Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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Cupid,' and 'Venus and Cupid smelling a Flower.'
LIBERI, Pietro, called Libeetino, was born at
Padua in 1605. He was a scholar of Alessandro
Varotari, and is considered one of the ablest de-
signers of the Venetian school. His studies at





Rome, after Raphael and Miohelangelo, at Parma,
after Correggio and Parmigiano, as well as after tlie
most distinguished of the Venetian painters, led
him to a style which may be said to partake of
every school. Few artists have discovered a greater
variety of character in their works than Pietro
Liberi. He was used to say, that when employed
for the intelligent, his pencil was frank and expe-
ditious, without the appearance of labour or finish;'
but when working for the less experienced, his
pictures were painted with the utmost minuteness,
in which every object, even to each hair, was pre-
cisely attended to. In his works for the churches
he exhibits a grandeur which is not to be found in
his other productions. Such are the 'Murder of
■the Innocents,' at Venice ; ' Noah leaving the Ark,'
and the ' Destruction of Pharoah' s Host,' at Vioenza;
and the 'Deluge,' and 'Moses striking the Rock,'
at Bergamo. He was more employed in subjects
of the fable, which he treated with elegance and
grace, in the style of Titian j'but sometimes with
a freedom which procured him the title of ' Liber-
tino.' He died at Venice in 1687. He signed his
works P.L., or with a monogram. His chief
works are as follow :


8. Maria



Petersburg. Hermitage.

» »

Venice, Palace.

„ Academy.

„ San Fietro.

„ S. Maria delta

„ San Ste/ano.

„ Madonna del

„ San Moise.

„ SS. Giovanni e

„ San Giovanni

Vicenza. Cathedral,

\ Marriage of St. Catharine.

Judgment of Pans.

Youth under the Shield of

Diana and Callisto.
The Graces and the Loves.
Battle of the Dardanelles.
An Allegory.
The Plague of Serpents.

J Venice imploring St. Anthony.

The Trinity.
I St. Theresa.

The Invention of the Cross.
> Christ on the Cross.

St. John writmg the Apoca-
Sacrifice of Noah.

LIBOUR, EsPKiT AimS, an historical and portrait
painter, was born at Laval in 1785. He went
to Paris and became a pupil of David, Regnault,
and Gros. In 1805 he received a first prize for
his ' Arab dying in the Wilderness.' Among his
other works were ' The Death of Abel,' ' Cephalus
and Procris,' and ' Venus in the Water. '

LIBRI, Dai. See Dai Libei.

LICALDE, Juan de, was a scholar of Pedro de
Las Cuevas, who displayed considerable ability,
but died young. One of his drawings, ' A Crowned
Lion upholding a Shield of the Arms of Spain and
Portugal,' neatly executed with the pen, was seen
by Cean Bermudez in the collection of Don Pedro
Gonzalez de Sepulveda. It bore the signature
Juan de lAcalde en el amor de Bios li 10 Novem-
hre de 1628, which places his death after that year.
He made a clever pen-and-ink portrait of the Duke
of Olivarez, Philip IV.'s minister.

LIOHERIE, Louis, was born at Houdan (Seine-
et-Oise) in 1629, and was instructed by the elder
Louis de Boullongne, He was employed by Le
Brun from 1666 to 1670 as a teacher at the
Gobelins, and in 1679 became a member of the
Academy, presenting ' David and Abigail ' (now
in the Louvre) as his reception picture. Other
paintings by him are in the churches of the Invalides
and St. Germain I'Auxerrois at Paris. He died in
Paris in 1687.


LICHT, Ferdinand, a German painter, was bom
in 1750 at Troppau in Silesia. He was instructed
by Joseph Burkart,and painted portraits as well
as altar-pieces, of which there are two in the church
of Obrowitz. He died at Briinn, but in what year
is not recorded.

LICHTBNREITER, Feanz, was bom at Passau
in 1700. He went to Italy and studied at Venice
under Vincentini. After some years he returned
to Germany and settled in Prague, painting por-
traits and historical pieces. He died in 1775.

