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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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prefixed to his Sermons. 1689.

He died about 1695.

SOMER, Jan van, (Someren,) was probably a
relation of Mathys van Somer, and flourished
about the year 1675. He engraved some indifferent
mezzotints from the Dutch painters and a few
portraits ; among them the following :

The Duchess of Mazarine.

Charles Louis, Elector of Bavaria,

Michael Adriansz da Euyter, Dutch Admiral ; after

Karel Du Jardin.
Peasants drinking ; after A. Both.
Dutch Boors regaling ; after A. Ostade.
A Flemish Concert ; after Tenters.
A Conversation ; after Terlurg.
A Drinking Party ; after Ms own design.
Abraham and the Angels ; after Pieter Lastman.

He usually marked his plates with the following
monogram .«■ .

SOMER, Mathys van, (Sommeren,) a Dutch
engraver, who flourished about the year 1660. He
engraved a set of landscapes, marked with the
initials M, V. S., and his name is aflSxed to a small
oval portrait of John Ernest, dated 1666. There
are many other portraits by him ; among them,
that of Oliver Cromwell.

SOMER, Paul van, painter, was born at Antwerp
about the year 1576, and according to Van Mander,
resided at Amsterdam in 1604, with his brother
Bernard, where they practised portrait painting
with great success. Paul Van Somer soon after-
wards visited England, where the great majority of
his works are now to be found. His portrait of
the Lord Chamberlain, William, Earl of Pembroke,
is in St. James's Palace. H-e painted two pictures
of James I., one of which was engraved by Vertue ;
his queen, Anne of Denmark, and Lord Bacon
(at Panshanger), Lord Falkland and Lady Mande-
ville, and the Earl of Arundel and his wife (in the
collection of the Duke of Norfolk). Van Somer
died about the age of forty-five, and was buried in
St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, as appears by the regis-
ter^ January 5, 1621 : Paulus Tansomer pictor
eximius sepultusfuit in ecdesid. Works :

Hampton Court. Christian IV. of Denmark:

„ James 1.

,, Anne of Denmark. 1617.

„ James I. in his robes.

„ Anne of Denmark. Ditto.

London. Jfat. For. Gall. James I.

„ „ Anne of Denmark.

„ „ Lord Bacon.

„ „ Countess of Southampton.

Lady Morton with two other ladies. 1615.
Sir Simon Weston. 1608.
The Marquis of Hamilton.

SOMER, Padl van, engraver, apparently of the
same family with Jan van Somer, was born at Am-
sterdam in 1649. After residing and working some
time in Paris, he came to England, and settled in


London, where he died in 1694. He etched, en-
graved, and was one of the first to scrape in mezzo-
tint. The following are his best-known prints :

Portrait of the Duke of Bavaria and his Secretary. 1670.

The Countess of Meath ; after Miynard.

Tobit burying the Dead Hebrew ; after Seb. Bourdon.

Moses saved from the Nile ; after N. Foussin.

The Baptism of Christ ; after the same.

The Fable of the Old Man and his Ass ; a set of six
etchings ; after Griper.

The Four Times of the Day ; from his own designs.

The Adoration of the Shepherds ; from the same.

The Holy Family ; from the same.

SOMERS, Louis J., a Flemish genre painter,
bom at Antwerp in 1813. He was a pupil of De
Braekeleer ; his best-known works are a ' Village
School,' and ' Monks Chanting.' He died in 1880.

SOMERVILLE, Andrew, painter, was bona at
Edinburgh about 1803. He was educated at the
Trustees' Academy. He practised at Edinburgh,
and in 1831 became an associate member of the
Royal Scottish Academy. In the following year
he was promoted to the full membership, but died
shortly after his election, in 1833. His most popular
pictures were ' Flowers of the Forest,' and ' The
Bride of Yarrow. '

SOMMERAU, LuDWiG, draughtsman and en-
graver, but better known in the latter capacity, was
born at Wolfenbiittel in 1750. He was a scholar
of Mechel at Basle. He engraved portraits ; pic-
tures after Guido, Domenichino, and Guercino ;
also a series of twenty plates after the tapestries
designed by Raphael and his pupils. These were
published at Rome in 1780, and in London in 1837,
with six additional plates, and letterpress by

SOMMEREN. See Somer.

