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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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for the entry of William of Orange, King of Eng-
land, into the Hague. He died in 1716.

RDZULONE, PiETEO, living at Palermo in the
15th century, was the contemporary, and probably
the pupil, of Vigilia. The Duomo of Termini '
possesses a ' Crucifixion ' by this artist, where the '
Virgin, Evangelists, and Mary Magdalene, the
Pelican and Serpent, are on one side ; with the
Resurrection, and the symbols of the Evangelists,
on the other; it was painted in 1484. He is known
to have been living up to 1517, but the dates of
his birth and death are alike uncertain.

RY. See Danokebts.

RYALIj, Henky Thomas, an English engraver,
born at Frome in 1811. He was a pupil of Sam.
Reynolds, and practised on copper and steel,
adopting a combination of the line and stipple
manners. His works won him a considerable reput-
ation, and he was appointed historical engraver to .
the Queen. Specimen works afe to be found in
' Eminent Conservative Statesmen ' (1836-46), and
in Lodge's Portraits. He died at Cookham in 1867. '
Amongst his best single plates are :

Columbus at La Rabida ; after Wilkie.
Coronation of Queen Victoria ; after Hayter.
There's Life in the Old Dog yet; after Laitdseer.
Christening of the Princess Eoyal ; after Leslie.
The Holy Well ; after Burton.

Portraits of the Queen and the Prince Consort ; after
miniatures hy Sir William Boss.

RYGK, PiETEE Cokneliszen van, painter, born
at Delft in 1666, was first placed under the tuition
of Jacob Wittemeszen, but he afterwards became
a scholar of Hubrecht Jacobszen. On leaving that
master he went to Italy, and passed some years at
Venice, where he formed his style by studying the
works of Giacomo Bassano. He painted history
and pastoral subjects, which were esteemed in his
time. He died at Delft in 1628.

RYCKAERT, David, the first, was born in 1560,
and died about 1607. He was received into the
Antwerp Academy of St. Luke in 1585, and in
1589 was married to one Catherine Rem. He was
mostly employed in painting figures in the pictures
of other men.

RYCKAERT, David, the second, son of David the
first, was born at Antwerp, 1589. He excelled in
painting mountain scenery. His eldest daughter
married Gonzalez Coques. He died in 1642.

RYCKAERT, David, the third, the son of David
Ryckaert the second, was born at Antwerp in 1612,
and instructed in landscape painting by his father ;
but the high estimation in which the works of
Brouwer and Teniers were then held, induced him
to attempt similar subjects, in which he was soon
very successful. The Archduke Leopold, a great
encourager of art, favoured him with his particular
protection. In 1651 he was appointed director of
the Academy at Antwerp, and his pictures were so
much admired, that it was with difficulty he could
keep pace with the demand for his works. He
usually painted assemblies of peasants regaling,
musical parties, and the interiors of chemists' labor-
atories ; though he occasionally attempted subjects
of a more elevated character. Towards the latter'
part of his life he represented grotesque subjects,
which were very common at that time. His piin-
cipal pictures are : ' A Family Concert,' in the
Liechtenstein Gallery at Vienna ; ' A Peasant's
dwelling,' at Berlin; 'A Shoemaker,' at Amster-
dam. He died in 1661. He left a son, an obscure





painter and a fourth David Ryckaert, who was
born in 1649, and died after 1698.

RYCKAERT, Friedme, painter, was a member
of the Guild of St. Lulce at Antwerp, 1550. About
1570 he painted a large altar-piece for the church
of St. Jacques.

RYCKAERT, Martin, painter, son of David the
first, was born at Antwerp in 1587, and was for a
time a disciple of Tobias Verhaeclit, an artist of
considerable celebrity. Martin had only one arm.
On leaving Verhaecht he went to Italy, where he
studied several years, and returned to hia native
country with a great variety of drawings from the
most remarkable views in the vicinity of Rome.
With these resources, he distinguished himself as
one of the ablest landscape painters of his time.
He was fond of ruins, rooks, mountains, and water-
falls. His works are occasionally decorated with
figures by Jan Brueghel. He lived in habits of
intimacy with Vandyck, who painted his portrait
in his series of eminent artists. Ryckaert died at
Antwerp in 1631 or 1632.

