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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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Swans and Eagles ; inscribed Ite Trium^hales feltces,
St. Jerome in a Cave ; after Savery.
Portrait of Admiral van Tromp ; after Faas.

MAJOR, Thomas, an eminent English engraver,
was born in 1720. He resided some years of the
early part of his life in Paris, where he was
thrown into prison by the Government in reprisals
for the imprisonment of French soldiers taken at
Culloden. He there engraved several plates after
Berehem, Wouwerman, &c. On his return to
England he distinguished himself by a variety of
plates from portraits, landscapes, and other sub-
jects, executed in a neat, firm style. He was for
forty years seal engraver to the king, and in
1770 received from the Royal Academy the honour
of being elected first associate engraver. In 1768
he published a set of twenty-four prints, entitled
' The Ruins of Poestum, otherwise Posidonia, in
Magna Grascia,' after the designs of J. B. Borra.
He died in Covent Garden in 1799. On some of
his prints after Berehem and Arnold Mass he has
put an anagram of his name, Jorma, or Jor sculp.
The following are his principal plates :


John Carteret, Earl Granville. 1757.
Cardinal Pole.


The Departure of Jacob ; aft. r F. Lauri.

The Good Shepherd ; after Mhrillo.

Two Landscapes ; after Gaspar Poussin.

A Landscape, with a Man driving Sheep ; after Rubens.

Two Flemish Festivals ; after Tenien.

The Manege ; after Wouwerman.

The Travellers ; after N. Berehem.

Two Landscapes : Morning and Evening ; after the same.

The Four Seasons ; after Ferg.

A View near Haarlem ; after Van der'Neer.

A Sea-port ; after Claude.

A View of Ponte Mole, near Rome ; after the same.

MA L AGON. See Villafranca.

MALAINE, Renieb, a Flemish painter of some
merit, who flourished about the middle of the last
century. The town of Toumai possesses some of
bis pictures.

MALAINE, Joseph Laurent, son of Eenier,
born at Tournai in 1745. In 1787 he was ap-
pointed flower painter to the Gobelins. In 1793
he retired to Alsace, but returned to Paris in 1796,
where be resumed his favourite study. He died
in Paris in 1809.

MALBODIUS. See Gossabrt.

MALBONE, Edward G., a portrait painter, was
born at Newport, in America, in 1777. He early
displayed a talent for art, and while still a boy
painted a scene for a theatre. At seventeen he
established himself in Providence as a portrait
painter. In 1796 he went to Boston, and afterwards
to New York, Philadelphia, and Charleston. In
1801 he came to England, and was urged by West
to remain, but returned to Charleston in the same
year. There he painted miniatures, but his health
giving way, he abandoned bis profession and went
to Savannah, where he died in 1807.

MALCOLM, James Peller, an English topo-
graphical draughtsman and engraver, born at Phila-
delphia in 1767. He came to England about 1788,
and studied in the schools of the Academy. He
also received instruction from Benjamin West and
Wright of Derby. Not succeeding with the brush,
he turned to engraving. He worked for the
' Gentleman's Magazine,' and had much employ-
ment on topographical subjects. He died in
London in 1815. Specimens of his work are to be
found in Nichols' ' History of Leicestershire ' ;
' Excursions through Kent ' ; ' History of Carica-
turing' (1808); 'Anecdotes of the Manners and
Customs of London in the 18th century ' (1808-11) ;
Granger's ' Biographical History of England.'

MALDEGHEM, Jean Baptiste, a Flemish
landscape and animal painter, born in 1803. He
studied in the Bruges Academy, and died at
Brussels in 1841.

MALDEGHEM, Romain Eug^ine van, was born
at Denterghem, in Flanders, in 1813. He attended
the Academy at Bruges in 1825, and afterwards
that of Antwerp. From 1838 to 1842 he travelled
in Italy and the East. On his return he settled at
Brussels, but in 1852 became Director of the
Academy at Bruges. After a life of much success,
he died at Brussels in 1867. Perhaps his most
important picture is ' Charles V. in his cell.'

