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Whole War;" which I now pursued no further.

2ist August, 1674. In one of the meadows at the foot
of the long Terrace below the Castle [Windsor], works
were thrown up to show the King a representation of the
city of Maestricht, newly taken by the French. Bas-
tians, bulwarks, ramparts, palisadoes, graffs, horn-works,
counter-scarps, etc., were constructed. It was attacked
by the Duke of Monmouth (newly come from the real
siege) and the Duke of York, with a little army, to
show their skill in tactics. On Saturday night they
made their approaches, opened trenches, raised bat-
teries, took the counter-scarp and ravelin, after a stout
defense; great guns fired on both sides, grcnadoes shot,
mines sprung, parties sent out, attempts of rais-
7



98 DIARY OF London

ing the siege, prisoners taken, parleys; and, in short, all
the circumstances of a formal siege, to appearance, and,
what is most strange all without disorder, or ill acci-
dent, to the great satisfaction of a thousand spectators.
Being night, it made a formidable show. The siege being
over, I went with Mr. Pepys back to London, where we
arrived about three in the morning.

15th September, 1674. To Council, about fetching away
the English left at Surinam, etc., since our reconciliation
with Holland.

2ist September, 1674. I went to see the great loss that
Lord Arlington had sustained by fire at Goring House, this
night consumed to the ground, with exceeding loss of
hangings, plate, rare pictures, and cabinets; hardly any-
thing was saved of the best and most princely furniture
that any subject had in England. My lord and lady were
both absent at the Bath.

6th October, 1674. The Lord Chief Baron Turner, and
Sergeant Wild, Recorder of London, came to visit me.

20th October, 1674. At Lord Berkeley's, I discoursed
with Sir Thomas Modiford, late Governor of Jamaica, and
with Colonel Morgan, who undertook that gallant exploit
from Nombre de Dios to Panama, on the Continent of
America; he told me 10,000 men would easily conquer all
the Spanish Indies, they were so secure. They took great
booty, and much greater had been taken, had they not
been betrayed and so discovered before their approach, by
which the Spaniards had time to carry their vast treasure
on board ships that put off to sea in sight of our men,
who had no boats to follow. They set fire to Panama, and
ravaged the country sixty miles about. The Spaniards
were so supine and unexercised, that they were afraid to
fire a great gun.

31st October, 1674. My birthday, 54th year of my life.
Blessed be God! It was also preparation day for the Holy
Sacrament, in which I participated the next day, imploring
God's protection for the year following, and confirming my
resolutions of a more holy life, even upon the Holy Book.
The Lord assist and be gracious unto me! Amen.

15th November, 1674. The anniversary of my baptism:
I first heard that famous and excellent preacher. Dr.
Burnet) author of the " History of the Reformation '^ on
Colossians iii. 10, with such flow of eloqence and fullness



1674-75 JOHN EVELYN 99

of matter, as showed him to be a person of extraordinary
parts.

Being her Majesty's birthday, the Court was exceeding
splendid in clothes and jewels, to the height of excess.

17th November, 1674. To Council, on the business of
Surinam, where the Dutch had detained some English in
prison, ever since the first war, 1665.

19th November, 1674. I heard that stupendous violin,
Signor Nicholao (with other rare musicians), whom I never
heard mortal man exceed on that instrument. He had a
stroke so sweet, and made it speak like the voice of a
man, and, when he pleased, like a concert of several
instruments. He did wonders upon a note, and was an
excellent composer. Here was also that rare lutanist. Dr.
Wallgrave ; but nothing approached the violin in Nicholao's
hand. He played such ravishing things as astonished us all.

2d December, 1674. At Mr. Slingsby's, master of the
mint, my worthy friend, a great lover of music. Heard
Signor Francisco on the harpsichord, esteemed one of the
most excellent masters in Europe on that instrument;
then, came Nicholao with his violin, and struck all mute,
but Mrs. Knight, who sung incomparably, and doubtless
has the greatest reach of any English woman; she had
been lately roaming in Italy, and was much improved in
that quality.

15th December, 1674. Saw a comedy at night, at
Court, acted by the ladies only, among them Lady Mary
and Ann, his Royal Highness' two daughters, and my
dear friend Mrs. Blagg, who, having the principal part,
performed it to admiration. They were all covered with
jewels.

2 2d December, 1674. Was at the repetition of the
** Pastoral, * on which occasion Mrs. Blagg had about her
near ^1^20, 000 worth of jewels, of which she lost one
worth about jC8o, borrowed of the Countess of Suffolk.
The press was so great, that it is a wonder she lost no
more. The Duke made it good.