LICHTENSTECHER, Geoeg, a German en-
graver, was born at Nuremberg in 1700. He
executed several portraits and anatomical engrav-
ings. He died about 1780. Among his works
are :

Cattarina Comaro, Queen of Cyprus ; after Titian.

Portrait of H. von Behaim.

Portrait of the Artist ; after C. B. Miiller.

LICINIO, Bernardino, was a distant relation of
Pordenone, who flourished in the 16th century. He
received his early education in Friuli, and after-
wards resided in Venice. Of his birth and death
nothing certain is known. His pictures have been
frequently confounded with those of Pordenone,
and chiefly consist of portraits and family groups,
the earliest known being dated 1624, and the latest
1541. His finest religious composition is the altar-
piece of the Frari at Venice, representing the
' Virgin and Child enthroned between Saints.' The
following are his principal paintings :

Alnwick. Castle. The Artist and his Pupil.

Brescia. Cathedral. Holy Family. (Attributed to

Florence. Vffi^i. Virgin and Child, with St.


Holy Family. {Attributed to
Polidoro da Caravaggio.)

A Family Group of Ten Per-
sons. 1524.

ladies playing the Spinet.

Venus and Cupid..* {Attributed
to Giorgione.)

A Man's Portrait. 1528.

Virgin and Child, with St.
John and St. Jerome.

Adoration of the Magi.

Portraits of a Family.

A Family Portrait. 1524.

Herodias. {Attributed to Gior-

The Virgin and Child, with
Saints. {His best work.)

Ottavio Grimani. 1541.

Genoa. Balhi-Piovera \
Palace. j
Hampton Court. Palace.

Hanover. Hausmann \
Collection. J
London. Mr. Perkins.
„ Sir Ivor Guest.

Petersburg. Hermitage.

» )»

Borne. Borghese Palace.
„ Sciarra Palace.

Venice. _;;^ Frari.

Vienna. Gallery.

"LICINIO, Giovanni Antonio, (or CnTicBLLO,)
called Pordenone, from the name of his native
town, twenty-eight miles from TJdine, was born in
1483. He assumed various surnames, and was
called at one time ' Licinio,' at another time
'Regillo,' but more often 'Pordenone,' and with
this name he signed many of his works. His father
was a builder or architect living in Pordenone,
named Angelo di Bartolommeo de Lodesanis, and
also ' de Corticellis,' from the name of his father's
birthplace, as well as ' Sacchiensis,' or ' de Sacchis.'
Pordenone received a liberal education, and is said
to have been a pupil of Pellegrino da San Danielle
at Udine. Ridolfi relates that Giovanni's first
commission was given to him by a shopkeeper of
Pordenone, and that its subject was a 'Madonna,'
which the artist began and finished in the time
that his patron heard mass. Vasari states that
Pordenone was driven for some years from his
home by an epidemic, and that he employed this




