Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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he entered the art school of Oeser at Leipsic. On
the death of his father he gave himself np entirely
to art, and settled at Konigsberg. In 1802 he paid
visits to Paris and Vienna, and in 1803 was ap-
pointed teacher of drawing in the Academy at
Leipsic, and in 1816 director and professor. He
died at Leipsic in 1841.

Hans), historical painter, born at Leipsic in 1794,
first studied under his father, Hans Veit Schnorr,
but in 1811 went to the Academy at Vienna, and
in 1817 to Italy. He associated in Florence with
Rumohr, proceeding afterwards to Rome, where he
joined Cornelius, Overbeck, Veit, and Koch, and
formed one of the great German colony then in the
Eternal City. On Cornelius's recommendation he
was commissioned to paint scenes from Ariosto, in
fresco, in the Villa Massimi. In 1825 lie was in-

Schnorr von Earolsfeld



vited to Munich, but before returning to Germany
he visited Sicily. In 1827 he went to Munich,
where he became professor in tlie Academy, and
decorated the ' Konigsbau ' with scenes from the
' Niebelungen Lied.' In 1835 he accepted a com-
mission to paint scenes from the history of Charle-
magne, Barbarossa, and Rudolf of Hapsburg in
the so-called ' Saalbau.' In 1846 he obeyed a
summons to become professor of the Dresden
Academy and director of the Picture Gallery,
which posts he retained till 1871, when he was
obliged to resign on account of ill health and loss
of sight. In 1851 he visited London, and entered
into an' agreement with De Bunsen for an illus-
trated Bible, which came out at Leipsic in parts.
He made cartoons for some of the windows in St.
Paul's. He died at Dresden in 1872. Besides the
works above noted we may name :

Berliu. Nat. Gallery. Siegfried returning from the

Saxou War. {Cartoon.)
„ „ Laying out the dead in Btzel's

Palace. (Do.)
Dresden. Gallery. Visit of Ananias to Paul.

(Cartoon for St. Paul's,

„ „ Visit of Zacharias, Elizabeth,

and St. John to the Holy

Munich. Pinakothek. Hagen and Dankwart refuse to

greet Chrimhild.

dinand, painter, born at Leipsic in 1789, was the
brother of Julius Schnorr, and received, like him,
his first instruction from their father, Hans Veit
Schnorr. In 1804 he went to Vienna, and at-
tended the Academy, where he followed the style
of Fiiger, and made his reputation by a scene from
Goethe's ' Faust,' now in the Belvedere at Vienna.
He was appointed custodian of the Belvedere, in
Vienna, where he died in 1853. He etched a few

SCHODLBERGEE, Johann Nepomuok, painter,
born at Vienna in 1779, was a pupil of the Institute
in Vienna, and painted and etched landscapes,
most of them witli figures, such as, ' A View of the
Traunfall,' ' The Waterfall, at Tiroh,' ' The Interior
of an Italian Church,' ' An ideal Landscape.' He
died at Vienna in 1863.

SCHOEMACKER-DOYER, Jakob, painter, was
born at Crefeld about 1792. His father, who was ■
Dutch, took his son while still a boy to Amster-
dam, where he became the pupil of S. Andriessen.
He also studied under M. van Br^e, at Antwerp,
after which he returned to Holland, and divided
his time between Amsterdam and Zwolle. He
painted portraits, genre, and sometimes history.

Jan, born at Dort in 1755, was a pupil of Jacob
van Stry, and painted views of cities in the manner
of Vander Heyden. His pictures are to be found
in the best modern collections in Holland. The
figures in them were painted by the best of his
contemporaries. At one of the exhibitions at Dort
there were four pictures by him, in which the
vessels and figures were painted by J. 0. Schotel,
and a similar work is in the Amsterdam Museum,
Schoenmackers died in 1842.

SCHOEVAERDTS, (or Schovaeets,) M,, a
Flemish painter of village festivals and_ merry-
makings, is supposed to have been born in 1667.
His pictures are frequently met with in the
Netherlands, and possess considerable merit. His
baptismal name has not been ascertained. He

signed his pictures, and his two known etchings,
M. Schoevaerdts. Two of his works have been
engraved under the titles ' Fete de campagne Hol-
landaise,' and ' Retour de la FSte Hollandaise.'
There are two village scenes by hira in the gallery
of the Louvre. He has been sometimes confounded
with Christopher Soliwartz.