SOMPEL, Pieter van, (SOMPELEN,) engraver,
born at Antwerp about the year 1600, was taught
engraving by Pieter Soutman, whose style he
followed. His plates are neat, particularly his
portraits. The following prints by him may be
named :

Paracelsus ; after Souiman.

Henry, Count of Nassau ; after the same.

Philip of Nassau, Prince of Orange ; after the same.

The Emperor Charles T. ; after Rubens.

Cardinal Ferdinand, brother to Philip IV. and Governor
of the Netherlands ; after Vandyck.

Isabella Clara Eugenia, Infanta of Spain ; after the same.

Gaston, Duke of Orleans ; after the same.

Margaret, his consort ; after the same.

Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy ; after J. van Eych,

Frederick Henry of Nassau ; after G. Sonthorst.

Christ with the Disciples at Emmaus ; after Rubens.

The Crucifixion ; after the same.

Juno and Ixion ; after the same.
The only certain date in connection with this
master is 1643, on his 'Christ at Emmaus,' after

SON, Jan van, (ZOON,) the son of Joris van
Son, was born at Antwerp about the year 1650.
Walpole calls him Francis. He painted similar
subjects to those of his father, by whom he was
instructed. He came to England when young, and,
having married the niece of Robert Streater, suc-
ceeded to a great portion of her uncle's business.
He painted flowers, fruit, dead game, vases, curtains
fringed with gold, Turkey carpets, and similar ob-
jects. He composed well ; his touch was free and
spirited, and his colouring rich and transparent.
He is said to have died in London in 1700, but the
date is uncertain ; some would put it as late as
1723. Pictures by him are to be found at Augs-
burg, Brussels, Dresden, and Lille.




SON, JoRls VAN, (or ZOON,) born at Antwerp in
1622, excelled in painting flowers and fruit. His
pictures are well composed, his handling easy, and
his colour transparent. His death occurred about

SON, Nicolas de, (Antoine ?) a native of Rheims,
who flourished about the year 1628, imitated the
style of Callot with succ:ess. We have several
etchings by him from Callot's designs, as well as
some from his own compositions. Among them
we may name :

A set of small Landscapes with figures and buildings.

The Village Fair ; after Callot.

The Companion, representing a street, with a coach in

the back-ground, and several female figures.
Fa9ade of St. Nicaise, Bheims.
Porch of Bheims Cathedral.

SONDER. See Cranach.

SONDERLAND, Johann Baptist Wilhei.m
Adolph, painter and etcher, born at Diisseldorf in
1805, was a. pupil of the Academy there, under
Cornelius and Schadow. He produced many genre
pictures, which are distinguished by humour and
by fertility of invention. He designed illustrations
for Reinick's ' Painters' Songs,' for Immermann's
' Munchausen,' and for several religious works. He
also etched a few plates. He died at Diisseldorf in

SONJB, Jan, painter, born at Rotterdam, flour-
ished in the 17th century. In 1646 he entered the
Painters' Guild at Delft, but left that city about
1654. He painted large mountain landscapes in
the Italian manner, with blue skies, silver clouds,
dark foregrounds, and figures of men and animals.
He also painted Rhine scenery in the style of
Sachtleven. Pictures by Sonje are to be found
in the Museums at the Hague, Rotterdam, and
Augsburg. He died in 1691.

SONMANS. See Sunman.

SONNE, JoRQEN Valentin, a Danish painter,
born at Birkerod in Zealand, June 24, 1801, was
destined for the army, but soon abandoned a mili-
tary career for art. He received his first teaching
at the Copenhagen Academy, and came out as a
painter of military life and of animals. In 1829 he
went to Munich, and studied for a time under Hess,
and three years later he made his first journey to
Rome, where he remained for some time, painting
principally scenes from popular life. On his return
to his native country he painted a large number of
peasant pictures, but the Schleswig campaign of
1848 furnished him with subjects for many works
in his early manner. He painted the frescoes on
the exterior of the Thorwaldsen Museum. He be-
came a member of the Academy in 1846, and was
decorated with the Dannebrog Order in 1852.
Works :

Copenhagen. Qtdlery. Tyrolese defending themselves
among their Mountains.
„ „ The Attack on Duppel, June 5,

„ „ The Battle of Isted.