tiitie in decorating' the surrounding village churohea.
In the church of Vacile, fifteen miles from Porde-
none, are a series of mural designs which may be
his workmanship ; at CoLitto, near to Conegliano,
there is a chapel dedicated to San Salvatore, which
is decorated with frescoes representing the ' An-
nunciation, 'the ' Epiphany,' the ' Plight into Egypt,'
the 'Meeting of Jesus and Martha,' the 'Raising
of Lazarus,' the 'Last Judgment,' the Evangelists,
Prophets, and Angels, painted by him in the early
part of the 16th century. Of this period in his
life is the ' Madonna and Saints ' of the church of
Susigana. In 1513 he again returned to Pordenone
and married his second wife, Elisabetta Quagliata.
In 1514 he painted ' The Glory of St. Anthony,
with attendant Saints,' in Sant' Antonio of Cone-
gliano ; and also adorned with frescoes the church
of Sant' Odorico of Villanuova. In 1515 he pro-
duced the ' Virgin of Mercy, with SS. Joseph and
Christopher,' in the Cathedral of Pordenone. In
1516 he contracted to paint the frescoes which
formerly adorned the church of Rorai Grande.
He next went to Travesio, where he painted a ' St.
Christopher ' on the f aqade of the church, and thence
to Udine, where he completed a ' Virgin and Child '
on the Loggia of the Town Hall. In 1519-20
Pordenone executed the frescoes in the Malchiostro
chapel in San Niccol6 of Treviso, for which Titian
painted the altar-piece. The frescoes represent
the ' Eternal in Benediction,' the ' Epiphany,' the
' Visitation,' and figures of St. Liherale and other
Saints, Doctors of the Church, and Angels. In
1520 he went to Mantua, where he covered the
fagade of the Ceresara palace with rriythological
subjects ; from thence he journeyed to Cremona,
where the authorities of the cathedral contracted
with him to paint the frescoes of ' Pilate delivering
up Christ,' the ' Procession to Calvary,' the ' Pre-
paration for the Crucifixion,' and the ' Crucifixion.'
During a second visit paid to Cremona in 1522 he
finished that series by the ' Deposition,' and also
executed the altar-piece in the Schizzi Chapel in
the Cathedral, representing the ' Virgin and Child,
between SS. Paul and Dominick.' In 1624 he went
to Spilimbergo, and executed a series of distempers
for the organ of the church of Santa Maria, repre-
senting the ' Assumption,' the ' Pall of Simon
Magus,' and the ' Conversion of St. Paul ' ; he
also painted five panels for the well of the same
organ, and an altar-piece for the church that is
now lost. From 1625 to 1527 he completed a
great quantity of pictures and frescoes for the
churches of 'Travesio, and in the adjoining towns
and villages of Galeriano, Blessano, Casarsa, Udine,
and Valvasons. The frescoes in the cathedral "of
Travesio cover the entire octagon of the choir, and
include seven scenes from the life of St. Peter,
seven subjects drawn from Old Testament history,
the ' Conversion and Martyrdom of St. Paul,' the
' Epiphany,' the ' Last Supper,' the ' Entombment,'
and 'Christ in Glory.' In 1528 Pordenone went
to Venice, where he decorated the tribune of
the church of San Rocco with frescoes which have
now disappeared, and also designed two colossal
panels of SS. Christopher and Martin, which are
still remaining. In 1629 he was again in Porde-
none, and from there went to Piacenza, where he
decorated two chapels in the church of the Madonna
di Campagna with frescoes drawn fi-om the lives
of the Virgin and St. Catharine. His next journey
was to Genoa, where he went by invitation of
Andrea Doria, and embellished his palace with

allegorical designs which are now lost. About
1534-5 were finished the altar-pieces of the 'Trinity '
for the cathedral of San Daniele, and the ' Glory
of St. Mark ' for the cathedral of Pordenone. In
1535 Pordenone received the patent of knighthood
from King John of Hungary, and thenceforward
took the name of ' Regillo.' Soon afterwards he
settled at Venice, where he decorated the house of
Martino d'Anna, the palaces of the Moeenigos
and the Morosinis, the brotherhood of San Francesco
de' Frari, and the cloisters of San Stefano with
frescoes, which gained for him such renown that
he received from the Council of Ten the order to
finish the decorations and ceiling of the Sala del
Scrutinio, which he completed by 1538. His work
here was so much approved that in 1537 the
Council deprived Titian of his patent in the Pon-
daco de' Tedeschi, and ordered of Regillo in 1538
a picture for the Sala del Senate. All these last-
named works have perished. In that same year
he left Venice to pay a visit to Ercole, second
Duke of Perrara, for whom he had already designed
subjects drawn from the Odyssey, for embroidery
in arras. He' arrived there in the month of Decem-
ber, and before he had been there many days, was
taken sick (some accounts state he was poisoned),
and died at the Angel Inn, Perrara, in his 66th
year, in January 1639, and was buried in the church
of San Paolo in that city. Authentic pictures by
this artist are very scarce, many of those under his
name in public and private collections being by
his pupils and imitators. Some authentic examples
may be found in the different collections in Venice.
Especially worthy of mention are the following :

Edinburgh. Nat. GdUery. Christ on the Mount of Olives.
Florence. Uffizi. Portrait of the Artist.

„ „ A Portrait.

„ „ The Conversion of St. Paul.

London. Nat. Gallery. An Apostle.

„ Earl of North- \ Portrait of a Man, half-length,
brook. ) life-size.
Petersburg. Hermitage, An Old Man and a Girl.
Kome. Doria Palace. The Daughter of Herodias with

her Maid.
Venice. ^rafJemy. The Glory of St. Lorenzo

„ „ The Virgin of Mercy, with B.

