompted him to
visit Venice, where he particularly devoted him-
self to studying the works of Tintoretto, in the
&;nola di S. Bocco, and he appears to have imitated
the style of that master wilh some success. During
his stay at Venice he painted a few pictures for the
churches. Ferdinand, Duke of Mantua, employed
him in several considerable works. After a resid-
ence of many years in Italy he returned to his
native country, and established himself at Augs-
burg, where he met with great encouragement.
He was patronized by the Emperor Budolph XL,
for whom he painted a capital ' Feast of the Gods.'
His cabinet pictures are by no means uncommon.
The backgrounds are frequently painted by Jan
Breughel, and sometimes by Paul BrilL He was
fond of decorating his compositions with rich and
splendid accessories, and of introducing node
figures. Rottenhammer died at Augsburg in 1623.
Works :

Berlin. Museum.

Dresden. Gallery.

Glasgow. Gallery.

n «

London. Kat. Gallery.

Hmuch. Gallery.

The Alts : Poetry, Music, Paint-
ing, and Architectore.

Virgin and Child, with Angels
bringing fruit and flowers.

Banqaet of the Gods.

Adoration of the Shepherds.

Fan and Syrinx.

Jndgment of Paris. 1605.

The Idst Judgment.

Diana and Actaeon.

Holy Family ; in a landscape
by J. Brueghel.

Death of Adonis.

Holy Family.

Two ' Banquets of the Gods.'

ROTTERMOXDT. See Rodekmont.

ROTTJIA^N, Fbiedbich, painter and draughts-
man, bom at Handschuhsheim, near Heidelberg,
a self-taught artist, known chiefly by his water-
colour sketches of military life. He became teacher
of drawing at the University, and was commissioned
to make sketches of local scenery by the Duke of

Paris. Louvre.

Petersburg. Bermitage.

Nassau. He died in 1817. By him are the follow-
ing pictures, which he also etched :

The Fight for the Xeckar Bridge.
Battle near Handschohsheim.
Storming of the Bridge at Heidelberg.

BOTTMAXS", Kabl, son of Friedrich Bott-
mann, was bom at Handschuhsheim, near Heidel-
berg, in 1797. He studied for a short time under
Xeller. and first brought himself into notice by
his ' Heidelburg at Sunset ' (a water-colour), and
his ' Castle Elz.' In 1822 he settled at Munich,
and devoted himself to the delineation of Bavarian
scenery. Later he spent much of his time in
Italy and Greece, and the scenes of classic an-
tiquity furnished him with many subjects. He
was appointed painter to the Bavarian court, and
was commissioned by Louis L to paint a series of
Greek landscapes, twenty-three in number, which
now hang in a room by themselves, known as the
' Bottmann Saal,' in the New Pinacothek. Several
of these were executed by an encaustic process.
He also painted the arcades of the ' Hofgarten ' at
Munich with a set of twenty-eight Italian land-
scapes in fresco. He died at Munich in 1850.
The following are some of his works :

Berlin. Xat. Gallery. The Amner Lake.

Frankfort. StSdel Mus. Eeggio and Etna. 1829.

Karlsruhe. Gallery. Landscape in Greece.

,. ., The Island of Egina.

Leipsic. Jluseum. View of Corfu.

„ ,. The Copais Lake; two pictures.

Munich. XewPinakothek: Three Views in the Bavarian

„ „ The Acropolis at Corinth.

„ „ The Island of Ischia.

„ ., Monreale, near Palermo.

„ „ Corfu.

„ „ Etna from Taormina.

„ „ The Grave of Archimedes at


BOTTMANN, Leoklp, landscape painter, bom
at Heidelberg in 1813, was a brother of Karl Bott-
mann, and a painter of some popularity. He was
patronized by King Max of Bavaria, ilany of his
works are more topographical than pictorial. He
died in 1881.

Michael, (Bothmbtee,) a painter, bom at Laufen,
near Salzburg, in 1652, studied under Karl Loth in
Venice, but afterwards returned to Salzburg, where
he painted several pictures for the churches in that
city. He then went to Vienna, and became court-
painter to the Emperors Joseph I. and Charles VL,
and was made a baron. The ceiling of the large
hall in Pomraersfeld is his most important work.
He died at Vienna in 1730.