SCHON, Bartel. See Schongaubb.

SCHON, Erhardt, a German painter, who
flourished from about 1516 to 1560. He resided
chiefly at Nuremberg, where he published, in 1538,
a treatise on the proportions of the human figure
for the use of students. He was also an engraver
on wood, and marked his prints with a monogram
composed of an E. and an S. with a small knife

under, thus.

Among the thirty-three wood-

cuts attributed to him by Bartsch, there is one
with his mark and the date 1524.

SCHON, FfiiEDBiCH WiLHELM, painter, born at
Worms in 1810, studied at Darmstadt and Munich.
Ho painted social subjects, and lamp and tire-light
scenes, such as — ' The reading Maiden,' ' Going to
Church in the Bernese Oberland,' 'Return hom^ of
the Soldier,' ' South German Emigrants in a Nortli
German Port,' ' Meeting of an Art Society,' with
fifty portraits, &c. He published a few lithographs.
He died at Munich in 1868.

SCHON, Johann Gottlob, flourished at Dresden
in the first half of the 18th century, and was a
pupil of Alexander Thiele. He painted and etched
several landscapes. He went in 1740 with Ismael
Mengs to Rome, where he died.

SCHON, Ludwig. See Schongaueb.

SCHON, Martin. See Sohongauer.

SCHONBERGER, Lokenz, painter, was born at
Voslau, near Vienna. He was a pupil of the
Vienna Academy under Wulki. In 1798 he was
living in Bohemia. He afterwards visited Italy,
England, Paris, and Amsterdam. There are pictures
by him in the Galleries of Vienna and Hamburg.
He etched twenty plates, and died about 1840.

SCHONBRUNNER, Kabl, painter, born at
Vienna in 1832, a pupil of the Academy under
Fiihrich, studied also at Rome and Venice. His
great work is ' Bishop Ambrose repulsing the
Emperor Theodosius.' He died in the Castle of
Hirschstetten in 1877.

SCHONER, GusTAV Friedrioh Adolph, painter,
born at Massbach, near Schweinfurt, in 1774, was
first a pupil of Konrad Geiger in Schweinfurt, then
of GrafI: in Dresden, and lastly of David in Paris.
He lived for a long time in Bern, where he painted
a portrait of Pestalozzi, and a good profile of
Napoleon. In 1807 he went to Italy, and in after
years we find him at Halberstadt. He executed
several excellent copies of pictures after Guide, the
Carracci, &c. He died at Bremen in 1841.

SCHONFELD, Heinrich, painter, was born at
Dresden in 1809. He at first painted scenery for
theatres, but afterwards took to architectural paint-
ing, chiefly of old German buildings. He died at
Munich in 1846.

SCHONFELDT, Johann Heinrich, (Sohenfeld,)
painter, was born at Biberaoh in 1609, and was a
scholar of Johann Sichelbein. He visited the
principal cities in Germany, and hrtd already given
proof of talent, when he determined to visit Italy.
On his arrival at Rome he found employment in
the church of S. Elisabetta de' Fornari, and in Ihe





Palazzo Orsini. On Lis return to Germany lie
practised as an liistorical painter at Vienna, Munich,
Salzburg, Augsburg, and other cities. Among his
better worlds are his pictures of ' Christ on the way
to Calvary,' and the ' Descent from the Cross,' in
the church of the lioly Cross at Augsburg, where
he resided in the latter part of his life. In the
Senate-house of that city there is a picture by
Schonfeldt representing the race of Hippomenes
and Atalanta. He died at Augsburg about 1680.
We have a few slight etchings by Schonfeldt, among
which are the following :

A Head of our Saviour.

A pa.storal subject, with a Shepherd playing on a flute,
and a Shepherdess holding a triangle.

A Landscape, with a Man sitting on a rock.

A Bacchanal witli children.