Simon Stock, and B. Angelo.

LICINIO, Giovanni Antonio, the younger, called
II SACcpiENSB, was a brother of Giulio Licinio, and
a nephew and pupil of Pordenone. He was born
about 1515, and died at Como about 1576.

LICINIO, GlULio, of Pordenone, is said to have
been the nephew of Pordenone, and to have been
at Rome during some period in his life. Records
remain to prove that he was in Augsburg as late
as 1561, and he is thought to have died there.
In the Philippinewelser Strasse, Augsburg, can be
seen the remains of frescoes, representing ' Pluto,
Venus, and Janus,' that are assigned to him.

LIEBE, Christian Gottlieb August, was an
engraver of Leipsic, who worked under Oeser, and
died about 1810. Among his plates are :

The Holy Family ; after Gmdo Meni.
An Assembly of Monks ; after the same.
Juno and Argus ; after Jordaens.
The Tavern ; after Annibale Carracci.
Portrait of Zollikof er ; after Sause.

LIEFRINCK, C, who flourished at Amsterdam
about 1620-40, was a painter and designer. There
are two etchings by him, a very rich frieze, repre-
senting an ' Expedition of Soldiers and Baggage-
waggons,' and a battle piece.





LIEMAKER, Nicolaes de. See De Liemaker.

LIBNARD, Edouard, a French historical and
portrait painter, was born in Paris in 1779. He
was the son of Jean Baptiste Li^nard, and was
originally intended for an engraver, but preferring
painting, he studied under Regnault and afterwards
under Isabey. Settling at Lille, he became in 1823
a professor in the Academy there. He painted a
great number of portraits in the style of David,
and also miniatures. He died at Lille in 1848.
The Museum at Rheims has by him 'The Oath
of Allegiance of the Inhabitants of Rheims,' and
that at Lille has some of his portraits.

LIBNARD, Jean Baptists, a French engraver,
was born at Lisle about the year 1760. He was a
pupil of Jacques Philippe Le Bas, and has engraved,
in a neat style, several views and landscapes. He
executed some of the plates for the 'Voyage
pittoresque du Royaume de Naples et de Sicile,'
by the Abb^ de St. Non, and the 'Voyage pittor-
esque de la Suisse.' He died after 1807. The
following engravings also are by him :

The Pleasures of Summer ; after J. B. Le Prince.
Views of the principal Monuments of Borne; after

S. Molert.
Three plates in the first edition of Beaumarchais's

' La FoUe Journfe, ou le Mariage de Figaro,' Paris,

1785. '

LIBNDER, Paulus van, a Dutch engraver, bom
at Utrecht in 1731, was a brother of Pieter van
Liender. His uncle Jakob sent him to Amsterdam
to learn drawing, and he afterwards painted flowers,
landscapes, and views. He also executed some
etchings. He died at Utrecht in 1797.

LIENDER, PlETEB van, a Dutch landscape
painter, was born at Utrecht in 1727. Many of
his subjects are views of cities, and scenes on the
borders of the Rhine. He died at Utrecht in 1779.

LIENDO, Diego Vipal db. See, Vidal de Liendo.

LIER, Adolf, a German landscape painter, was
born in 1827, and died at Brixen in 1882. 'There
is by him in the New Pinakothek at Munich a
view of ' The Theresien Wiese at Munich, with the
colossal Bavaria.'

LIERNUR, Alexander, a Dutch draughtsman
and engraver, was born at the Hague ,in 1770.
Having had the misfortune at an early age to lose
his parents, he was adopted by the Stadtholder,
William V., who placed him in the Home of the
Lutheran Orphans. Showing a disposition for art,
he was sent to the Academy, where he gained the
gold medal. In 1794 he went to Rome, but
owing to political affairs in Holland being so
disturbed, he was obliged to return the following
year. He was very successful with his drawings,
as well as with the graver. He died at Amsterdam
in 1815.

LIERRE, JoosT VAN, was bom at Brussels in
1530. He was a painter of landscapes and figures,
but resigned art to hecome a minister of the re-
formed religion at Zwyndrecht near Antwerp.
He died in 1583.