MALEUVKE, Pierre, a French engraver, was
born in Paris in 1740. He was a pupil of Beau-
varlet, and visited London, where he was for some
time under Sir Robert Strange. On his return to
Palis he engraved some portraits and other
subjects. The following are his most important
plates :




Oustavus Adolpbus, King of Sweden.
Count d'Aianda.
M. d'Alembert.
M. de Lalande.


The Satyr and the Peasant ; after Dietrich.
The Spoiled Child ; after Greuze,
• A Sea-storm ; after Bakhuisen.
Boors regaling ; after Brouwer.
The Bath of Diana ; after Marillier.

MALI, HuBERTUS, born at Mauren, Wiirtem-
berg, in 1818. He was an elder brother of Christian
Friedrich Mali (a living artist), and studied paint-
ing under P. F. Peters the elder, at Nymwegen ;
subsequently he worked at Hoheneck, near Lud-
wigsburg. His landscapes are poetic in conception
and crisply painted. He was drowned while
bathing near Altenaer, in 1839. His works are
mostly at Mannheim and Stuttgart.

MALI, JoHANN, a landscape painter, and second
brother of Christian Friedrich Mali, was born at
Broekhuizen in 1828, and instructed by P. P.
Peters the younger, at Stuttgart. He afterwards
studied at Munich. His works are mountain
landscapes, of a generally sombre character. He
died at Munich in 1865.

MALINCONICO, Andrea, was bom at Naples
about the year 1600, and was one of the ablest
scholars of Cavaliere Massimo Stanzioni. Of his
works in fresco little is known, but the churches
at Naples possess several of his oil paintings ; of
these the most esteemed are the ' Four Evangelists '
and the 'Doctors of the Church.' Andrea's son,
Nicola, was a good painter of flowers and fruit.

MALLEIN, G., (or Mallbyn,) was born at
Dordrecht in 1753. He settled at Rotterdam, and
was chiefly employed as a decorator. He died
in 1816.

MALLERY, Karel van, a Flemish designer and
engraver, was born at Antwerp in 1576. Judging
from his style, it is probable that he formed his
manner from the prints of the Wierixes, or that
he was instructed by them. His work with the
graver is very highly finished, though his drawing
is not always correct. He must have been ex-
tremely laborious, as his prints are very numerous.
The Abb6 de Marolles possessed three hundred and
forty -two prints by him. The following are his
principal prints :

The Infant Jesus, with two Angels, in a landscape ;

C. de Mallery fee.
The Adoration of the Magi.
The Holy Family, with Mary Magdalene.
St. Francis.
Several heads of Christ, the Virgin, Saints, the Apostles,

and other devotional subjects ; from his own desiyns^

and after Anthony Salaert, and other masters.
The History of the Silkworm ; in six plates ; after

A set of plates of Horses, for a book entitled ' La

Oavalerie Fran^oise.' 1602.
Four plates of the Miller, his Son, and the Ass ; after

Ambrose Franck ; scarce.

MALLERY, Philip van, was born at Antwerp
about 1600. He was an engraver, and worked in
the stylo of the Wierixes. If not a son of Karel
van Mallery, he was at least his pupil. He worked
chiefly at Prague, and there engraved the portrait
of Archbishop Johann Gohelius. Several small
historical subjects, published about 1650, are also
by him. The engravings of his work, 'Typus
Mundi' (Antwerpije, 1627), are signed with his
name or monogram.


MALLET, Jean Baptists, a French historical
and still-life painter, was born at Grasse in 1759.
He was a pupil of Simon Julien at Toulon, and
afterwards of Prud'hon and M^rim^e. Among his
pictures are the 'Education of Henri IV.,' and
' Nature and Honour.'

MALLEYN. See Mallein.

MALLIUS, Lucius, one of the best painters of
the Roman Empire, who flourished in the time of
Macrobius, A.D. 396.