RYCKAERT, Paul, painter, bom at Antwerp,
1592, another son of David Ryckaert the first.
Nothing is known of his life or works.

RYCKE, Bernard, painter, born at Courtrai,
was made a member of the Guild of St. Luke at
Antwerp in 1661. At the church of St. Martin at
Courtrai there are two pictures by him : ' Christ
bearing the Cross,' and the 'Beheading of St.
Matthew.' In 1589 he was chosen by Raphael van
Coxcie as one of the experts who were to decide
upon the merits of the 'Last Judgment,' painted
by that artist for the town of Ghent. He died at

RYCKE, Daniel. See De Rycke.

RYCKE, WiLLEM or William. See Db

RYCKER. See De Rycker.

RYCKMAN, Nicholas, a Flemish engraver,
born at Antwerp about the year 1620. From his
style, it is probable that he was a pupil of Paul
Pontius. His plates are executed with the graver
in a neat, formal manner, and his drawing is
generally incorrect. We have, among others, the
following prints by him :

The Adoration of the Magi ; after Rubens. The hest

impressions are before the address of either Gas.

Huberti, or Corn, van Merlen.
The Entombment ; after the same.
The Holy Family ; after the same.
Christ and the Twelve Apostles ; after the same ; thirteen

plates. The best impressions are before the address

of B. Coninck.
Achilles discovered by Ulysses at the Court of Lyco-

medes ; after the same.

RYCX, Jan, born at Bruges, in 1585. Of his life
and works there is no record. He was the father
of three sons, Paul (g. «.), Mathias, and Nicolas
{q. v.), whose names are all found in registers of
the painters of the period. Died 1643.

RYCX, Nicholas, (Ryckx,) the son of Jan, was
born at Bruges in 1637. It is not said by whom
he was instructed ; but having learned the rudiments
of design, he embarked in a vessel bound for the
Levant, and travelled through Palestine, where he
made designs of the most remarkable views in the
vicinity of Jerusalem, and delineated with great
precision the customs and costumes of the Orientals,
their caravans, camels, and modes of travelling.
On his return to Flanders he painted pictures of
those subjects, which were much esteemed. In


1667 he was received into the Academy at Bruges,
vifhere he died after 1695.

RYCX, Paul, the elder, son of Jan Rycx, born at
Bruges, 1612, was a historical painter, and became
a member of the Corporation of Bruges in 1635.
In the !^glise S. Sauveur at Bruges there is a S.
Jerome by him, signed P. rycz,fe., 1644.

RYCX, Paul, the younger, born at Bruges, 1649,
was an active member of the Corporation of
Painters at Bruges between 1672-77. Died, 1690.

RYDER, Thomas, an English engraver, born in
London in 1746, was one of the artists employed
by Boydell to engrave the Shakespeare Gallery,
for which he executed eight of the large plates.
They are among the best, and are after Fuseli,
StotJiard, SmirJce, Northcote, Mamberg, Durno,
Hamilton, and J. F. Rigaud. He also engraved
after Angelica Kaufmann, Shelley, and others. He
executed several plates in the dotted manner,
which possess great merit. Among others, are the
following :

The Captive ; after J. Wright.

The Last Supper ; after West.

The Murder of James I. King of Scotland ; after Opte.