BOUBAUD, Benjamin, painter, was bom at
EoquevairiB, Bouches-du-Rhone, in 1811. He was
a pupil of Hersent, and was chiefly occupied in
making drawings for ' L'lllustration.' He died at
Algiers in 1847.

BOUCHIER, Mabib Maeguebitb Franqoisb,
(nee Jasee,) a French miniature painter, was
bom at Nancy in 1782. She was the pupil success-
ively of Isabey, Aubry, and Eegnault. She ex-
hibited at the Salon regularly down to 1844,
winning a medal in 1835. She died in 1873.

ROUCHON, , miniaturist, a Benedictine

monk of the 16th century, who illuminated a
beautiful breviary for the church of S. Jacques de
la Boucherie, in Paris, a work on which he is said
to have spent some twenty-two years.

BODGEMONT, Emilie, (nee Gohin,) a portrait





painter, born in Prance in 1821, was a pupil of
Ldori Cogniet. She died in 1859.

RODGERON, Jean, a French painter, born at
Gevray-Chambertin, Cote d'Or, in 1841. He
worlfed principally in Spain, and was the friend
of Henri Regnault, whose picture of ' Les Lances,'
left unfinished at Regnault's deatli during the siege
of Paris, he completed. He died in 1880. Works:

The Spanish Letter-*riter.

Dauce of Gypsies.

Wedding in a Spanish Village.

Brawl in a Posada.

Child's Funeral in Andalusia.

Taking the Habit at the Carmelites.

Departure of the Torrero for the Bull-fight.

RODGET, Georqes, painter, born in Paris in
1784, was a pupil of David, and painted portraits
and historical subjects. He died in Paris in 1869.
Of his portraits we have :

Louis David.
Louis XVIII.
Charles X.


Eugene Beauharnais.

Victor Kellerman.


St. Cyr.



St. Louis receiving the Envoy of the Old Man of the

Mountain, at Ptolemais, 1251.
The Death of St. Louis.
Francis I. at Rochelle.
Henry IV. before Paris.
Henry IV. and his Children.
Henry IV. abjuring the Roman Catholic Faith.
The Marriage of Napoleon with Marie Louise.
The Death of Napoleon I.

Besides these pictures there were also several on
religious and mythological subjects :

CEdipus and Antigone.

Ecce Homo.

Christ on the Mount of Olives.

At Fontainebleau there are several tapestries
executed at the Gobelins after designs by Rouget.

ROUILLARD, Franqoise Julie Aldovrandinb,
(nee Lenuir,) born in Paris in 1801, a pupil of
Saint, of Delacluze, and of her husband, Jean
Sebastien Rouillard. She won honours at the
Salon, where her works were exhibited between
1819 and 1833. She died of cholera in 1832.

ROUILLARD, Jean SIsbastien, painter, born in
Paris in 1789. He was a pUpil of David, and
painted historical subjects and many portraits. His
works appeared at the Salon between 1817 and
1850 ; he was often premiated. He died in Paris
in 1852. Works :




of Charles X. in his

coronation robes.



Portrait of Marshal Grouchy.



Portrait of Marshal Schomberg.




The Marquis de
Belief onds.




General Vandamme.



Camille Desmoulins.
General Marbot.

ROULLET, Jean Louis, an engraver, born at
Aries, in Provence, in 1645, was first instructed in
the art of engraving by Jean Lenfant, but he after-
wards became a pupil of Frangois de Poilly, and
was the ablest of his scholars. On leaving that
master he went to Italy, where he passed ten years,
and acquired a purity and correctness of drawing
which enabled him to engrave with success after
the great masters of the Italian school. His plate
of the ' Marys with the dead Christ,' after the


picture by Annibale Carracoi, formerly in the
Orleans Collection, now in the possession of the
Earl of Carlisle, is admirable. He became an
agree of the Academie Royale in 1698, and died
in Paris in 1699. The following are his piincipal
works :


Louis XIV. ; a half-Ieugth.

Fran9ois de Poilly, Engraver to the King, advivum. 1680.

