Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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art of engraving, but his style resembles that of
Bloemaert. He was received into the Academy
in 1663. His drawing is correct, and his plates
possess considerable merit, though in some the
lights are too much covered. He was closely
allied with Le Brun. He died blind in Paris in
1686. The number of his plates is considerable ;
the following are the most esteemed :

Charles de Valois, Dnke of AngoulSme.

Pierre Siguier, Chancellor of France ; after Le Brun.

Eichard de Belleval, Chancellor of the University ; after
the same.

The Frontispiece to the Polyglot Bible ; after S. Bourdon.

The Holy Family ; with St. Elisabeth and St. John pre-
senting the Infant Jesus with a Bird ; aftei' Eaffaelle.

La Belle Jardiniere ; after the same.

The Holy Family, with St. Elisabeth, St. John, and two
Angels ; after the same.

St. Michael overcoming Satan ; after the same.

The Annunciation ; after Ouido.

Four plates representing three of the Labours of Her-
cules and his Death ; after the same.

David playing on the Harp ; after Domenichino.

The Entombment of Christ ; after Titian.

The Four Evangelists ; aftei- Valentin {four plates).

Eliezer meeting Rebecca ; after JV. Poussin.

Moses saved from the Nile ; after the same.

The Holy Family ; after S. Bourdon.





St, John the Evangelist ; after the same.

The Cruciflxiou ; after Le Jirun.

A Pietti ; after the same.

The Dead Christ supported by an Angel ; after tJie same.

The Holy Family ; after the same.

The Penitent Magdalene ; after the same.

St. Bernard kneehng before the Virgin ; after the same.

St. Theresa in contemplation ; after the same.

ROUSSELET, Marie Anne, was the wife of
Pierre Tardieu, the engraver, and was probably a
relative of Gilles Rousselet. She engraved several
plates for Buffon's 'Natural liistory,' and 'St.
John in the Desert,' after Vanloo. She also en-
graved some sea-pieces after Baokhuysen, W.
Van de Velde, and J. Vernet. She flourished
about 1765.

EOUSSlilRE, FEANgois db la. See De la


EOUVl]feRE, Philibeet, painter and actor, was
born at Nimes in 1805. He was a pupil of Gros,
entering the Bcole des Beaux Arts in 1828. He
exhibited occasionally at the Salon between 1831
and 1864. He died in Paris in 1865. As an actor
he played 'Lear,' 'Macbeth,' and the 'Duke of
Alva,' at the Odeon, and 'created' the role of
'Maitre Favilla.'

ROUX, Jakob Wilhelm Chrtstian, a painter
and engraver, born at Jena in 1771, studied first in
his own city and then at Dresden. His ' Falls of
the Rhine at SchafEhausen ' is a careful production,
and his Illustrations to Tiedeniann's work on the
Arteries are good. His attempts to make use of
wax as a vehicle were finally successful, and in
this manner he painted a ' Head of Venus,' after
Titian, and a portrait of the Councillor Paulus. He
etched the ' Student Riot at Jena of 1792,' and a
' Painter's Journey down the Rhine from the Vosges
to the Siebengebirge.' He died at Heidelberg in
1831. His son Kael, born 1826, at Heidelberg, is
a well-known historical and animal painter.

ROUX, MaItee. See Dei Rossi, Giovambattista.

RODX, PoMPEYO, was an engraver of religious
prints at Barcelona in the 17th century.

EOVERB, GiAMBATTiSTA and Marco, the two
brothers of Giovanni Madeo Roveee. They
assisted him in his works, and executed a large
number of paintings, both in fresco and oil, for
the city of Milan. The three brotliers were also
called Rossetti, and more generally still Fiammin-
ghini, from their father.

ROVERE, Giovanni Bat'jista, an artist of the
17th century at Turin, the only record of whom
was a curious painting which he left in the convent
of St. Francis at Turin. The subject was ' Death,'
and the Figures of Adam and Eve were introduced
in company with those of the three Fates. It was
inscribed: "Jo. Bapt. a Ruere Taur, f. 1627." An
artist of the same surname was employed at Turin
in connection with the court collection of pictures
from 1626 and onwards, but his Christian name


ROVERE, Giovanni Maueo, called Fiammin-
GHINO, (FiAMiNGO,) painter and engraver, was born
at Milan in 1570, of parents of Flemish origin.
He was brought up imder the Procaocini, whose
style he followed, particularly that of Giulio Cesare.
He painted history with some success. His altar-
piece, the ' Last Supper,' in the church of S. Angelo
at Milan, is a good picture, and so are his battle-
pieces and landscapes with animals. Some en-
gravings by him of such subjects, after his own
designs, are marked J. M. R. F. Giovanni Bati'ISTA


RovEEB, brother of Giovanni Mauro Rovere, painted
architectural perspectives, and showed consider-
able talent. He died in 1640. Several others of
the same family practised painting.