20th January, 1674-75. Went to see Mr. Streeter,
that excellent painter of perspective and landscape,
to comfort and encourage him to be cut for the stone,
with which that honest man was exceedingly afflicted.

2 2d March, 1675. Supped at Sir William Petty *s, with
the Bishop of Salisbury, and divers honorable persons.



loo DIARY OF LONDON

We had a noble entertainment in a house gloriously-
furnished ; the master and mistress of it were extraor-
dinary persons. Sir William was the son of a mean
man somewhere in Sussex, and sent from school to Ox-
ford, where he studied Philosophy, but was most eminent
in Mathematics and Mechanics; proceeded Doctor of
Physic, and was grown famous, as for his learning so
for his recovering a poor wench that had been hanged
for felony; and her body having been begged (as the
custom is) for the anatomy lecture, he bled her, put
her to bed to a warm woman, and, with spirits and
other means, restored her to life. The young scholars
joined and made a little portion, and married her to a
man who had several children by her, she living fifteen
years after, as I have been assured. Sir William came
from Oxford to be tutor to a neighbor of mine; thence,
when the rebels were dividing their conquests in Ireland,
he was employed by them to measure and set out the
land, which he did on an easy contract, so much per
acre. This he effected so exactly, that it not only
furnished him with a great sum of money; but enabled
him to purchase an estate worth ;i^4,ooo a year. He
afterward married the daughter of Sir Hardress Waller;
she was an extraordinary wit as well as beauty, and a
prudent woman.

Sir William, among other inventions, was author of
the double-bottomed ship, which perished, and he was
censured for rashness, being lost in the Bay of Biscay
in a storm, when, I think, fifteen other vessels miscar-
ried. This vessel was flat-bottomed, of exceeding use to
put into shallow ports, and ride over small depths of
water. It consisted of two distinct keels cramped together
with huge timbers, etc., so as that a violent stream ran
between; it bore a monstrous broad sail, and he still
persists that it is practicable, and of exceeding use; and
he has often told me he would adventure himself in such
another, could he procure sailors, and his Majesty's per-
mission to make a second Experiment; which name the
King gave the vessel at the launching.

The Map of Ireland made by Sir William Petty is be-
lieved to be the most exact that ever 5^et was made of
any country. He did promise to publish it; and I am
told it has cost him near ;j^i,ooo to have it engraved at



i675 JOHN EVELYN loi

Amsterdam, There is not a better Latin poet living, when
he gives himself that diversion ; nor is his excellence less
in Council and prudent matters of state ; but he is so
exceedingly nice in sifting and examining all possible
contingencies, that he adventures at nothing which is
not demonstration. There was not in the whole world
his equal for a superintendent of manufacture and im-
provement of trade, or to govern a plantation. If I were
a Prince, I should make him my second Counsellor, at
least. There is nothing difficult to him. He is, besides,
courageous; on which account, I cannot but note a true
story of him, that when Sir Aleyn Brodrick sent him a
challenge upon a difference between them in Ireland,
Sir William, though exceedingly purblind, accepted the
challenge, and it being his part to propound the weapon,
desired his antagonist to meet him with a hatchet, or
axe, in a dark cellar; which the other, of course, re-
fused.

Sir William was, with all this, facetious and of easy
conversation, friendly and courteous, and had such a
faculty of imitating others, that he would take a text
and preach, now like a grave orthodox divine, then fall-
ing into the Presbyterian way, then to the fanatical, the
Quaker, the monk and friar, the Popish priest, with such
admirable action, and alteration of voice and tone, as it
was not possible to abstain from wonder, and one would
swear to hear several persons, or forbear to think he
was not in good earnest an enthusiast and almost beside
himself; then, he would fall out of it into a serious dis-
course; but it was very rarely he would be prevailed on
to oblige the company with this faculty, and that only
among most intimate friends. My Lord Duke of Ormond
once obtained it of him, and was almost ravished with
admiration; but by and by, he fell upon a serious repri-
mand of the faults and miscarriages of some Princes and
Governors, which, though he named none, did so sensi-
bly touch the Duke, who was then Lieutenant of Ireland,
that he began to be very uneasy, and wished the spirit
laid which he had raised, for he was neither able to
endure such truths, nor could he but be delighted. At
last, he melted his discourse to a ridiculous subject, and
came down from the joint stool on which he had stood ; but
my lord would not have him preach any more. He never