RYLAND, William Wynne, an eminent English
engraver, born in London in 1732, was a pupil of
Simon Francois Ravenet, who was at that time
established in England. On leaving that master
he went to Paris, where he studied design for some
time under Roubillac, and received the instruction
of J. P. le Bas in engraving. After a residence of
five years in Paris, where he engraved several
plates, he returned to England, and was soon after-
wards appointed engraver to the king. He en-
graved two whole-lengths of his Majesty, after
RaTnsay, and a portrait of the Queen, after Cotes.
In the latter part of his life he applied himself to
engraving in the chalk manner, partly after draw-
ings by the old masters, but principally from the
pictures of Angelica KaufEmann. This style he
is said to have first introduced into England, and
he certainly improved it. In the work entitled
' A Collection of Prints in Imitation of Drawings,'
published by Charles Rogers, in 2 vols, folio, there
are fifty-seven by Ryland, besides the admirable
mezzotint portrait of Rogers at the commence-
ment. These, with few exceptions, are after the
old masters, chiefly the Italian. Ryland held the
appointment of engraver to George III., with a
pension of £200 per annum ; and he carried on an
extensive business as a printseller. Towards the
end of his life he entered into a liaison with a young
woman, who involved him in great expenses, to
provide for which he stepped from the path of
honesty. In 1783 he was tried on a charge of
forgery, condemned, and, in spite of the efforts of
his friends, hanged. His brother had very narrowly
escaped the same fate the year before, on conviction
of highway robbery. A short memoir of William
Ryland was published in 1784. The following are
perhaps the best of his 200 plates :

George III. ; after Ramsay.

Queen Charlotte ; after Cotes.

John Stuart, Earl of Bute ; after Ramsay.

The Last Supper ; after Leonardo da Vinci.

God the Father enthroned on clouds ; after Raphael.

Antiochus and Stratonice ; after P. da Cortona.

Jupiter and Leda ; after F. Boucher.

The Graces bathing ; after tlie same.

Charity ; after Vandyck.

Four plates representing the Muses, Urania, Thalia,
Erato, and Clio ; after Cipriani.




King John signing Magna Charta ; after Mortimer : this
plate was left unfinished, and completed by Bartolozzi
for the benefit of Kyland's widow.

Fourteen plates engraved for the edition of Walton's
Angler published by Sir John Hawkins in 1760.

The following are all after Angelica Kauffmann :

Patience ; ovaJ.

Perseverance ; oval.

Maria, from Sterne's Sentimental Journey.

Telemachus recognized at the court of Sparta.

Achilles lamenting the Death of Patroclus.

Penelope awakened by Euryclea.

Eleanor sucking the Poison from the Wound of Edward.

Lady Elizabeth Grey before Edward IT.

The Judgment of Paris.

Venus on her Car.

The Flight of Paris and Helen.

Venus presenting Helen to Paris.

Juno borrowing the Cestus of Venus.

A Sacrifice to Pan.

Cupid bound, with Nymphs breaking his Bow.

Cupid asleep, with Nymphs awakening him.

Oymon and Iphigenia.

The Interview between Edgar and Elfrida after her
marriage with Athelwold. This plate was left im-
perfect, and was finished by Sharp for the benefit of
Byland's widow.

RYLEY, Charles Reuben, an English historicnl
painter, bom in London in 1762, was the son of a
private in the Life Guards. For some time he
worked with the graver, and obtained a, prize at
the Society of Arts in 1767. Aiming at higher
things, he studied under J. H. Mortimer. In 1778
he obtained the gold medftl of the Academy, where
he began to exhibit in 1780. He lapsed into dis-
sipated habits, and his works failed to fulfil their
early promise. He was employed by the Duke of
Richmond in the decoration of Goodwood House.
He also taught drawing, and illustrated books. He
died in London in 1798.

RYMSDYCK. See Remsdyke.

RYNE, John van, a Dutch engraver, was born in
Holland in 1712. He came to London, where he
resided about the year 1750. He engraved a
variety of views in England, the East Indies, &c.
He died in 1760.

RYNVICSH, 0., a landscape painter, practising
in Holland about 1640, in the style of Velvet

RYSBEACK, Pieter Andries, (or Eysbregts,)
born at Antwerp in 1655, was a scholar of Frangois
Millet, whom he accompanied to Paris. Following
the example of his instructor, he set himself to
the study of the landscapes of G. Poussin. His
pictures were much admired in France, and en-
deavours were made to detain bim in Paris ; but

attachment to his country prevailed, and he returned
to Antwerp, where he was made director of the
Academy in 1713. The landscapes of Rysbruck
are distinguished by a grandeur, which, though
founded on Gaspar Poussin, has sufficient originality
to raise him above the rank of a mere plagiarist.
Eysbrack etched six landscapes. At the bottom
of each, on the left, is inscribed P. Rysh-ach, pinx.
fecit ei excudit. They are named from the figures
in them: 'Diana at the Bath,' 'The Woman in a
Veil,' ' The Fishermen,' ' Sun-rise,' ' Conversation
on the Road,' 'The Woman with the naked back.'
Eysbrack died at Brussels in 1729.