ROVERIO, Baetolommeo, a Milanese painter
of the 17th century, seems to have been identical
with Maroo Genovesini, who has been sometimes
confused with Calcia, called II Genovesino, a
painter of the same epoch {q. v.). He practised
in the manner of the " Machinisti." Oretti men-
tions a picture by him in the church of the
Certosa, Carignano, signed Bartol. Roverio. D.
Genovesino, and dated 1626, and a 'Crucifixion'
in the refectory, dated 1614, and he painted
numerous works in Milan, notably for the Augus-
tines, among them a genealogical tree of the

ROVIGO. See Uebino.

ROVIRA Y BROCANDEL, Hib(5lito, a Spanish
painter and engraver, was bom at Valencia in 1693.
It is not known under what master he first studied,
but it is certain that he assisted in the studio of
Evaristo Mufioz, where, solely by application,
he became an excellent engraver. In his 30th
year he started for Rome. On his arrival there he
devoted himself to study with such ardour that he
passed days and nights without other sustenance
than bread and water. He never undressed ; and
his enthusiasm was so great that his boast was
that he had copied every picture which had given
him pleasure. But his privations had their effect
on his faculties, and on his return from Rome
his work was not equal to what he had done
before his departure thither. He had there, how-
ever, painted the portrait of the General of the
Dominicans ; and on Eovira's return to Madrid
the reverend father was at the court. The queen,
Isabel Farnese, was desirous of having a portrait
of Luis I., and the General spoke so highly of the
talent of Eovira, that he was sent for to execute
the work. After beginning well, mental disturb-
ance led him to spoil his picture, and he fled to
Valencia in complete destitution. Here the Mar-
quis de Dos Aguas took him into his house, and
got him a commission to paint in fresco the vault
of the sanctuary of S. Luis, which he finished
without exhibiting the least aberration of mind.
It was at last, however, found necessary to place
him in an asylum, the Casa de Misericordia,
where he died in 1765. In the first volume of the
'Museo Pict6rico' of Palomino, there are several
prints by him, which show his talent as an engraver.

ROWBOTHAM, Thomas Leeson, an English
landscape painter in water-colours, born at Dublin
in 1823. His father was an artist, and by him he
was taught. From shortly after his birth until he
was twelve he lived at Bristol. He made several
sketching tours, beginning in 1847, through Wales,
Scotland, Normandy, and Italy. From the latter
country many of his subjects were taken. Suc-
ceeding his father, he taught drawing at the naval
school at New Cross. He joined the Water-Colour
Institute in 1858. In his later years he restricted
himself practically to Italian subjects, and as a
rule to those with sea or a lake in them. His style
was sunny, but florid, decorative, and non-natural.
He died at Kensington in 1875, leaving his family
ill-provided for. Two of his drawings are in the
Kensington Museum.

EOWLANDSON, Thomas, a celebrated designer
and etcher of caricatures and humorous subjects,
was born in London in • 1756. At a, very early




period he gave presage of his innate talent for
caricature, hy making caricatures of his school-
master and fellow-scholars on the margins of
his books. In his sixteenth year he was sent to
Paris, and entered as a student in one of the
drawing-schools there, where he made rapid
advances in the study of the human figure. On
his return to London he resumed his studies at
the Royal Academy, where he had been admitted a
student before his visit to Paris. His father, who
was a city tradesman, became embarrassed from
injudicious speculation, and young Rowlandson
would have been without support but for the
liberality of an aunt, a French lady who had
married his Uncle Thomas. This lady, whose
maiden name was Chattelier, amply supplied him
with money ; and to this indulgence, perhaps, may
be traced those careless habits which attended his
early career, and for which he was remarkable
through life. At her decease she left him seven
thousand pounds, besides other valuable property.
He then gave way to his bent towards dissipation.
In Paris he had imbibed a love for gaming; and
he now frequented the most fashionable play-
houses in London, where he alternately won and
lost without emotion, until he had dissipated more
than one valuable legacy. It is said that he once
sat uninterruptedly at the card-table for thirty-six
hours. He has been known, after having lost all
he had, to sit down coolly to his work, and
exclaim, "I've played the fool, but (holding up
his pencils) here is my resource." Coarse, hasty,
and slight as were the generality of his humorous
designs, his early works were wrought with care ;
and his ' Academies ' of the huinan figure were
scarcely inferior to those for which Mortimer was
famous. His style, which was purely his own,
was quite original. He drew a bold outline with
the reed pen, in a tint composed of vermilion and
Indian ink, washed in the general effect in chiaro-
scuro, and then shghtly tinted the whole with the
proper local colours. Like many other caricaturists
he had a keen sense of beauty, especially of the
beauty of woman. For many years he was too
idle to invent subjects or to seek new employment,
and his kind friend and best adviser, Aokermann,
the well-known publisher in the Strand, supplied
him with ideas for the exercise of his talent. At
that gentleman's suggestion he made the illus-
trations for ' The Travels of Dr. Syntax,' ' The
Dance of Death,' 'The Dance of Life,' by W.
Coombe. The first-named of these was ' written to '
Rowlandson's drawings by Coombe. In spite of
his reckless mode of life, Rowlandson had the
character of a man of scrupulous honour. He
died in London in 1827.