Jean Baptiste LuUy, Musician to the King ; after Miy-

Ascanius Philamarinus, Cardinal Archbishop of Naples.

subjects after various masters.

The three Marys, with the dead Christ; after An.

The Virgin and Infant Jesus ; after the same.

Two pendentives of the dome of the Jesuit's church at
Naples, representing St. Matthew and St. Luke; after
Lanfranco. The two other pendentives, with St.
Mark and St. John, are engraved by F. de Zouvemovt.

The Visitation of the Virgin to St. Elisabeth ; after

The Virgin, with the Infant Jesus in her arms, who is
holding a Bunch of Grapes ; after the same, and in-
scribed to Madame de Maintenon.

See Mdriette, vol. v. pp. 41 — 51.

ROULLIIjRE, La. See La Roullibre.

ROUQUET, Jean ANDBit, enamel painter, born at
Geneva about 1702. He came to London, where he
practised for many years in the n)anner of Zincke,
and was well known in literary and artistic
circles in the reign of George II. He afterwards
settled in Paris, where he became a member of the
Academy of Painting, in 1753, by the special order
of the king, and in spite of his Protestant prin-
ciples. He interested himself much in researches
concerning the processes of his art, and was the
author of some works on painting. In 1746 he
published in Paris a ' Lettre de M. . . . a un de ses
amis pour lui expliquer les estampes d'Hogarth,'
and in 1755 a very laudatory work on British Art,
called, ' L'Btat des Arts en Angleterre,' a trans-
lation of which appeared subsequently in London,
and in the same year a satire suggested by Diderot's
' Peinture en Cire,' entitled ' L'Art nouveau de la
peinture en fromage, ou ramequin, invents pour
suivre le louable projet de trouver graduellement
des fa9ons de peindre inf^rieures a celles qui
existent.' Rouquet had rooms assigned to him in
the Louvre, but, becoming insane, was removed
to Charenton, where he died in 1769.

ROUSSEAU, Antoine, a French painter of the
17th century, and friend of Philippe de Champagne,
was in 1645 painter in ordinary at the French

ROUSSEAU, EdmS, a French miniature painter
of little note, the pupil of Augustin, born in 1816.
He died in Paris in 1858, and a notice of his life
appeared in 'Le Monde Dramatique' for the 28th
January, in that year.

ROUSSEAU, Jacques, landscape painter, was
born in Paris in 1630. After being instructed in
the elements of design in his native city he went
to Rome, where he applied himself to the study of
perspective and landscape, and drew the most re-
markable scenes in the vicinity. He formed a
friendship with Herman Swaneveldt, whose sister he
married, and, assisted by his advice and instruction,
became an able painter of landscapes and architec-
tural views. On his return to Paris he met with
a favourable reception. He was eipployed by




Louis XIV. at Marly and St. Germain-en-Laye,
and was made a member of the Academy. He
was at the height of his reputation at tlie Revocation
of the Edict of Nantes, when, as a Protestant, he
fled to Switzerland, whence Louis XIV. invited him
to return. He however preferred to go to Holland,
whence he was invited to England by the Duke of
Montague, and was employed, in conjunction with
Charles de la Fosse and John Baptist Monnoyer, in
decorating Montague House. He was afterwards
employed to paint several landscapes and per-
spective views for the palace of Hampton Court.
The landscapes of Rousseau generally represent
classic scenery, eiubellished with magnificent archi-
tecture. In this he appears to have taken Nicholas
Poussin for his model. He etched nineteen plates,
of much merit, which are now very rare. He died
in London in 1693.

ROUSSEAU, Jean Franqois, a French engraver,
who resided in Paris about the year 1760. He has
engraved a great number of vignettes and other
ornaments for books, after the designs of Gravelot
and others. We have also the following separate
plates by him :

The Virgin and Infant Christ ; after Vander Werf.
St. Jerome ; after F. F. Mola.

ROUSSEAU, Philippe, was bom in Paris on
the 22nd February, 1816. He was a pupil of Gros
and of Bertin, and made his d6but at the Salon of
1834, with a ' View in Normandy,' but about ten
years later turned his attention to those still-life
subjects in which he made his reputation. He
won the orthodox honours at the Salon, culminating
in the ofBcership of the Legion of Honour in 1870.
He died in 1887. Works :

St. Martin, Gisors. 1838.