„ „ The Sortie from Fredericia,

July 6, 1849.
(^And seven others.)

SONNIUS, Hendeik, a Dutch painter, who
flourished at the Hague about the middle of the
17th century, and was a pupil of Jan van Rave-
steijn. He was one of the forty-seven artists who,
in 1656, founded the Pictura Society. He is said
to have come to England, and to have died here
at an advanced age.


SOOLEMAKER. See Solemacker.

SOPOLIS, an ancient painter, mentioned by
Pliny as flourishing at Rome about eighty-seven
years before Christ.

SOPRANI, Raffaello, born at Genoa in 1612,
of a noble family, was an amateur landscape painter,
and the author of a biography of the Ligurian artists.

SORDIGHIO. See Biagio, Bernardino.


SORDO, Giovanni del, called Mone da Pisa,
an Italian painter of the 18th century, a pupil of
F. Barocci. He practised at Pisa, and had the
repute of a skilful colourist.

SORDO, Girolamo, also called Girolamo Pado-
vano and Girolamo del Santo, is credited with
various frescoes of a semi-Brescian, semi-Paduan
class, in churches at Padua and elsewhere. Traces
of him occur as late as 1546.


SORDO D'URBINO. See Viviani.

SORE, Nicolas de. See Son.

SORELLO, Miguel, a native of Spain, born at
Barcelona about 1700, established himself at Rome,
where he learned engraving from Jakob Frey. He
was one of the engravers employed on the ' An-
tiquities of Herculaneum,' published in 1757 — ■
1761. He engraved several prints after the Italian
masters, but his principal work is a set of eight
plates from Raphael's tapestries in the Vatican.
He died in 1765.

SORENSEN, Carl Fbiedhich, a Danish painter,
bom at Samsoe in 1818. He painted chiefly land-
scapes and sea-pieces. For the study of marine
efl'eots he made trips to the Mediterranean and
elsewhere in Danish war-ships. He won a wide
reputation, exhibiting in London and Paris as well
as his native city. He became professor of painting
in the Academy of Copenhagen, in which city he
died in 1879. In the Copenhagen Gallery there are
three sea-pieces by him, and in that of Stockholm

SORGH, Hbndrik Martenszoon Rokes, (or
ZORG,) painter, was born at Rotterdam in 1621.
He was the son of Martin Rokes, the master of the
passage-boat from Rotterdam to Dordrecht, who, on
account of his care and attention to passengers
and to the commissions he received, acquired the
appellation of Sorgh, or Careful, and the name
descended to his son. Having shown an early
disposition for art, the latter was sent to Antwerp,
and placed under the tuition of Teniers the younger.
He is also said to have studied under Willem de
Buytenweg. His pictures represent conversations,
fairs, fish-markets, and the interiors of Dutch apart-
ments, with figures regaling and amusing them-
selves, in some of which he sometimes imitated the
style of Adriaan Brouwer. The general character
of his works is a mixture of features from the above-
mentioned artists. His colour is warm, his impasto
thin and fused. He died in 1682. Works :
Amsterdam. R. Museum. A Fish Market.
Augsburg. Oallery. Peasants Smoking.

Brunswick. „ Labourers in the Vineyard.

„ „ Peasants Conversing.

Dresden. „ A Cook and Fishermen.

London. Nat. Gall. Boors at Cards.

„ „ Man and Woman Drinking.

Munich. Gaillery. A Peasant Family.

„ „ An Ale-house Interior.

Paris. Louvre. A Kitchen.

Petersburg. Hermitage. Peasants Quarrelling.
„ „ A Sea-piece.





SORIANI, NiccoLO, a Cremonese painter of the
15th century, was the maternal uncle of Garofalo,
to whom he gave some early lessons.