MALO, Vincent, (or Vincenzio,) was born at
Cambray about the year 1625. He was at first a
pupil of Rubens. After the death of that master
he became a scholar of David Teniers the elder,
who had been brought up in the same academy.
He afterwards went to Italy, where he passed the
remainder of his life, and distinguished himself
as a painter of battles and landscapes ; he also
executed some altar-pieces for the churches at
Genoa. He died at Rome before the year 1656.

MALOGAVAZZO, Coriolano, born at Cremona
about the year 1555, was a disciple of Bernardino
Campi, whom he assisted in some of his great
works in the church of San Gismondo. He is
better known as the coadjutor of that artist thnii
by any original productions of his own. His
principal work is his picture in the church of San
Silvestro, at Cremona, representing the ' Virgin
and Child, with St. Francis and St. Ignatius,'
which, according to Lanzi, is supposed to have
been designed by Bernardino.

MALOMBRA, Pietro, was born at Venice in
1656, and studied the works of Salviati and Palma.
He has left four excellent pictures of the miracles
wrought by St. Francis de Paula, in the church
dedicated to that saint at Venice. He is still
better in his historical subjects of an easel size,
and painted with great success architectural view.s
of the principal places in Venice, enriched with
groups of immerous figures. He was also a dis-
tinguished portrait painter. He died at Venice in

MALOSSO, II. See Trotti.

MALPE Jean, painter, was born at Ghent in
1764. He studied in the Academy of his native
town, and then spent some time in Paris. He
afterwards returned to Ghent, and devoted himself
to portrait painting in miniature. He died in

MALPIEDI, DoMENioo, an Italian painter, and
pupil of Barocci, was born at 8. Ginesio. He
flourished from 1590 to 1606, and executed several
pictures for the churches in the neighbourhood of
his birthplace. One of these, the ' Martyrdom of
St. Ginesio and St. Eleuthera,' shows that he kept
pretty close to tlje style of his master.

MALPIEDI, Francesco, a brother of Domenico
M., and also a pupil of Barocci.

MALTESE, Francesco, called after his birth-
place, Malta, was a painter of still-life, who especi
ally excelled in his rendering of carpets and musical
instruments. Two of his pictures are in the
Gallery at Munich, and some are to be met with
in England. He lived about 1670, or later, but no
particulars of his life have been recorded.

MALTON, James, an English topographical
draughtsman in the second half of the 18lh century.
He died in Maiylebone in 1803. The South Ken-
sington Museum has a drawing by him of ' Cupel
Street, Dublin.' He published ' Picturesque Views
of the City of Dublin' (1791-6); 'Essay on
British Cottage Architecture' (1798); 'The





Young Painter's Maulstick' (1800); 'Designs for
Rural Retreats ' (1801).

MALTON, Thomas, topographical draughtsman,
was born in 1726. At one time he kept an uphol-
sterer's shop in the Strand. In 1749 he was in
Dublin, driven there, it is said, by money diffi-
culties into which he had drifted in London. He
resided there many years, making a scanty living
as a teacher of perspective. He was an early
exhibitor at the Royal Academy, and in 1776 we
find him back in London, where he advertises a
course of lectures on perspective. He died at
Dublin, 18th February, 1801. His drawings are
what were known as ' tinted drawings,' begun in
Indian ink. So far as they can be tested they are
very accurate. The South Kensington Museum
possesses four of them.

MALTON, Thomas, architectural draughtsman,
was a son of the above. He was born in 1748.
In 1774 he received a premium from the Society
of Arts, and in 1782 the gold medal of the Royal
Academy for a design for a theatre. He entered
the office of Gandon, where he remained for three
years, being then dismissed for irregularity. He
exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1774 to 1802.
He also produced some engravings in aqua-tint
from the chief buildings of London. He died in
Long Acre, 7th March, 1804.

MALTON, William, another son of Thomas
Malton, senior, did some work as an architectural

MALWEL, Jean, (Malouel, or Maluel,) who
was born in the latter half of the 14th century, is
recorded as ' painter and valet-de-chambre ' to
Philip the Hardy and to Jean Sans Peur, Dukes
of Burgundy, from 1397 to 1415. He worked
for the now destroyed Chartreuse of Dijon, and in
1415 he painted a portrait of Jean Sans Peur,
which was carried by special messenger to John
II. of Portugual. It is believed that none of his
works have survived.