I02 DIARY OF LONDON

could get favor at Court, because he outwitted all the
projectors that came near him. Having never known
such another genius, I cannot but mention these partic-
ulars, among a multitude of others which 1 could produce.
When I, who knew him in mean circumstances, have
been in his splendid palace, he would himself be in
admiration how he arrived at it; nor was it his value or
inclination for splendid furniture and the curiosities
of the age, but his elegant lady could endure nothing
mean, or that was not magnificent. He was very negli-
gent himself, and rather so of his person, and of a phil-
osophic temper. "What a to-do is here!^* would he say,
* I can lie in straw with as much satisfaction. ^^

He is author of the ingenious deductions from the
bills of mortality, which go under the name of Mr.
Graunt; also of that useful discourse of the manufacture
of wool, and several others in the register of the Royal
Society. He was also author of that paraphrase on the
104th Psalm in Latin verse, which goes about in MS.,
and is inimitable. In a word, there is nothing impene-
trable to him.

26th March, 1675. Dr. Bridcoak was elected Bishop of
Chichester, on the translation of Dr. Gunning to Ely.

30th March, 1675. Dr. Allestree preached on Romans,
vi. 3, the necessity of those who are baptized to die to
sin ; a very excellent discourse from an excellent preacher.

25th April, 1675. Dr. Barrow, that excellent, pious,
and most learned man, divine, mathematician, poet,
traveler, and most humble person, preached at Whitehall
to the household, on Luke, xx. 27, of love and charity
to our neighbors.

29th April, 1675. I read my first discourse, ** Of Earth
and Vegetation,** before the Royal Society as a lecture
in course, after Sir Robert Southwell had read his, the
week before , " On Water. * I was commanded by our
President and the suffrage of the Society, to print it.

1 6th May, 1675. This day was my dear friend, Mrs.
Blagg, married at the Temple Church to my friend, Mr.
Sidney Godolphin, Groom of the Bedchamber to his
Majesty.

1 8th May, 1675. I went to visit one Mr. Bathurst, a
Spanish merchant, my neighbor.

31st May, 1675. I went with Lord Ossory to Dept-



i67S JOHN EVELYN 103

ford, where we chose him Master of the Trinity Com-
pany.

2d June, 1675. I was at a conference of the Lords
and Commons in the Painted Chamber, on a difference
about imprisoning some of their members; and on the
3d, at another conference, when the Lords accused the
Commons for their transcendent misbehavior, breach of
privilege, Magna Charta, subversion of government, and
other high, provoking, and diminishing expressions, show-
ing what duties and subjection they owed to the Lords
in Parliament, by record of Henry IV. This was likely
to create a notable disturbance.

15th June, 1675. This afternoon came Monsieur Quer-
ouaille and his lady, parents to the famous beauty and
. . . favorite at Court, to see Sir R. Browne, with
whom they were intimately acquainted in Bretagne, at
the time Sir Richard was sent to Brest to supervise his
Majesty's sea affairs, during the latter part of the King's
banishment. This gentleman's house was not a mile
from Brest; Sir Richard made an acquaintance there,
and, being used very civilly, was obliged to return it
here, which we did. He seemed a soldierly person and
a good fellow, as the Bretons generally are; his lady had
been very handsome, and seemed a shrewd understanding
woman. Conversing with him in our garden, I found
several words of the Breton language the same with our
Welsh. His daughter was now made Duchess of Ports-
mouth, and in the height of favor; but he never made
any use of it.

27th June, 1675. At Ely House, I went to the conse-
cration of my worthy friend, the learned Dr. Barlow,
Warden of Queen's College, Oxford, now made Bishop
of Lincoln. After it succeeded a magnificent feast,
where were the Duke of Ormond, Earl of Lauderdale,
the Lord Treasurer, Lord Keeper, etc.

8th July, 1675. I went with Mrs. Howard and her
two daughters toward Northampton Assizes, about a trial
at law, in which I was concerned for them as a trustee.
We lay this night at Henley-on-the Thames, at our
attorney, Mr. Stephens's, who entertained us very hand-
somely. Next day, dining at Shotover, at Sir Timothy
Tyrill's, a sweet place, we lay at Oxford, where it was
the time of the Act. Mr. Robert Spencer, uncle to the



104 DIARY OF London

Earl of Sunderland, and my old acquaintance in France,
entertained us at his apartment in Christ Church with
exceeding generosity.