SOEIAU, Daniel, (or Petek,) a German painter
of the 17th century, details of whose life are un-
known. At the Copenhagen Gallery there is a
still-life picture by him of flowers, fruit, and
gold and silver plate.

SORLAY, J^EOMB, a French painter of the 17th
centni-y, the pupil of Mignard. In 1664 he painted
a 'Christ appearing to S. Petef on his Flight
from Rome.'

SORNIQUE, Dominique, a French engraver,
born in Paris in 1707. He was a pupil of Charles
Simoneau, whose style of engraving he followed
■with considerable success. His vignettes and other
plates for books are neatly executed. He also en-
graved several portraits and other subjects, among
them the following :

The Cardinal de Eiphelieu ; after Nantmil.

Jean Louis, Due d'Epernon ; after the same.

Louis de Bourbon, Admiral of France ; after Mignard.

Marshal Saxe ; after Sigaud.

Diana and her Nymphs ; after Coireggio.

Danae ; after the same.

The Rape of the Sabines ; after L. Giordano.

Peasants regaling ; after Teniers.

He died in 1756.

SORBI, PlETKO, bom at S. Gusm^, near Siena, in
1556, was for some time a scholar of Arcangelo
Salimbeni, but afterwards studied at Florence under
Cavaliere Passignano, whose daughter he married.
He adopted the eclectic system of his father-in-law,
whom he accompanied to Venice, where he improved
his manner by studying Paul Veronese. Less facile
than Passignano, his colour is more durable, and
his drawing more correct. He afterwards went to
Genoa and Rome, and died in 1622.

SOSIAS, a Greek vase painter, some of whose
works are still extant.

SOTO, Juan de, a Spanish historical painter,
born at Madrid in 1592, was one of the best
scholars of Bartolom^ Carducho, and assisted him
in several of his works. While still very young,
he was selected to decorate in fresco the queen's
dressing-room in the palace of the Pardo. He ob-
tained a considerable reputation with his pictures
in oil ; they were much in the style of his master,
pure in design, and harmonious in colour. The
expectations he had raised were, however, dis-
appointed by his early death at Madrid in 1620.

SOTO, LOKENZO DE, bora at Madrid in 1634,
was the pupil of Benito Manuel de Agiiero, whose
manner he imitated. He painted landscapes, with
hermits and saints and religious figure subjects.
Among the latter a scene from the life of Sta. Rosa
served as an altar-piece in the church of the Atocha
at Madrid. In consequence of an attempt by
government to tax artists, Soto abandoned painting
and retired to Yecla, in Murcia, where he became
collector of the royal rents. During this period of
retirement, he painted landscapes, which are praised
by Palomino. After an absence of about fifty years
he returned to Madrid, but his works were looked
at with indifference, and he was reduced to selling
thera in the public places for a subsistence. He
died in 1688.

SOTOMAYOR, Luis db, born at Valencia in
1635, became a disciple of Esteban March, the
painter of battles, but refusing to submit to that
master's caprices, he left him for the school of
Juan Carreiio, at Madrid. After a time he returned
to Valencia, where he enjoyed much success, He


had a fine talent for composition, and was an excel-
lent colourist. He painted a ' St. Christopher in
company with Christ and the Virgin,' and a ' St.
Augustine,' for the Augustine nunnery ; and for
the Carmelites, two large scenes from the legend of
the miraculous discovery of an image of the Virgin,
called ' La Morenita,' which is an object of their
great veneration. He died at Madrid in 1673.

SOUBEYRAN, Pierre, bom at Geneva in 1697
(1708). He resided several years in Paris, where
he engraved some of the plates, after Bouchardon,
of antique gems in the king's cabinet, for a publi-
cation of Mariette's. He also engraved a variety
of plates for books after Cochin and others. Re-
turning to Geneva in 1750, he there practised as an
architect, and became director of the art school.
The following prints by him may also be named :

The Portrait of Peter the Great ; after Caravaque.
The Arms of the City of Paris ; after Bouchardon.
The Fair Maid of the Village ; after Boucher.

He died in 1776.