RYSBRACK, Pieter Andries, the younger, son
of the last named, practised in Flanders early iu
the 18th century. He was a member of the Guild
of St. Luke at Antwerp in 1709.

RYSBROECK, (or Reesbroucq,) Jakob van,
engraver, a member of the Guild of St. Luke at
Antwerp in 1642. He settled at Hoogstraeten,
and died there in 1704.

. RYSEN, Warnard, (or Werner,) van, painter,
born at Bommel about the year 1600, was a scholar
of Cornelius Poelemburg. He resided some time
in Italy, and on his return to Holland painted land-
scapes, with historical figures, in the style of his
instructor, which were held in consideration. He
is said to have abandoned painting, to become a
dealer in diamonds.

RYSZ, Pieter, portrait painter, practised at the
Hague in the second half of the 17th century, and
finally settled in England, where he died. He was
a pupil of J. de Baan.

RYTHER, Augustine, an English engraver and
printseller, who flourished in London in 1590. He
engraved some plates of the Spanish Invasion ; a
curious map of Yorkshire, with views of York and
Hull in the comers ; and large plans of London
and Westminster on wood ; of Cambridge and of
Oxford on metal, dated 1578. The well-known
plates of the Spanish fleets, with some plans of forti-
ficadons and batteries on the river Thames for the
protection of London, are now looked upon as
having been executed by him. The map of York-
shire was one- of a complete series of the counties,
engraved under the superintendence of Christopher
Saxton, (who lived at Bingley, near Leeds, between
1573 and 1579,) and published at London in a folio
volume in the latter year. Though the greater
number were the work of Flemish engravers,
eight at least were by two Englishmen, one of
whom was Ryther. The name " Augustinus Ryther,
Anglus," occurs on the maps of Westmoreland,
Cumberland, Gloucestershire, and Yorkshire.








SAAL, Gborq Eduaed Otto, landscape painter,
born at Goblentz in 1818, studied at Diisseldorf
under Schirmer, but went in 1848 to Heidelberg,
then to Baden-Baden, and in 1870 to Paris. He
painted mountain scenery, and, later on in life,
scenes in the Forest of Fontainebleau. He died
at Baden-Baden, where he was court painter, in

SAAL, T., an indifferent engraver of vignettes
for books. He lived about the year 1672.

SAAR, Alois von, landscape and architectural
painter, born at Traiskirchen, Lower Austria, in
1799, was a student at the Vienna Academy. He
painted in oils and water-colours ; some of his
works are in the Vienna Gallery. He died in 1840.

SAAVEDRA. See Del Castillo y Saavedra.

SABATELLI, Francesco, history painter, born
at Florence in 1803, was the pupil of his father,
Luigi Sabatelli. He studied at Rome and Venice,
but in 1823 was invited to Florence by Leopold II.,
and became Professor of the Academy. He died
at Milan in 1829.

SABATELLI, Giuseppe, painter, born at Milan
in 1813, was a pupil of his father, Luigi Sabatelli.
In 1834 he went to Florence, and became a Pro-
fessor in the Academy. He painted portraits and
historical subjects. He died at Florence in 1843.

SABATELLI, Luigi, the elder, history painter
and etcher, born at Florence in 1772, studied at the
Academy of that city under Pietro Pedroni. From
1788 to 1793 he was in Rome, and from 1795 to
1797 in Venice. In 1808 he was appointed Pro-
fessor of the Academy at Milan by Eugene Beau-
harnais. Of his works we may name :

Abigail before David; in the Chapel of the Virgin at

The Blessing of the Children ; in the Faroni Palace at

Heliodorus driven from the Temple.
Portrait of the Artist him.self.