loth July, 1675. The Vice Chancellor Dr Bathurst
(who had formerly taken particular caie of my son),
President of Trinity College, invited me to dinner, and
did me great honor all the time of my stay. The
next day, he invited me and all my company, though
strangers to him. to a very noble feast. I was at all the
academic exercises. — Sunday, at St. Mary's, preached a
Fellow of Brasen-nose, not a little magnifying the dignity
of Churchmen.

nth July, 1675. We heard the speeches, and saw the
ceremony of creating doctors in Divinity, Law and
Physic. I had, early in the morning, heard Dr. Morison,
Botanic Professor, read on divers plants in the Physic
Garden ; and saw that rare collection of natural curiosities
of Dr. Plot's, of Magdalen Hall, author of « The Natural
History of Oxfordshire,^^ all of them collected in that
shire, and indeed extraordinary, that in one county there
should be found such variety of plants, shells, stones,
minerals, marcasites, fowls, insects, models of works,
crystals, agates, and marbles. He was now intending to
visit Staffordshire, and, as he had of Oxfordshire, to give
us the natural, topical, political, and mechanical history.
.Pity it is that more of this industrious man's genius
were not employed so to describe every county of Eng-
land; it would be one of the most useful and illustrious
works that was ever produced in any age or nation.

I visited also the Bodleian Library and my old friend,
the learned Obadiah Walker, head of University College,
which he had now almost rebuilt, or repaired. We then
proceeded to Northampton, where we arrived the next
day.

In this journey, went part of the way Mr. James Gra-
ham (since Privy Purse to the Duke), a young gentleman
exceedingly in love with Mrs. Dorothy Howard, one of the
maids of honor in our company. I could not but pity
them both, the mother not much favoring it. This lady
was not only a great beauty, but a most virtuous and
excellent creature, and worthy to have been wife to the
best of men. My advice was required, and I spoke to
the advantage of the young gentleman, more out of pity



i675 JOHN EVELYN 105

than that she deserved no better match; for, though he
was a gentleman of good family, yet there was great in-
equality.

14th July, 1675 I went to see my Lord Sunderland's
Seat at Althorpe, four miles from the ragged town of
Northampton (since burned, and well rebuilt). It is
placed in a pretty open bottom, very finely watered and
flanked with stately woods and groves in a park, with a
canal, but the water is not running, which is a defect.
The house, a kind of modern building, of freestone,
within most nobly furnished; the apartments very com-
modious, a gallery and noble hall ; but the kitchen being
in the body of the house, and chapel too small, were de-
fects. There is an old yet honorable gatehouse standing
awry, and out-housing mean, but designed to be taken
away. It was moated round, after the old manner, but
it is now dry, and turfed with a beautiful carpet. Above
all, are admirable and magnificent the several ample gar-
dens furnished with the choicest fruit, and exquisitely
kept. Great plenty of oranges, and other curiosities.
The park full of fowl, especially herons, and from it a
prospect to Holmby House, which being demolished in
the late civil wars, shows like a Roman ruin shaded by
the trees about it, a stately, solemn, and pleasing view.

15th July, 1675. Our cause was pleaded in behalf of
the mother, Mrs. Howard and her daughters, before Baron
Thurland, who had formerly been steward of Courts for
me; we carried our cause, as there was reason, for here
was an impudent as well as disobedient son against his
mother, by instigation, doubtless, of his wife, one Mrs.
Ogle (an ancient maid), whom he had clandestinely
married, and who brought him no fortune, he being heir-
apparent to the Earl of Berkshire. We lay at Brickhill,
in Bedfordshire, and came late the next day to our jour-
ney's end.

This was a journey of adventures and knight-errantry.
One of the lady's servants being as desperately in love
with Mrs. Howard's woman, as Mr. Graham was with
her daughter, and she riding on horseback behind his
rival, the amorous and jealous youth having a little drink
in his pate, had here killed himself had he not been pre-
vented; for, alighting from his horse, and drawing his
sword, he endeavored twice or thrice to fall on it, but



io6 DIARY OF London

was interrupted by our coachman, and a stranger passing
by. After this, running to his rival, and snatching his
sword from his side (for we had beaten his own out of
his hand), and on the sudden pulling down his mistress,
would have run both of them through; we parted them,
not without some blood. This miserable creature poi-
soned himself for her not many days after they came to
London

19th July, 1675. The Lord Treasurer's Chaplain
preached at Wallingford House.

9th August, 1675. Dr. Sprat, prebend of Westminster,
and Chaplain to the Duke of Buckingham, preached on
the 3d Epistle of Jude, showing what the primitive faith
was, how near it and how excellent that of the Church
of England, also the danger of departing from it.