Interior of a Farm. 1850.

The Intruder. 1850. {Musie du Luxembourg.)

Storks taking a Siesta. 1855. (The same.)

Kid eating Flowers. 1855. (The same.)

The Gala Day. 1859.

The Monkey Photographer. {Princess Mathilde.)

Flowers. {^The same.)

The Wolf and the Lamb. 1875.

O ma tendre Musette ! 1877.

La FSte Dieu. 1877.

The Two Friends. 1882.

ROUSSEAU, Pierre feiENNE TnfoDORE, a land-
scape painter, born in Paris in 1812, was the son of
a tailor, and, in boyhood, was placed in some
humble capacity with a relative who had a steam
saw-mill in Franche Comt^. He studied under Pau
de St. Martin, R^mond, and Guillon-Lethiere. In
1834, 1835, and 1838 he exhibited at the Salon,
betraying in his work a disregard for convention
which was then quite new. After that time his
works were rejected by the Paris Salon on the
ground that they were not classical ; and it was
not till 1848, when the Jury of Members of the
Institute fell, that his struggles against adverse
fortune came to an end. Meanwhile Rousseau
had taken refuge in the forest of Fontainebleau,
in that village of Barbison which he has done
almost as much as Millet to immortalize. There
he lived until, with opening fortunes, he added to
his retreat a home in Paris. In 1849 his pictures
were again admitted to the Salon, and won a medal
of the first class. In 1852 he received the cross
of the Legion of Honour, at the 1855 exhibition
a first-class medal, and in 1867 a ra^daille d'hon-
neur and the higher grade of the Legion of Honour.
Rousseau did not show the courage and magna-
nimity of Millet, and his failure to win acceptance is

E E 2

said to have shortened his life. The credit of an
early appreciation of Rousseau's genius belongs
to the Americans. He died at Barbison on the
22nd December, 1867. Of his works we may
cite :

A Glade in a wood, CompiegDe. 1834.

The Forest of Fontainebleau, at sunset. 1849.

Hoar Frost.

Group of Oaks.

A Group of Oaks in a hollow.

Huts under the Trees.

A Swamp in the Landes, the Basses-Pyrenees in the

distance. 1853.
Entrance to Bas-Breau, Fontainebleau. 1851.
Spring at Barbison. 1851.

Exit from the Forest of Fontainebleau ; sunset. [Louvre.)
Spring on the Loire. 1857.

' Carrefour de I'Epine,' Bas-Br6au, Fontainebleau. 1858.
' Gorges d'Apremont,' Fontainebleau. 1860.
' The Stone Oak,' Fontainebleau. 1861.
The End of October, Sologne. 1867.
Sunlight through Storm. 1867.
Evening after Eain, Berry. 1867.
Farm on the Oise. 1867.
Water-colour Landscape. {Havre Museum^
Water Meadows. {Nantes Museum.)
Oows at the Drinking Place. {The same.)
Cows in a Meadow, Fontainebleau. {Montpellier Mus.)

ROUSSEAU, Thbiodorb Augdste, a Fi-encli
painter, was born at Saumur about 1825. He was
a pupil of Leon Cogniet, and went to California,
where he died. Examples of his work are to be
fouud at Versailles and in the mus4e of Saumur.

ROUSSEAUX, Bmile Alfred, a French en-
graver, born at Abbeville in 1831. His studies
were directed by Henriquel-Dupont, and he was
awarded medals at the Salons of 1863 and 1867.
He died in Paris in 1874. Amongst his best plates
are :

Fame and Truth ; after Corregi^io.
Portrait of a Man (Louvre) ; after Franqia.
The Christian Martyr ; after Delaroche.
Christ and St. John ; after Ary Scheffer.
The Virgin and the Infant Jesus ; after Hehert.
The Marquis de S6vign6 ; after Aanteuil.

He also sent to the Salon portraits in chalk of
M. Viotorien Sardou and M. Lerminier.

ROUSSELET, Gilles, was born in Paris in
1610. It is not known under whom he learned the

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 109 of 201)