SCHONGAUER (or SCHON), Bartel, engraver,
is supposed to have flourished at Ulm about 1479.
According to some he was the brotlier of Martin
Schongauer, whose style he followed. But his
real name and the facts of his life are involved in
obscurity. His prints are usually marked with
a ^ and an S. in the old German character, with

a cross between them, thus, "nOCo* "^^^^ ^°''
lowing plates by him may be named :

1. Christ on the Mount of Olives ; a copy from one of
M. Schongauer' s ' Passion ' series,

2. The Bearing of the Cross ; ditto.

3. The Two Lovers (reversed from the plates of Israel
van Meckenen and the Master W. ).

4. A Concert in the Garden.

5. The Fool and the Cook. (Douce Collection, Oxford.)

6. The Beggars with a "Wheelbarrow.

7. Mother with Children and Shield.

8. The Peasant with Shield and Garlic Plants.

9. Armorial Bearings of the fanailies of Eohrbach and

10. A Family of Monkeys.

11. A "Wild Man amid ornamental foliage.

12. Ornamental Foliage.

(All these except No. 5 are in the British Museum).

For fuller information as to this master see
Naum,ann's Archiv., Zweiter Jahrgavg, § 168.

SCHONGAUER (or SCHON), Martin, painter
and engraver, was born at Colmar, probably be-
tween 144.5 and 1450. His parents were natives
of Augsburg, as we gather from a note written by
Hans Burgkmair on the back of Schongauer's
portrait in the Munich Gallery. Caspar Schon-
gauer, the father of Martin, was received into the
freedom of Colmar in 1445. Martin's first master
was his father, whose trade was that of a gold-
smith ; he afterwards seems to have visited Flanders
and studied under Roger van der "Weyden, for
Lambert Lombard, in a letter to Vasari, says that
" he (Martin) remained faithful to the style of his
master, Eogier." Roger died in 1464. Martin
probably settled in Colmar about 1465. His earliest
plates date from about 1465, when he probably
became free of his craft. In the British Museum
tliere are two drawings assigned to him with the
date 1469 ; they are in his mature style. In 1473
he painted the ' Virgin of the Rose Garden,' at
Colmar, the only picture which can be traced to his
hand, although there seems to be no good reason to
doubt his authorship of the ' Death of the Virgin,'
in t)ie National Gallery. Many pictures from his
hottega are preserved in the Colmar Gallery. In
spite of his short life he won a great name among
his contemporaries, who called him ' Hubsch Mar-
tin,' or ' Martin the Beautiful.' He died at Colmar
in 1488. He used his well-known monogram, an

M and an S with a sort of eccentric cross between
them, on his plates, but left his pictures unsigned.
Of pictures assigned to him in various collections
we may name :

Basle. Museum. St. Joachim.

Brussels. Museum. Ecce Homo.

Colmar. Ch.ofSt. | ^^^ y.^^^ .^ ^^^ Eose-garden.

„ Ciit/ Gallery. Christ on the Cross.

„ „ St. George on Horse-back.

„ „ St. John Baptist and St. John

the Evangelist.

„ „ Martyrdom of St. George.

„ „ Scenes from the Passion.

London. Nat. Gal. Death of tlie Virgin.

Munich. Finakothek. Portrait of himself (copy).

,, „ The "7"irgin. (?)

Palermo. Coll. of Duke ) * -vr j.. -i.
of Tarsia, j^ Nativity.

Vienna. Belvedere. A Holy Family.

Schongauer's plates from hia own compositions
are numerous ; the following are perhaps the best :

1. The Angel of the Annunciation.

2. ' Ecce Ancilla Domini.'

3. The Angelic Salutation.
M. The Nativity.

5. The Small Nativity.

6. The Adoration of tlie Kings.
•?. The Flight into Egypt.

8. The Baptism of Christ.

9-20. A * Passion ' series of twelve plates.

21. The large Bearing the Cross.

22. Christ on the Cross, with several figures.

23. Christ on the Cross, with the Virgin and St. John


24. Christ on the Cross, with soldiers dividing his


25. The ' Large Christ on the Cross,' with angels re-

ceiving the blood.

26. A Christ on the Cross, with the Virgin and St. John.

27. ' Noli me Tangere.'