The Four Great Prophets ; in St. Gaudenzio, Novara.
The Olympic Games ; in the Pitti Palace in Florence.
The Marriage of Cupid and Psyche ; in the Busca Ser-

helloni Palace in Milan.
The Adoration of God through Prophets and Patriarchs ;

in the Church of Valmadrera at Leeco.
Three Scenes from the Life of Galileo.
The Triumph of Cupid ; in the Villa Giontiniat Florence.
The Ooronatiou of the Virgin ; in S. Firenze in Florence.
The Plague of Florence. (Etching.)
The Visions of the Apocalypse. (Do).

In many of his frescoes he was assisted by his
son LuiQ] Sabatelli, the younger. He died at
Milan in 1850.

SABATERII, Pierre, a skilful glass-painter, of
the 13th century, practising at Montpellier about
1298. He decorated the cathedral with fine
paintings on glass, which were much admired for
their excellent composition and brilliant colour.
Plis son Laurent succeeded his father in his prac-
tice, and was an artist of much merit.

SABBATINI, Andrea, (Sauatini,) called Da
Salerno, a painter, was born at Bologna about
1480. He was the son of a wealthy merchant,
who, finding his son had a taste for art, took him to
Naples, and placed him under the tuition of Raimo


Epifanio, a painter of little celebrity, under whom
he studied some time. He is then said to have
obtained his father's permission to visit Perugia,
to profit by the lessons of Perugino. On his journey
he encountered some artists, who were so loud in
their praise of Raphael, that Andrea digressed into
that painter's atelier, and in a short time was found
of suflicient ability to be intrusted by Raphael to
execute, from his designs, some of the frescoes in
the Vatican and in S.Maria della Pace. It is also said
that while prosecuting his studies under Raphael, he
was recalled to Salerno by the illness of his father,
who died soon after his arrival. The whole of this
Roman tale rests, however, on the unsupported
evidence of the untrustworthy De' Dominici. So
far as the facts are surely known, Sabbatini worked
only at Naples, where he was soon regarded as
the ablest artist of the school. His frescoes-in S.
Maria della Grazie have been, for the most part,
destroyed b3' alterations made in that church, but
those in the vestibule of the inner court of S.
Gennaro dei Poveri still exist. Other works are :

^'■^'*'' ChapdJmiZl ] ™« As.sumption of the Virgin.
„ iS. Spirito di Palazzo. The Adoration of the Magi.
„ S. Domenico Mag~\Tlhti Madonna and Bambino,
giore. J with St. Elisabeth and other
„ Museum. Descent from the Cross.

„ „ Adoration of the Magi.

„ „ Miracle of St. Nicholas of Bari.

„ „ St. Benedict enthroned among

Six Saints.
„ „ Two Scenes from the Life of

St. Placidus.
Salerno. Duomo. A Pieta.

Sabbatini died at Gaeta in 1545.

SABBATINI, Lorenzo, called Lorenzino da
Bologna, was born about 1530 at Bologna, where
he studied under Tibaldi. After having painted
several pictures for the churches at Bologna, he
visited Rome during the pontificate of Gregory
XIII., and improved his style by study of the
works of Raphael, imitating them with such suc-
cess, that he has been called a pupil of Raphael,
although he was born some ten years after his death.
In his smaller pictures he seems to have followed
Parmigiano. lie was employed by the pope in the
Capella Paolina, in the Vatican, where he painted
several subjects from the Life of St. Paul in con-
junction with Federigo Zuccaro. In the Sala
Reggia he painted a ' Triumph of Faith.' These
works were executed so much to the satisfaction
of the pope, that he was appointed superintendent
of the decorations then going on in the Vatican.
Sabbatini died at Rome in 1577. Of his numerous
piotui'es we may name :

Bologna. 8. Pietro and ) . im j -iv c • i.

S Paulo \ Madonna with Saints.

„ S. Maria delle ) m. r\ -a ■

Grazie. j The Crucifixion.

„ La Morte. The Assumption.

" -gj.g "•*' [ St. Joachim and St. Anne.

„ jS. Giacomo. St. Michael vanquishing the

Eebel Angels.