ROWLETT, Thomas, an etcher and draughts-
man, practising in London about the middle of the
18th century. He has left an etching after a
portrait of William Dobson, the painter.

r6xAS y VELASCO, SALVADOB,a gentleman of
Seville, who practised painting as an amateur, and
actively contributed to the foundation and support
of the Academy in the years 1670-73.

ROY, Jean Baptiste de, commonly called Db
Roy of Brussels, a landscape and. oa'^^'e painter,
was born at Brussels in 1759. Froi. . his early
childhood he showed a great disposition for draw-
ing, and his father took him to Holland that he
might have the opportunity of studying the cele-
brated Dutchmen. These and nature were his
. only teachers ; but by assiduous attention to both

he soon attained to considerable emincaice as a
painter. The pictures of Paul Potter, Cuyp, and
Berchem, decided his choice of subject ; but the
style he adopted differs from theirs, and is more
like that of Omraeganck. His subjects are gener-
ally horned cattle standing in groups, or grazing
in meadows. In the Brussels Museum there is a
good picture hy him. He died in 1839.

ROY, Joseph, a French painter of the 17th cen-
tury, employed at a fixed salary by the town of
Bordeaux in 1611. He painted the portraits of
many of the municipal authorities.

ROY, Le. See Le Roy, Piekee FnANgois.

ROY, Simon, a French painter of the 16th cen-
tury, the friend of Clouef. He was one of the
artists employed in 1548 in the decoralion of

ROYEN, WlLLEM F. VAN, a Dutch painter of
still-life, born at Haarlem in 1664. In 1689 he
settled at Berlin, and became painter to the court,
working at Berlin and at Potsdam for many years.
Nagler states that he received a considerable
pension from the Prussian court. He died in 1723.

ROYER. See Le Royer.

ROYER, PlEREE, a painter and architect, work-
ing towards the end of the 18th century. lie was
of French birth, but seems to have worked chiefly
in London. He exhibited at the Royal Academy
between 1774 and 1778, and at the Salon down to
1796. Most of his subjects were taken from
London and its neighbourhood. Among them
were a 'View of Garrick's Villa,- at Hampton,'
' Hyde Park Corner,' ' Chelsea and Battersea


ROYNARD, Vincent, a French artist of the 17th
century. In 1642 he received commissions for
various portraits and pictures from Anne of

RUBEN, Christian, a painter, born at Treves
in 1805. His first master was Cornelius, at Diissel-
dorf, but he afterwards studied at Munich. In
the summer of 1835 he produced an ' Ave Maria '
and ' Scenes from Monastic Life,' also a series of
cartoons for the cathedral of Ratisbon. In 1848
he was appointed Director of the Art Academy
in Prague, in which year he also produced some
cartoons for the Belvedere in Vienna, of which
he was made Director. His last works were ten
cartoons from Bohemian history. He died in an
asylum near Vienna in 1875.

RUBENS, A., an obscure artist, who practised
at Brussels, and died in distressed circumstances
about 1824.