SOUCHON, FRANgois,.born at Alais in 1786, was
a pupil of David, and a friend of Sigalon. He
painted heroic landscapes and historical pictures,
and made many excellent copies from the great
masters. Many of his works are at Lille, where he
was director of the Painting School from 1836
to 1857, and where he died in 1857.

SOUKENS, Jan, a Dutch painter and engraver
of the 16th century, born at Bommel. He was a
pupil of Jan Vorsterman, and painted river views
with figures. His two sons, Gisbert, 1685 — 1760,
and Hendrik, 1680 — 1711, were also landscape

SOULARY, Claude, painter, bom at Lyons in
1792, was a pupil of R^voil and of Gros. For
forty-seven years he directed the School of Art at
Saint Etienne, where he died in 1870, and where
there are several of his pictures in the museum.

SOULES,EuGi;NE Edouard, painter, bom in Paris.
He was a frequent exhibitor of landscapes in oil and
water-colour at the Salon from 1831 to 1872. He
died in 1876.

SOUMANS. See Sunman.

SOUMY, Joseph Paul Marius, engraver, was bom
at Puy Amblay in 1831, learned drawing in Lyons,
and then entered the atelier of Guy, and afterwards
that of Bonnef ond, studying engraving under ^'ibert
at the same time. In 1852 he went to Paris, and
worked first in the lllcole des Beaux Arts, and then
under Henriquel Dupont. In 1855 he visited Italy,
where he painted portraits, landscapes, and genre
pictures, and made several copies after Raphael,
Michelangelo, &o. He also etched a portrait after
Giorgione, and Titian's Francis I. On hisreturn
to France he led a desultory life, engraving for
printsellers, and then for Flandrin, for whom his
chief work was the' Entry of Christ into Jerusalem.'
Depression caused by a disease of the eyes led him
to commit suicide at Lyons in 1863.

SOUNES, William Henry, was bom in London
in 1830. In 1855 he became modelling master in
the Birmingham School of Art, and later, head
master of the Sheffield School of Art. He died at
Sheffield in 1873. In the South Kensington Museum
there are two architectural drawings by him.

SOURCHES, Louis-FRANgois du Bouchet,
Marquis db, Grand Provost of France, and amateur
engraver, was born at the commencement of the
17th century. He handled the point in the manner
of Stefano Delia Bella, of whom it is supposed he
took lessons during the residence of that artist in



Spa da

Paris from 1640 to 1649. In the Bibliotlilqne at
Paris are preserved nineteen pieces by iiim. They
are copies after Delia Bella, and are so exact that
proofs before letters have been mistaken for the
originals. This series is entitled ' Diuerses figures
et Maneiges de Cheuaux Gravies par le Marquis de
Sourches.' According to le Fire Lelong (Biblio'
thgque Historique de France), this artist engraved
the portrait of Madame de Nevelet, the wife of a
counsellor of the Parliament of Paris ; but it has
escaped the researches of Dumesnil. That writer,
however, (torn, ii.) describes a series of twelve
plates by Sourches which are still rarer than those
in the French National Library. Their titles are
as follows :

1. Le Berger.

2. L'Homme de Quality

3. La Dame de Qualite.

4. Le Duel.

5. Le Porte-drapeau.

6. La Marchande de vieux


7. Le Depart pour la


8. Le Promeneur.

9. Le PSoheur.

10. Le Puits.

11. Les Ramoneurs.

12. Le Batelier.

One of these, No. 4, was ascribed by Mariette and
Gersaint to Delia Bella himself.

SOURLEY, JjSrome. See Sorlay.

SOUTMAN, PlETEB, a Dutch painter and en-
graver, born at Haarlem in 1590, was a pupil of
Rubens, and is said to have painted historical sub-
jects and portraits with considerable success, par-
ticularly at the courts of Berlin and Warsaw. He
was one of the group of Flemish engravers attached
to the school of Rubens, who carried the vigour of
the art to a height scarcely equalled by any other
workers with the burin. We have several plates by
him from his own designs, and from those of Rubens
and other masters. He appears to have aimed at
giving a striking effect to his plates, by keeping
the lights broad and clear ; but by carrying this
notion too far, many have a slight, unfinished ap-
pearance. The following are, perhaps, his best
plates :

The Fall of the Rebel Angels ; after Jtulens.