LIES, Joseph, a Flemish genre and historical
painter, was born at Antwerp in 1822. He studied
under N. De Keyser and Leys, and received a gold
medal at Brussels in 1853. He died in 1865.
Amongst his pictures are :

Baldwin, Count of Flanders, punishing Robbers. {Brus-
sels Gallery.)
Rapine, Plunder, and Conflagration. (The same.)
The Prisoner. {Antwerp Gallery.)
The Approach of the Enemy. {The same.)

A Military Envoy returning from an Expedition.

The Promenade.

The Pleasures of Winter.

LIBSBORN, Master of, is known by an ex-
cellent altar-piece, which was formerly in the
second church of the convent at Liesbom, near
Mlinster, and consecrated in 1465. It was
sold in 1807, and the new proprietor made
several pieces of it. Some of them are in the
possession of Dr. Haindorf at Miinster, and others
are now in the National Gallery in London. A
copy of the whole by one of the artist's pupils
was in the Protestant Church at Liinen, but it
is now destroyed ; it represented, in the middle,
' Christ on the Cross, surrounded by St. John, St.
Soholastica, and St. Benedict, the Virgin Mary, St.
Cosmas, and St. Damian ' ; and on the sides eight
scenes in the Life of Christ, — the 'Annuncia-
tion,' ' Nativity,' ' Adoration of the Magi,' ' Pre-
sentation,' 'Resurrection,' 'Ascension,' 'Descent
of the Holy Ghost,' and ' Last Judgment.' The
whole is a mixture of the school of the Van Eycks
and that of Cologne. The Master of Liesbom
had several pupils, whose works are still partly

LIBVENDAL, Isaac, was a Spanish engraver,
who resided at Granada in the reign of Philip IV.

LIEVENS, Jan. See Livensz.

LIGARIO, Cesare, a painter, bom at Milan in
1716, was a sou of Giovanni Pietro Ligario. He
studied at Venice under Pittoni, and afterwards
with his father. He was living in 1766.

LIGARIO, Giovanni Pietro, was bom at
Sondrio, in the Valtelline, in 1686, and having
learned the first rudiments of art in his native
country, went to Italy, and resided some years at
Rome, where he improved his design by frequenting
the school of Lazzaro Baldi, and afterwards visited
Venice, where he studied the works of the most
eminent masters of that school of colouring. On
his return to his native town in 1727, he was
employed in painting some historical pictures for
the churches and private collections. He died at
Sondrio in 1748. He has left a ' St. Benedict ' in
the church of the nunnery at Sondrio, and a
' Descent of the Holy Ghost ' in the church at
Morbegno. In the Brera at Milan are portraits
of the painter's father and the Abbot Mottalini.
He also engraved a ' Virgin ' and ' 'The Martyrdom
of St. Peter.'

LIGHTBODY, John, an English engraver, has
left a few small etchings of Beggars.

LIGHTFOOT, William, was an English painter
and engraver. He excelled in painting landscapes
and perspective views, and was employed by
Wren in the decoration of the Royal Exchange.
In the ' Sculptura,' by Evelyn, he is mentioned as
an engraver, in the following terms : " Lightfoot
hath, a very curious graver, and special talent for
the neatness of his stroke, little inferior to Wierix ;
and has published two or three Madonnas, with
much applause. He died about 1671."

LIGLI, Ventura, was a painter of the Neapolitan
school, who lived in the second part of the 17th
and the commencement of the 18th centuries.
He was a pupil of Giordano, and went to Spain,
where he was called 'Linos.' In 1682 he was
living at Madrid, where there is a picture of the
' Battle of Almansa ' painted by him.

LIGNON, ^TiENNE FRiDiSRio, a French line en-
graver, was born in Paris in 1779, and died there




in 1833. He studied under Morel, and among his
best plates are :

Ecce Homo ; after Gvido Bern.

The Eape of Deianeira ; after the same.

The Virgin with the Fish ; after Raphael.

Leo X. ; after the same.

Nicolas Poussin ; after himself.

The Duchess of Angoul^me ; after Augustin.