28. The small ' Virgin and Child.'

29. The large ' Virgin and Child.'

30. Virgin and Child with Parrot and Cushion.

31. Virgin and Child on a Bank, before a wattled fence.

32. Virgin and Child, in a Court.

33. Virgin and Child, on a crescent moon.

34. Death of the Virgin.
35-46. The Twelve Apostles.

47. St. Anthony the Hermit, with the bell and pig.

48. St. Anthony tormented by Demons.

49. St. Christopher.

50. St. George slaying the Dragon with a spear.

51. St. George slaying the Dragon with a sword.

52. St. George riding over the Dragon.

53. St. James the Greater on a white horse.

54. St. John the Baptist, with the Agnus Dei.

55. St. John the Evangelist writing the Apocalypse.

56. St. Lawrence with palm and gridiron.

57. St. Martin and the Beggar.

58. The Archangel Michael and the Dragon.

59. The larger St. Sebastian.

60. The smaller St. Sebastian.

61. St. Stephen with the Palm-branch.

62. A Bishop.

63. St. Agnes with Palm and Lamb.

64. St. Barbara with Tower.

65. The large St. Catherine of Alexandria.

66. The small St. Catherine of Alexandria.

67. St. Veronica with the Sudarium.

68. The Infant Saviour with the Imperial Orb.

69. Christ in the Act of Benediction.

70. The ' Man of Sorrows.'

71. God the Father, enthroned.

72. God the Father, enthroned, with the Virgin and


73. God the Father crowning the Virgin.

74-77. The Creature Symbols of the Four Evangelists.

78. The Five Wise Virgins.

79. The Five Foolish Virgins.

80. Bust of a ' Foolish Virgin.'

81. Peasant going to Market, with his wife and child.




82. Man with an Ass and its Foal.

83. Two Armed Pedestrians conversing (?).

84. Two Youths quarrelling.

85. Elephant with Howdah (f).

86. An Imaginary Beast.

87. A Stag and Doe.

88. A Family of Pigs.

89. Male and Female Figures supporting shields.

90. The Head of a Bishop's P:istoral staff.

91. A Censer.

02. A Monstrance.

93-102. Ten Plates of Ornamental Foliage.

(All these, with the exception of Nos. 26, 60, 80, 96,
97, 101, and 102, are in the British Museum.)
For the fullest information on this artist, see
'Martin Sohongauer,' by Alfred von Wurzbach.
Vienna, 1880.

SCHONINGER, Leo, born at Weil in Wiirtem-
berg in 1811, went in 1825 to the Boisseree Insti-
tute to lithograph old German pictures. In 1827
he studied at the Munich Academy under Cornelius
and Stieler. He afterwards lithographed several
pictures in the Leuchtemberg Gallery. He died in

SGHONMANN, Joseph, painter, was born at
Vienna, April 19, 1799. He studied at the Vienna
Academy, and afterwards at Rome, and is known
principally by pictures painted for various churches,
at Trieste and Vienna. He was a member of the
Vienna Academy.

SCHOOCK, or SCHOOK, Hbndmk, the son of
GlSBERT ScHOOCK, a painter of Bommel, born at
Utrecht about 1670. He paiuted flowers and fruit.

SCHOOF, Gerhardt, historical painter, was
born at Mechlin in the 16th century. He was the
son of one Jakob Schoof, and perhaps the grand-
son of Jan Schoof. In 1675 he was admitted into
the Antwerp Corporation of St. Luke, of which he
was dean in 1588. He had a large number of
pupils. In 1612 he gave an altar-piece to the
church of Hoboken, on condition that every year
he and his wife should be carried to the kermesse
in that town in a covered car and provided with a
good dinner. In 1614 a Willem Sohoof, and in
1622-3 a Jan Schoof, who may have been his
sons, were inscribed on the registers of St. Luke,
the former as a master, the latter as a pupil.

SCHOOF, Jan, a painter of Mechlin in the 16lh
century. In 1514 he was commissioned by the
magistrates of his native city to paint the council
summoned by Charles the Bold. The picture was
placed in the church of St. Rumbold, and was
destroyed by the Image-breakers.

SCHOOF, Rudolf. A Flemish painter of this
name was appointed to the household of Louis
XIII. of France, and numbered Adriaan De Bie
among bis pupils.