The Rout of Sennacherib ; after the same.

Christ giving the Keys to St. Peter ; from, a drawing

by Ruhens^ after Raphael.
The Draught of Fishes ; after the same.
Consecration of a Bishop ; t^er the same.

SOWERBY, James, an Eqglish natural-liistory
draughtsman and engraver, born in 1757. He pub-
lished, and illustrated many works, which obtained
for him a good reputation. He lived in Paris in
the latter part of his career, and died in 1822. The
following are some of the works on which he was
engaged :

' The Florist's Delight.' 1791.

' English Botany.' 1790—1820.

'English Fungi.' 1797.

' British Blineralogy.' 1804-17.

' Elucidation of Colours.' 1809.

Sir J. E. Smith's ' Icones Pictse Plantarum.' 1790-3.

Ditto, ' Spicilegium Botanicum.' 1791-2.

Ditto, ' Botany of New Holland.' 1793.

Shaw's ' Zoology of New Holland.'

SOYE, Philippe db, (SERIOUS, 8YT1CUS,
SORGE, &c.,) engraver, was bom in Holland in
1538, and became a pupil of Cornells Cort, whom
he accompanied to Rome. In 1668 he published a
set of twenty-eight engraved portraits of the Popes.
We have also the following prints by him :

The Angel appearing to Joseph in a Dream ; after Cort.
Christ on the Cross ; after Michelangelo,

TheVirgin with the Infant Christ ; after the same.

A Pieta ; after the same.

S. Francis receiving the Stigmata ; after Zuccaro,

Adoration of the Shepherds ; after the same.

The Angel appearing to Joseph ; after the same.

Adam and Eve in Paradise ; after P. del Vaga.

Judith with the Head of Holof ernes; after Giulio

S. Jerome in a Landscape ; after H. Miinano.

SOYBR, Emma, nee Jones, was born in London
in 1813. Before she was twelve years, of age she
had drawn more than a hundred portraits from life.
In 1836 she married Soyer, the famous chef -de-
cuisine. Besides sketches and drawings she painted
many pictures. Her ' Jewish Boy selling Oranges '
was engraved by Gerard. She died in London in

SOYER, Hans, a Flemish painter, practising at
Ypres about 1323. He painted the portraits of the
Count and Countess of Flanders for the municipality
of Ypres, for which he received the sum of twenty
sous (16«. %d.).

SOYER, Jean, a French miniaturist, who prac-
tised at Tours at the close of the 15th century, and
was employed in the illumination of the smaller
Livre d'Heures of Anne of Brittany.

SPACKMAN, Isaac, an English painter, practis-
ing about the middle of the 18th century. He was
best known as a painter of birds and animals. He
died at Islington, January 7, 1771.

SPADA, LiONEi,LO, borp at Bologna in 1576.
His parents were extremejy poor, and he was
placed in the service of the Carracci as a colour
grinder. This employment gave him an oppor-
tunity of picking up some knowledge, and he
showed so much capacity for art, that his masters
admitted him into their academy. His progress
was rapid, and he became an eminent member of
the Bolognese school. After a time he turned to
the energetic style of Caravaggio, and he went to
Rome to study imder that master. With Cara-
vaggio he went to Naples and Malta, afterwards
visiting Modena, Ferrara, and Reggio. On his re-
turn to Bologna, he painted the 'Miraculous Draught
of Fishes,' for the refectory of S. Procolo, and an
altar-piece in the church of S. Domenico, which is
considered his best performance. The latter part
of his life was passed at Parma, in the service of
the Duke Ranuccio, by whom he was patronized
until the death of that prince. He did not long
survive his protector, and died at Parma in 1622.
He sometimes marked his pictures with a sword,
(in Italian Spada,) crossed with the letter L.
Works :

S. Jerome.

S. Dominic burning the heret-
ical books.

Frespoes from the Lives of S.
Benedict and S. Cecilia.

Melchizedek blessing Abraham.


David conquering Goliath.

His own Portrait.

S. Cecilia.

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