Bologua. S. Giacomo. The Four Evaugelists.

„ „ The Four Doctors of the

Dresden. Gallery. Marriage of St. Cathariue.

Paris. Louvre. Virgiu and Child and St. John.

SABLET, Jacques Henei, brother of the next-
named, was born in 1749 at Morges. He was the
pupil successively of Dubois and Cocher, at Lyons,
and of Vien, in Paris. He travelled in Spain and
lived twenty years in Italy, dying in Paris in
1803. There are five of his pictures in the Nantes

SABLET, Jeak FRANgois, was bom at Morges,
in Switzerland, in 1751, and taught the rudiriients
of art by a decorator at Lyons. He then went to
Paris, where he studied under Vien, whom he
accompanied to Rome, where he studied anatomy,
ornamental design, and costume, and painted por-
traits, genre pictures, and landscapes. He settled
at Nantes, where, in 1812, he was commissioned
by the town to paint six grisailles for the Bourse,
illustrating Napoleon's visit to Nantes. After
Waterloo these were sold and exported to America.
Sablet died at Nantes in 1819. There are six of his
works in the Nantes Museum.

SABLON, PiEREE, a designer and engraver, was
born at Chartres, in 1584, according to his inscrip-
tion on the oval border of his own portrait:
the margin is inscribed :

" Me contemplant un jour en deux diuerses glaces
Je veis le mien Profll despainct naiuement ;
Lors je deliber6 en moy soudainemeut
De graver ce Pourtraict dont vo' voyez les traces."

There are only three other prints known by him :
' Lamech and Cain,' after Lucas van Leyden,
(Bartsoh, N" 14,) but left unfinished (it is the
counterpart of the original, and has the date 1524
high up on the right, the 5 reversed, and the mark
of Lucas ; at the bottom F. Sdblon f. 1602 ; ' The
Good Samaritan,' a small square print, mentioned
in the collection of Paignon Dijonval ; and the
portrait of Rabelais, bust turned to the right, but
full face. This is a medallion ; on the border is
inscribed " Franc. Rabelesius ; " in the exergue,
"Sum petulantis plene caching. Pers P.
Sablon /."

SACCHI, Andrea, sometimes called Ouchb, born
at Nettuno, near Rome, about the end of the 16tli
century, was the son of Benedetto Sacchi, a painter
of little note, by whom he was first instructed ; he
afterwards studied under Francesco Albani. On
leaving the school of that painter he studied
Raphael, Polidoro da Caravaggio, and the antique.
He was favoured by Cardinal Barberini, who em-
ployed him in his palace. Several of the public
buildings of Rome possess his works. His 'St.
Romuald with his Monks,' in the Vatican Gallery,
used to be considered one of the four finest pictures
in Rome. The composition is extremely simple ; it
represents the Saint seated in a valley of the
Apennines, surrounded by some members of his
order, and explaining his reasons for retiring from
the world. The effect he has given to a group of
six figures, all habited in white drapery, without
the aid of contrast, is very remarkable. Sacchi
died at Nettuno in 1661. Among his pupils were
Laurj, Garzi, and Carlo Maratti. Additional
works :

Madrid. Gallery. SS. Paul the Hermit and


„ „ Portrait of Fr. Albani.

„ „ „ Himself.

F F 2

Petersburg. Hermitage. Angel consoling Hagar.

„ „ Triumph of Truth.

„ „ Eepose of Veuus.

Borne. Vatican. Mass of St. Gregory.

„ _ ,, Clement VIII.

„ S. Carlo a Catinari. Death of St. Anna.

„ S. Giuseppe. Angel appearing to Joseph.

„ Quirinal. St. Andrew.

Vienna. Gallery. Ham scoffing at Noah.

„ „ Juno in her Car.

„ „ "Wisdom surrounded by the


SACCHI, Antonio, an Italian painter of the
17th century, a native of Como. He studied at
Rome, and is said to have died of grief in 1694, in
consequence of having painted an ill-proportioned

SACCHI, Carlo, painter, was born at Pavia in
1617 (?), and learned the first rudiments of design

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 113 of 201)