SCHOONEBECK, Adriaan, a Dutch engraver,
was born at Amsterdam in 1650. He engraved a
variety of frontispieces and other plates for books,
and published, in two volumes, the ' habits ' of all
the religious orders in Europe. He died at Moscow
in 1714.

SCHOONJANS, Anthonib, called Parrhasius,
born at Antwerp in 1650, was a scholar of Erasmus
Quellin, under whom he studied until he was
nineteen years of age, when he travelled to Italy
in search of improvement. During a residence of
ten years at Rome he distinguished himself by an
exemplary application to his studies, and painted
sonje pictures for the churches, which gained him
considerable reputation. In 1678 he was invited
to the court of Vienna by the Emperor Leopold,
who appointed him his painter. The desire to visit I

England induced him to request leave of absence, and
he came to this country in the reign of King William.
; His portrait, painted by himself, was in the collec-
tion at Strawberry Hill. On his way back to Vienna
he passed some time at Diisseldorf, where he painted
some pictures for the Elector Palatine, who pre-
sented him with a gold medal and chain. He died
at Vienna in 1726. There is an example of his
work in the Munich Pinakothek.

SCHOOR, Nicolas van, born at Antwerp in 1666,
painted fanciful groups, in the flower-pieces by
Rysbraeck and others. He also made designs for
tapestry at Antwerp and Brussels. He died at
Antwerp in 1726. In the Museum at Ghent there
is an equestrian portrait by him of Charles II. of
Spain, painted when that prince was about eighteen.

SCHOORE, J. v., a Flemish engraver, who
flourished about the year 1650. Among other
prints he engraved a plate of St. Vincent, after
Anthonie Sallaert.

SCHOOREL, Jan van, (Scorel, Scoreel,) painter,
was bom at Schoorel, a smalltown near Alkmaar, in
1495. At the age of fourteen he was placed for three
years under the tuition of an obscure artist, named
Willem Cornelisz, in Haarlem. In 1512 lie went
to Amsterdam, where he became a disciple of Jakob
Cornelisz. The reputation of Mabuse, who was
at that time in the service of the Duke of Burgundy,
induced Schoorel to visit Utrecht. He afterwards
travelled through Germany, and passed some time
at Spires, and at Nuremberg, where he resided with
Albrecht Diirer, who treated him with great kind-
ness. His next journey was to Venice, where he
found a number of people assembled for a pilgrim-
age to Palestine, among them an ecclesiastic of
Gouda, by whom he was persuaded to join the party.
On his arrival at Jerusalem he became acquainted
with the superior of the monastery of Sion, by whom
he was shown the most interesting sites in the city
and vicinity, of which he made accurate drawings.
He painted for the convent a picture representing
the ' Incredulity of St. Thomas ' ; and in 1520 em-
barked for the Isle of Rhodes, where he was received
with distinction by the grand master, who was a
native of Germany, and painted views of the city
and fortress. From thence he sailed for Venice,
and afterwards visited Rome, where he stayed three
years, and was employed by the Pope, Adrian VI.,
who was his fellow-countryman. He painted a
whole-length portrait of the Pope, which was sent
to the college of Louvain, which had been founded
by his Holiness. On his return to Holland, Schoorel
established himself at Utrecht, and was much em-
ployed by the noble family of Lochorst, for whom
he painted one of his best pictures, ' Christ's Entry
into Jerusalem,' which was placed in their chapel
in the great church. For the monastery of St.
John, at Haarlem, he painted a ' Baptism of Christ,'
in which he imitated Raphael. Many of the prin-
cipal works of Schoorel were destroyed during the
troubles in the Low Countries. He must be looked
upon as one of the first causes of the great art move-
ment of the 17th century in the Netherlands. He
died at Utrecht in 1562. Most of the pictures com-
monly ascribed to him are of doubtful authenticity.
The following may be named with confidence :

Amsterdam. B. Museum. A Magdalen.

Bonn. Museum. The Crucifixion; signed and

dated 1530.
Dresden. Gallery. David conquering Goliath

(given in catalogue to Brou-







Hampton Court.
London. N'at. Gall.

Carinthia. [ ^''"™''-


Museum, Adam and Eve.