RUBENS, Pbteb Paul, was horn on the 29th of
June, 1577, at Siegen in Westphalia. His father,
Jan Rubens, was an alderman at Antwerp, who,
in the time of the religious troubles, had been
denounced as a Calvinist, and escaped to Cologne,
where he entered the service of Prince William of
Orange. Here, after two years, he became involved
in an intrigue with the Princess Anne, and suffered
five years rigorous captivity in the castle of Dillen-
burg, before he was conditionally set free, to live
under surveillance in a modest house in the village
of Siegen in Westphalia, where the great painter
was born, and passed the first year of his life. In
1578 the family were permitted to remove to
Cologne, where they lived in a small house in the
Sternen-Gasse for ten years, until the death of Jan
Rubens, when his widow returned with her family
to Antwerp. The mother of Rubens, Maria Pype-





linx, was a woman of energy and refinement. Her
husband's release had been due to her incessant
solicitation, and she now successfully exerted her-
self to recover, in the ruined city of Antwerp, a
portion of the family estates, in order to educate
her children. The rigour of the Spanish domin-
ation permitted at that time no other instruction
of youth than that of the Jesuits, and Peter
Paul accordingly passed the next few years of
his life at the Jesuits' College, where, young as
he was, he acquired a mastery of languages, and
probably an attachment to the religious faith of his
preceptors, which coloured his career. From the
Jesuits' College he was transferred for a short
time, in conformity with the custom of the period,
to the household of a noble lady, the Countess
Lalaing, as a page ; and thus the seed was sown
of that courtliness and grace of manner which
was so invaluable to him in after life, and by
which he was distinguished above his compeers.
He was, however, only thirteen years of age when
he entered upon the serious study of art, with
Tobias Verhaeght, a landscape painter of some
reputation ; from whom the boy acquired an appre-
ciation of the beauty of nature which he never
forgot, and which returned to him forcibly in the
last days of his life, when the gout forced him to
be content with painting landscapes at his chateau
at Steen.

Verhaeght, however, was not a figure painter,
and the ambition of Rubens was already directed
to historical subjects. He remained, therefore,
only a short time with his first instructor, and then
removed to the studio of Adam van Noort, where
he studied four years in the companionship of Jor-
daens, Great importance is attached to the influence
of Van Noort upon Rubens and Jordaens, and,
through them and his other pupils (of whom thirty-
two are mentioned in the archives of the Painters'
Guild), upon the whole Flemish art of the period.
At the age of nineteen Rubens was transferred to
the studio of Othon van Veen (often called Otto
Vajnius), a man of noble family and great con-
nections, who had been appointed court-painter to
Alexander Farnese, and to the Archduke Albert
and the Infanta Isabella ; who had studied also
under Zuochero in Rome, and who imbued his
pupil with a desire to visit Italy, while he was able
to forward his wish through the favour of the
Archduke Albert.

Rubens set out fur Italy on the 9th of May, 1600.
Nothing is on record of the incidents of his journey
or of his arrival, beyond the circumstance that at
Venice he became known to the magnificent Vin-
cenzo Gonzaga, the reigning Duke of Mantua,
who at once became liis patron and protector. He
employed Rubens first at Rome, and in the follow-
ing year at Mantua, in making copies and original
works of art ; and it is suggested by Dr. Waagen
that falling in the course of this task under the
influence of the works of Mantegna, the severity
of this master's style moderated, for the time,
the native taste of Rubens for full forms. In
the year 1603 he was sent by the Duke upon
an artistic commission into Spain, in charge of
presents for the King and otiiers, which included a
collection of pictures for the Duke of Lerma.
These last became seriously injured on the journey,
and were successfully restored by Rubens. On his
return to Mantua he began to receive a fixed salary
from the Duke, but returned to his studies at Rome
in 1605, and continued there throughout the fol-


lowing year, only returning to Mantua for a short
time, at the express command of the Duke, in the
summer of 1607. He remained at Rome until 1608,
when the news of his mother's last illness drew
him homewards, to be met, on his journey, by
the announcement of her death.