MAN, Corn, de (or Maan). See De Man.
MANAIGO, SiLVESTEO, was born at Venice about
the year 1670, and was a scholar of Gregorio
Lazzarini. His compositions evince both taste and
ability ; but he worked for money only, and became
negligent and a mannerist. His most creditable
picture is ' Christ driving the Money-changers from
the Temple,' in the church of San Felice, at

MANASAR, Daniel, a German engraver, who
resided at Augsburg early in the 17th centurj'.
He chiefly engraved architectural plates, which are
carried out entirely with the burin, in a neat but
stiff style. Conjointly with Wolfgang Kilian, he
engraved the plates for a work entitled ' Basilicse
SS. Udalrici et afrse Augustee Vindelicorum His-
toriae,' published at Augsburg in 1626. His prints
are usually marked D. M. F.

MANBY, Thomas, an English landscape painter,
who practised in the second half of the 17th
century. He spent much time in Italy, whence he
brought back a collection of pictures. He died in
London about 1691.

MANCHE, Bdouakd, a Flemish genre and his-
torical painter, born at Brussels in 1819. He died
in Paris in 1861. One of his chief works is a
' Descent from the Cross.'

MANCHELLI, Miohelb, was born at Genoa in

1560, according to Domenici. He studied at

Naples, under Marco di Pino, and acquired some

reputation as an historical painter. One of his


best works is a picture in the church of Sant'
Agnello at Naples, representing the 'Virgin and
Infant, with St. John, Mary Magdalene, and St.
Lucia ' ; it was painted in 1586.


MANCINI, Bartolommeo, a follower of Carlo
Dolce, of whom little is known.

MANCINI, DOMENICO, a Venetian artist living
in the early part of the 16th century, of whose life
or death no details are known. He is the author
of the centre panel in an altar-piece now in the
sacristy of the cathedral of Lendinara, representing
a ' Virgin and Child enthroned, with an Angel play-
ing a viol.' It is signed and dated 1511.

MANCINI, Francesco, (or MAciNi,)was born at
St. Angiolo in Vado in 1706, and was a pupil
of Carlo Cignani. He went to Rome, and there
painted the ' Miracle of St. Peter,' his chief per-
formance ; it is now in the Palazzo di Monte
Cavallo, and a mosaic fills its place in St. Peter's.
Mancini became a member of the Academy of St.
Luke, and died in 1768.

MANCIOL. See Leckekbetjen.

MANDEL, JoHANN August Bduaed, engraver,
was bom in 1810, at Berlin. He was a pupil of
Buckhorn, and worked in pure line. In 1837 he
became fellow of the Berlin Academy, and in 1842,
after a visit to Paris, was appointed Professor of
Engraving. He was a frequent exhibitor at the
Salon, where he obtained all the regulation honours.
His last important work was a plate from the
' Madonna di San Sisto,' published after his death,
which took place in 1882. Among his best works
we may name :

Charles I. ; after Vandyck.

Titian's portrait of himself.

Christ weeping over .Terusalem ; after Scheffer.

Ecce Homo ; after Guido.

Bindo Altoviti ; after Raphael.

Madonna della Seggiola ; after the same.

Frederick the Great ; after Stock.

Frederick William IT. ; after Otto.

MANDER, Karel van, the elder, a well-known
painter and writer on art, was bern at Meulebeke,
in Flanders, in 1548. He was of a noble family, and
received an education suited to his rank. At an early
age he discovered a lively genius for poetry and the
belles-lettres, and a decided disposition for painting.
To cultivate the latter, on finishing his literary
pursuits, he was placed under the tuition of Lucas
de Heere, a painter aftd poet of Ghent, with whom
he studied some time, and about 1569 became a
disciple of Pieter Vlerick, an historical painter of
some eminence at Courtrai. He had acquired
considerable reputation by some pictures he had
painted for the churches in Flanders, when he
determined in 1573 to visit Italy, and passed three
years in Rome, where he was assiduously em-
ployed in drawing from the remains of antiquity.
He formed an intimate acquaintance with Bar-
tholomew Spranger, and in conjunction with that
artist, was employed for some of the public
places and private collections at Rome, fie ac-
companied his friend Spranger to Vienna, where
he met with flattering encouragement, and
received an invitation to enter the service of
the Emperor; but his attachment to his native
country prevented him from accepting this mark
of distinction. About 1578 he returned to Flan-
ders, whence after many vicissitudes he made
his way northwards to Haarlem, and finally to