Louis Philippe ; after L. Dupre.

Charles X.; after Gerard.

Mile. Mars ; after the same,

Alexander I., Emperor of Eussia ; after Vigneron.

Camoens ; after the same.

Francois Joseph Talma ; after Picat.

Psyche and Cupid ; after the same.

The Duke de Richelieu ; after Sir Thomas Lawrence.

LIGNY, FEANgoiS db, a French engraver,
executed two landscapes after Gaspard Poussin.

LIGORIO, PiRRO, an architect, engineer, sculptor,
and antiquary, who also executed some paint-
ings, was bom at Naples in 1493. He went early
in life to Rome, where he studied under Giulio
Romano. He was employed in an architectural
capacity by Paul IV. and Alphonso II. ; but he
produced some fresco works at Rome, of which
the principal is the ' Feast of Herod,' in the oratory
of the Compagnia della Misericordia. He also
painted several friezes and ornaments in the public
edifices. He died at Ferrara in 1580.

LIGOZZI, Bartolommeo, a nephew of Jacopo
Ligozzi, was bom at Verona, and flourished at
Florence about 1620. He painted flowers and
genre subjects, and died at the age of 75.

LIGOZZI, Giovanni Ermanno, a native of Verona,
flourished about 1570. By some he is supposed to
have been a son of Jacopo Ligozzi. In the Church
of the Apostles at Verona is a picture by him
entitled ' The Name of Jesus,' dated 1573, and a
fresco over the principal door of the church of SS.
Nazzaro e Celso.

LIGOZZI, Jacopo, was born at Verona about
1543, and was a disciple of Paolo Veronese.
His principal residence was at Florence, where
he was made painter to the Grand-Duke Ferdi-
nand II., and superintendent of the Ducal Gallery,
a distinction honourable to his talents, as it
was conferred on him in preference to the many
able Florentine painters of the time. He died
after 1632. He has left some admired fresco
paintings in the cloister of the Ognissanti. There
are several of his oil pictures in the churches at
Florence. In Santa Maria Novella is a grand
picture of ' St. Raymond resuscitating a Child ' ;
but his most celebrated work is his ' Martyrdom of
St. Dorothea,' at the Conventuali at Pescia. He was
very successful with easel pictures of a small size.
He signed his works Jacob Ligot. pinxit. Some
of them have been engraved by Agostino Carracci,
and other artists. Andrea Andreani executed
several woodcuts after him, and it is said that he
engraved some prints,' both on copper and on wood,
from his own designs. The name of Fkancbsco
Ligozzi is found on a painting in San Luca ; and
that of Paolo Ligozzi (died 1630) on one in Sant'

LILIENBERGH, Cornelis, (or Lelienbergh,)^
painter of dead game and subjects of the chase, in
the manner of Weeninx, was born at the Hague
about 1600. His works are distinguished for cor-
rectness of drawing, good colouring, and truth to
nature. He died at the Hague after 1663. Several
of his paintings are in the galleries of Berlin,
Dresden, Christiania, Count Czernin at Vienna, and
Castle Howard.

LILIO, Andrea, called Andrea d'Ancona nella
Marca, was born at Ancona (?) in 1555. He went
to Rome, where he was employed by Pope
Sixtus V. in the decoration of the Hbrary of the
Vatican, and in the palace of St. John Lateran,
where he painted in fresco on the Soala Santa
' Moses striking the Rock,' a grand composition of
many figures, and ' Moses with the Brazen Serpent.'
In a chapel of the Chiesa Nuova, he painted
'The Archangel Michael driving the Evil Spirits
from Heaven ' ; and in Santa Maria Maggiore a fine
fresco of ' Christ washing the Feet of His Disciples.'
After the death of his protector he continued to orna-
ment several of the churches and convents of Rome
in the time of Pope Clement VIII. He also painted
allegorical subjects, some of which have been
engraved. At Ancona, in the church of San Stef ano,
is a picture of the ' Stoning of St. Stephen.' He
died at Ascoli in 1610.

LILLY, E., an English portrait painter and
engraver, practised at the end of the 17th and
the beginning of the 18th centuries. There is
a portrait of Queen Anne by him at Blenheim

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 15 of 201)