Baptism of Christ.
Virgin and Child.
A Riposo.
Portrait of a Lady.
f Altar-piece with wings ; signed
\ and dated 150O.
Fal. Horia. Portrait of Agatha van Schoen-
hoven. 1529.
Portrait of a Boy.
A Madonna.
Four Portraits, one of himself.

A Series of Pictures in tempera.

Warmenhui- \

zen, near S Church.
Alkmaar. )

SCHOOTEN, Frans van, was an amateur painter
of fruit and flowers, who practised at Leyden in the
17tli century, and was a professor at the University.
It is supposed that he was related to Joris van
Schooten. In some of his pictures, figures were
inserted by Fr^d^ric Moucheron.

SCHOOTEN, JoEis van, was bom at Leyden
about 1587. He was a pupil of Coenrad van der
Maes of Leyden, and was already a portrait painter
of repute at the age of twenty. In 1610 he com-
bined with other artists to sign a petition to the
local authorities of Leyden, requesting tlie neces-
sary privileges for the formation of a Guild of St.
Luke. The large portrait pieces of many figures
which he usually painted are characterized by good
colour and a knowledge of chiaroscuro, and have
much individuality, though they are poor in com-
position. Several of them were portrait groups of
the Civil Guard or Shooting Guild of Leyden in
the years 1626, 1628, and 1650, and are now pre-
served in the Museum of that city, where are also
two curious allegorical pictures. In the Rijks
Museum at Amsterdam there is an ' Adoration of
the Kings ' by him. Jan Lievens and Abraham
van den Tempel were for a time his pupils. Suy-
derhoef engraved one of his portraits, and J. G.
Van Vliet a ' Christ and the Woman of Samaria ' ;
it is inscribed J. van Schooten, 1635. Schooten
died in .1658.

SCHOPF, Joseph, painter, born at Telfs in the
Oberinnthal in 1745, was instructed by Martin
Knoller, and then went in 1776 to Rome, where he
studied Raphael and Correggio, and came under the
influence of Mengs. On his return he painted
frescoes for many churches in the neighbourhood
of Innspruck. He died in 1822.

SCHOPFER, Hans, painter, a native of Munich,
was born about the middle of the 16th century.
His works have been given to Hans Scliaufelin and
A. Diirer. He painted the following portraits : the
Countess Euphrosyne of Oettingen and Benigna von
Lamberg at Schleissheim, Caspar von Pienyenau
in the Moritz Chapel at Nuremberg ; and several
altar-pieces, among which was one for the Pilgrims'
Church at Ramersdorf, near Munich. He died in
1610. He signed his works with his initials and a
ronghly-drawn spoon.

SCHOPIN, Heney Fri^diSmc, painter, was born
at Lubeck, of French parents, in 1804. He studied
in Paris under Gros, and gained the ' prix de Rome '
in 18.30. He was several times premiated, and was
a Constant exhibitor at the Salon from 1830 onwards.
He died in 1880. The following are examples of
his' work :

Last Moments of the Cenci.
Battle of Hohenlinden.
Jacob and Laban.
Portrait of Cambac&es.
., ,, Portrait of Marshal Eidal.









Versailles. Museum. The Taking of Antioch in 1096.

And a series of pictures illus-
trating the legend of St. Sa-
tnrniuus for the chapel of the
saint at Fontaiuebleau.

SCHOPPE, Julius, painter, born at Berlin in
1797. He received his art education in Rome,
where he made a special study of the works of
Raphael, Correggio, and Titian. In 1826 he painted
foi- his reception picture at the Berlin Academy a
'Death of Frederick William III.,' which attracted
some attention. He decorated Prince Charles'
country house at Glienicke, near Potsdam, with
mythological paintings, and was also much em-
ployed as a portrait painter. His oil pictures in
miniature are generally more pleasing than his
larger works. Among his most successful portraits
are those of the Duchess of Orleans and of the
Count and Countess von Amim.

SCHORN, Karl, bom at Dusseldorf in 1800,
studied at Munich under Cornelius, from 1824 to
1827 in Paris under Gros and Ingres, and from 18;I2
onwards worked in Wach's atelier at Berlin. He
soon produced a number of pictures, among which

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 124 of 201)