Amsterdam, where he ended his days. At Haariem
Van Mander form.ed an intimacy with Cornelis
Cornelisz and Hendrik Goltzius, and in con-
junction with the latter he established an academy,
which had numerous scholars. But our chief debt
to Van Mander is for his account of the Italian
and Flemish schools from 1366 to 1604. In his
hours of leisure he also wrote verses. He trans-
lated the ' Iliad ' of Homer ; the ' Georgics ' and
the ' Bucolics ' of Virgil ; and the ' Metamorphoses '
of Ovid. He finished his ' Lives of the Painters '
at Zevenbergen, between Haarlem and Alkrnaar,
where he remained for a year. Van Mander's
final migration to Amsterdam took place in 1604.
There he fell sick ; and although he endeavoured
to vanquish his pain by his courage, he was
obliged tosend for a doctor. Prom that moment
his situation became perilous ; for he found " it
was two against one," says Michiels. The man
of skill expedited the business by a debilitating
regimen, and the patient died of weakness (1606).
He was crowned with laurel in his cofiSn ; three
hundred friends and amateurs followed his body
to the grave ; a multitude of panegyrists feelingly
deplored his loss ; and his celebrity still lives in
his book. His pictures, which are rare, are poor

MANDER, Kaeel van, the younger, a painter,
was a son of Karel van Mander the elder, and
was born a! Courtrai about 1579. He was a
scholar in his father's studio at Haarlem, where
he painted portraits and historical subjects. He
was afterwards attached to the tapestry works of
Spiering at Delft, from whence he was sent for
in 1606 to execute some hangings for Christian
IV., King of Denmark. He died in Holland in

MANDER, Karel van, was the son of Karel
van Mander the younger. On his father's death
he went with his mother to Copenhagen, where he
was well received by the king. He studied, it is
believed, in Italy, and was afterwards appointed
painter to the Danish court. In 1635 he visited
Amsterdam, and there painted the portrait of the
poet Vondel. Of his paintings there are at Copen-
hagen, 'The Tartar Ambassador at Copenhngen
in 1665,' ' The Remorse of St. Peter,' portraits of
Admiral Giedde, and others. Van Mander died
at Delft in 1672.

MANDIJN, Jan, (Mandin, Madijn, or Madin,)
was born at Haarlem in 1500. He painted con-
flagrations, wild and rocky landscapes, and dia-
hleries, in the style of Jerom Bos. His chief
residence was at Antwerp, and there he died in

MANENTI, ViNCENZio, was born at Canimorto,
in the province of Sabina, in 1600. He was the
son of Ascanio Manenti, an obscure artist, by
whom he was instructed in the first principles of
design. He afterwards studied at Rome, under
Giuseppe Cesari and Domenichino. There are
several of his pictures in the churches of his
province ; and Lanzi speaks favourably of his ' St.
Stefano,' in the cathedral at Tivoli, and of his ' St.
Saverio,' in the Jesuit's church. He died in


son of Anton Manes, and painted battle scenes.
He died in 1880.