He now settled at Antwerp, where his brother,
Philip, was town secretary, and on 13th October,
1609, married Elizabeth (Lijsbette) Brandt, the
niece of his brother's wife. He was nominated
court-painter to the Archduke, and in the same
year admitted into the Romanist Guild of St. Peter
and St. Paul. In 1610 he bought a plot of land,
and built himself a house in the Italian style,
which he decorated with his own hand. His
house is said to have cost him 60,000 florins, and
contained a princely collection of art treasures.
In 1611 his brother Philip's death left Rubens
the representative of his family. Phihp left two
children. Peter Paul had himself no children,
until the birth of his eldest son in 1614 ; about
four years later his second was bom. The Arch-
duke Albert was godfather to the first-bom. It
was during this period that some of Rubens' finest
pictures were painted. He valued his work at 100
guilders, or about £10, a day, and the amount that he
produced was enormous. His process was to sketch
out his subjects on a small scale, and have them
transferred to canvas by his pupils under his own
close supervision. He would then complete them
himself with the vigorous finishing-touches which
distinguish his work. Amongst his pupils were :
Justus von Egmont, Peter van Mol, Comelis Schut,
Jan van den Hoecke, Simon de Vos, Deodato van
der Mont or Delmont, Nicolas van der Horst,
Jan Wildens, Jakob Moermans, Willem van
Panneels, Peter Soutmanns, Erasmus Quellin,
David Teniers the younger, Theodore van Thul-
den, Abraham van Diepenbeeck, Frans Wouters,
Gerard van Herp, Joan Thomas, Matthew van
den Berg, Samuel HofEman, Jan van der Stock,
Pennemakers, and Jan Victor Wolf voet ; but those
who did him the best service were: Anthony
van Dyck, Jacob Jordaens, and Frans Snyders.
About the year 1620 Rubens was called to Paris at
the request of the Queen, Marie de' Medicis, for the
decoration of the great gallery in the Palace of
the Luxembourg. In the course of his visit he
became known to the Duke of Buckingham, whose
portrait he painted, and to whom he sold his own
tine collection of statues, pictures, and other works
of art, for a sum of 100,000 florins. On the 29th
of September, 1626, Rubens lost his wife, Elizabeth
Brandt. They had been married sixteen years.
In a letter to Pierre Dupuy, Rubens mentions
his wish for a journey to divert him from the
" sight of many things which renewed his grief."
With this object in view he became very active
in the negotiations for peace, and, at the invitation
of the King of Spain, made a journey to Madrid
in 1628. It was on this occasion that he was dis-
covered by a courtier busily painting. " Ho 1 '" cried
the latter, " does his most Catholic Majesty's repre-
sentative amuse himself with painting?" "No,"
answered Rubens, "the artist sometimes amuses
himself with diplomacy." He was indeed always
industriously pursuing his art. He painted a great
many portraits in Madrid of the King and the
Royal Family, besides a number of other pictures,
and copies of the Tilians in the royal galleries.
In the following spring, however, the minister
Olivares determined to despatch Rubens as an



envoy to London ; and having been nominated
Secretary to the Privy Council of the Netherlands,
he left Madrid on the 29th of April, 1629, with
full instructions for London. Arriving in London
on the 15th of June, he was received with great
honour and cordiality, had frequent interviews with
the King, and finally brought to a successful issue
the intricate and double-dealing commissions he
was charged with. Ambassadors were exchanged
between Spain and England, and Rubens, who had
previously received knighthood at Whitehall, left
London on the 6th of March, 1630, and returned to
the Netherlands. Among the works that he painted
during his sojourn in England was the 'Peace and
War,' now in the National Gallery,

On the 6th December, 1630, Rubens being then
fifly-three years of age, married his second wife,
Helena Founiient, or Forman, the daughter of his
former wife's sister. She was a girl of sixteen,
and her portrait is familiar to the world in a great
number of her husband's pictures. In 1633 he
was employed on a diplomatic mission to Holland,
and again shortly after, when he succeeded in
making an arrangement with the States-General.
He had scarcely returned from this mission when
he heard of tlie death of his oldest patroness, the
Infanta Clara Eugenia Isabella, in the last month
of 1633. Rubens now withdrew from politics.
He purchased Chiteau de Steen, between Vilvorde
and Mechlin, spent much of his time there, and
painted many landscapes. He began to suffer
much from gout, but, in 1635, he was employed
in the arrangements for the triumphal entry of
the new Spanish Governor of the Catholic Pro-
vinces. His designs for this pageant were after-
wards engraved and published by Gervaerts. His
last work was the altar-piece for the church of St.
Peter's at Cologne, on which he expended an
amount of care and time unusual with him. Rubens
etched a few plates ; he mr.de designs for several
sets of tapestries, of which ' The Life of Achilles,'
in eight pieces, the ' History of Constantine,' in
twelve (Garde-Meuble, Paris), and two 'Triumphs
of the Church,' one in seven, the other in fifteen,
pieces (Carmelites, Madrid), are the most import-
ant ; and he made not a few designs for silver-
smiths, and for printers like Moretus. For the
latter he drew many titles and culs-de lampe, as
well as eight designs for a history of cameos, to
be written by Peireso, which never appeared.
He died on the 30th May, 1640, and was in the
first place interred in the vault of the Fourment
family. His body was two years afterwards
removed to a special chapel built out from the
church of St. Jacques, at Antwerp, for its re-
ception. A catalogue was made of the works of
art in his possession, which sold for the then
enormous sum of £25,000. His eldest son suc-
ceeded to his ofiSce of Secretary to the Privy
Council. He was a distinguished scholar and

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 110 of 201)