27th August, 1675. I visited the Bishop of Rochester,
at Bromley, and dined at Sir Philip Warwick's, at Frog-
poole [Frognall].

2d September, 1675. ^ went to see Dulwich College,
being the pious foundation of one Alleyn, a famous
comedian, in King James's time. The chapel is pretty,
the rest of the hospital very ill contrived; it yet main-
tains divers poor of both sexes. It is in a melancholy
part of Camberwell parish. I came back by certain me-
dicinal Spa waters, at a place called Sydenham Wells, in
Lewisham parish, much frequented in summer,

loth September, 1675. I was casually shown the
Duchess of Portsmouth's splendid apartment at White-
hall, luxuriously furnished, and with ten times the rich-
ness and glory beyond the Queen's; such massy pieces of
plate, whole tables, and stands of incredible value,

29th September, 1675. I saw the Italian Scaramuccio
act before the King at Whitehall, people giving money
to come in, which was very scandalous, and never so be-
fore at Court diversions. Having seen him act before in
Italy, many years past, I was not averse from seeing the
most excellent of that kind of folly.

14th October, 1675. Dined at Kensington with my old
acquaintance, Mr. Henshaw, newly returned from Den-
mark, where he had been left resident after the death
of the Duke of Richmond, who died there Ambassador.

15th October, 1675. I got an extreme cold, such as was
afterward so epidemical, as not only to afflict us in this



i675 JOHN EVELYN 107

island, but was rife over all Europe, like a plague. It
was after an exceedingly dry summer and autumn.

I settled affairs, my son being to go into France with
my Lord Berkeley, designed Ambassador-extraordinary
for France and Plenipotentiary for the general treaty of
peace at Nimeguen.

24th October, 1675. Dined at Lord Chamberlain's
with the Holland Ambassador L. Duras, a valiant gentel-
man whom his Majesty made an English Baron, of a cadet,
and gave him his seat of Holmby, in Northamptonshire.

27th October, 1675. Lord Berkeley coming into Coun-
cil, fell down in the gallery at Whitehall, in a fit of
apoplexy, and being carried into my Lord Chamberlain's
lodgings, several famous doctors were employed all that
night, and with much ado he was at last recovered to
some sense, by applying hot fire pans and spirit of amber
to his head; but nothing was found so effectual as cup-
ping him on the shoulders. It was almost a miraculous
restoration. The next day he was carried to Berkeley
House. This stopped his journey for the present, and
caused my stay in town. He had put all his affairs and
his whole estate in England into my hands during his
intended absence, which though I was very unfit to
undertake, in regard of many businesses which then took
me up, yet, upon the great importunity of my lady and
Mr. Godolphin (to whom I could refuse nothing) I did
take it on me. It seems when he was Deputy in Ireland,
not long before, he had been much wronged by one he
left in trust with his affairs, and therefore wished for
some unmercenary friend who would take that trouble
on him; this was to receive his rents, look after his
houses and tenants, solicit supplies from the Lord Treas-
urer, and correspond weekly with him, more than enough
to employ any drudge in England; but what will not
friendship and love make one do ?

31st October, 1675. Dined at my Lord Chamberlain's,
with my son. There were the learned Isaac Vossius,
and Spanhemius, son of the famous man of Heidelberg;
nor was this gentleman less learned, being a general
scholar. Among other pieces, he was author of an excel-
lent treatise on Medals.

loth November, 1675. Being the day appointed for
my Lord Ambassador to set out, I met them with my



io8 DIARY OF dover

coach at New Cross. There were with him my Lady
his wife, and my dear friend, Mrs. Godolphin, who,
out of an extraordinary friendship, would needs accom-
pany my lady to Paris, and stay with her some time,
which was the chief inducement for permitting my son
to travel, but I knew him safe under her inspection, and
in regard my Lord himself had promised to take him
into his special favor he having intrusted all he had to
my care.

Thus we set out three coaches (besides mine), three
wagons, and about forty horses. It being late, and my
Lord as yet but valetudinary, we got but to Dartford,
the first day, the next to Sittingbourne.

At Rochester, the major, Mr. Cony, then an officer of
mine for the sick and wounded of that place, gave the
ladies a handsome refreshment as we came by his house.

12th November, 1675. We came to Canterbury: and,
next morning, to Dover.

There was in mj^ Lady Ambassadress's company my
Lady Hamilton, a sprightly young lady, much in the
good graces of the family, wife of that valiant and worthy
gentleman, George Hamilton, not long after slain in
the wars. She had been a maid of honor to the Duchess,



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