MANES, Joseph, was born at Prague in 1821
He was a son of Anton Manes, and received his
first mstruction from his father. He painted por-
traits and historical scenes, and died in 1871

MANES, Wenzel, brother of Anton Manes, was
born at Prague in 1796. He studied at the
Academy, and devoted himself to landscape and
portra.it painting, though we find some altar-pieces
from his hand. He died in 1868.
,3J^^¥^' ^^°^'^""' painter, was born in Paris in
laa2. His first master was Thomas Couture, in
whose studio he spent some six years. After
leaving Couture he travelled in America, England
the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, and Spain, and
after his return to Paris retained for a time a
manner he had caught from Velazquez. In 1860
he exhibited his 'Buveur d'Absinthe,' in which
the influence of Couture is strong, and shortly
afterwards his ' Enfant a I'Bp^e,' which is very hke
a Velazquez. Towards, 1863 Manet became the
chief of the famous ' Ecole des Batignolles,' to
whom Degas, Claude Monet, Guillemet, Fantin-
Latour, Cisley, Pisarro, and others belonged.
Ihenceforward his art became and was known
as 'inapressionism.' In 1863 he exhibited, at the
first Salon des liefusees, his ' D(5jeuner surl'Herbe,'
and in 1864, at the official show, his ' Olympia,'
which raised a storm and failed to win acceptance
even from many who were prepared to go a long
way with him. From that time onward the Salon
was more often barred against him than not until
the last few years of his life, when his pictures
were well hung. Manet was decorated with the
Legion of Honour during the administration of
M. Antonin Proust, who had been his friend for a
quarter of a century. He exhibited at the Sulon
for the last time in 1883, and died the same year.
Among his best pictures we may name :

L' Enfant a I'Ep^e.

CbrLst mocked by the Soldiers.

Le Dejeuner sur I'herbe.


Le Bon Bock.

Dans la Serre.

La Toilette.

Portrait of M. Antonin Proust.

Portrait of Eochefort.

Portrait of Zola.

MANES, Anton, was born at Prague in 1784.
He was a pupil of Karl Postels, and painted land-
scapes in the style of Ruysdael. In 1836 he was
appointed teacher at the Academy. He died in

MANES, GuiDO, bom at Prague in 1829, was a
H 2


MANETTI, DoMENico, was born at Siena in
1609, and was probably a relation of Rutilio
Manetti. He painted chiefly for the churches of
Siena, but also produced historical subjects of an
easel size. Lanzi particularly mentions one in
the Casa Magnoni, representing the ' Baptism of
Constantine.' He died in 1663.

MANETTI, Rutilio, was born at Siena in 1571,
and was a scholar of Francesco Vanni. He was
not faithful, however, to the style of that master,
but sought to imitate the vigour of Caravaggio.
His pictures at Siena are remarkable for the loaded
shadows characteristic of the tenebrosi. He was
well versed in architecture. There are several of
his pictures at the Certosa in Florence, and in the
churches at Pisa ; a ' Repose of the Holy Family,'
in S. Pietro di Castelvecchio, at Siena, is particu-
larly admirable. He died in 1639. He signed his
works 2i. M. J. ; and Rut. Man. Pin. His portrait
in the Gallery at Florence is engraved by Payzi.

MANFREDI, Baetolommeo, was born at Ustiano,
near Mantua, about 1572. Although Manfredi





was a scholar of Nicool6 Circignano, he might
be styled another Michel-Agnolo da Caravaggio,
if his works were not distinguished by a better
choice of forma and a more dignified taste in
design. He painted few pictures for the churches ;
his favourite, subjects were banditti, assemblies of
gamesters, and armed soldiers, which harepresented
with an appropriate ferocity of character, and an
extraordinary effect of light and shadow. The
works of Manfredi are rarely to be met with, as he
died young in 1605, and of the few pictures he
painted some are attributed to Caravaggio, others
to Valentin. One representing ' Christ driving the
Traders from the Temple ' was engraved by J. B.
Haussard. Among those known are also the
following :

Augsburg. Gallery. A Company drinking and


Brunswick. Gallery. The Denial of Peter.

Brussels. The Woman taken in Adultery.

Copenhagen. Gallery. The Gipsy in the Watoh-room.

„ ,, A Girl playing the Tambourine.

Darmstadt. Gallery. Musicians. r

Florence. Pitti Palace. The Fortune-Teller.

„ „ The Good Fortune.

Madrid. Museum. A Soldier bearing the Head of

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