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mark, in a battle against the Swedes, when both these
Kings were engaged very smartly,

28th July, 1683. He was married to the Lady Anne
at Whitehall. Her Court and household to be modeled
as the Duke's, her father, had been, and they to con-
tinue in England.

ist August, 1683. Came to see me Mr. Flamsted, the
famous astronomer, from his Observatory at Greenwich, to
draw the meridian from my pendule, etc.

2d August, 1683. The Countesses of Bristol and Sunder-
land, aunt and cousin-german of the late Lord Russell,
came to visit me, and condole his sad fate. The next day,
came Colonel Russell, uncle to the late Lord Russell, and
brother to the Earl of Bedford, and with him Mrs. Mid-
dleton, that famous and indeed incomparable beauty,
daughter to my relation, Sir Robert Needham.

19th August, 1683. I went to Bromley to visit our
Bishop, and excellent neighbor, and to congratulate his
now being made Archbishop of York. On the 28th, he
came to take his leave of us, now preparing for his jour-
ney and residence in his province.

28th August, 1683. My sweet little grandchild, Martha
Maria, died, and on the 29th was buried in the parish

2d September, 1683. This morning, was read in the
church, after the office was done, the Declaration setting
forth the late conspiracy against the King's person.

3d September, 1683. I went to see what had been
done by the Duke of Beaufort on his lately purchased
house at Chelsea, which I once had the selling of for the
Countess of Bristol, he had made great alterations, but
might have built a better house with the materials and
the cost he had been at.

Saw the Countess of Monte Feltre, whose husband I had
formerly known , he was a subject of the Pope's, but be-
coming a Protestant he resided in England, and married

i683 JOHN EVELYN 185

into the family of the Savilles, of Yorkshire. The Count,
her late husband, was a very learned gentleman, a great
politician, and a goodly man. She was accompanied by
her sister, exceedingly skilled in painting, nor did they
spare for color on their own faces. They had a great
deal of wit.

9th September, 1683. It being the day of public thanks-
giving for his Majesty's late preservation, the former
Declaration was again read, and there was an office used,
composed for the occasion. A loyal sermon was preached
on the divine right of Kings, from Psalm cxliv. 10.
" Thou hast preserved David from the peril of the sword.**

15th September, 1683. Came to visit me the learned
anatomist, Dr. Tyson,* with some other Fellows of our

1 6th September, 1683. At the elegant villa and gar-
den of Mr. Bohun, at Lee. He showed me the zinnar
tree, or platanus, and told me that since they had
planted this kind of tree about the city of Ispahan, in
Persia, the plague, which formerly much infested the
place, had exceedingly abated of its mortal effects, and
rendered it very healthy.

1 8th September, 1683. I went to London to visit the
Duchess of Grafton, now great with child, a most vir-
tuous and beautiful lady. Dining with her at my Lord
Chamberlain's, met my Lord of St. Alban's, now grown
so blind, that he could not see to take his meat. He has
lived a most easy life, in plenty even abroad, while his
Majesty was a sufferer; he has lost immense sums at play,
which yet, at about eighty years old, he continues, hav-
ing one that sits by him to name the spots on the cards.
He ate and drank with extraordinary appetite. He is a
prudent old courtier, and much enriched since his Maj-
esty's return.

After dinner, I walked to survey the sad demolition of
Clarendon House, that costly and only sumptuous palace

* Doctor Edward Tyson, a learned physician, born at Clevedon, Som-
ersetshire, in 1649, who became reader of the anatomical lecture in
Surgeons' Hall, and physician to the hospitals of Bethlehem and Bride-
well, which offices he held at his death, Aug. i, 1708. He was an in-
genious writer, and has left various Essays in the Philosophical Trans-
actions and Hook's Collections. He published also « The Anatomy of a
Porpoise Dissected at Gresham College,'' and «The Anatomy of a Pig-
my Compared with a Monkey, an Ape, and a Man,*' 4to., 1698-99.


of the late Lord Chancellor Hyde, where I have often
been so cheerful with him, and sometimes so sad; hap-
pening to make him a visit but the day before he fled
from the angry Parliament, accusing him of maladminis-
tration, and being envious at his grandeur, who from a
private lawyer came to be father-in-law to the Duke of
York, and as some would suggest, designing his Majesty's
marriage with the Infanta of Portugal, not apt to breed.
To this they imputed much of our unhappiness; and that
he, being sole minister and favorite at his Majesty's
restoration, neglected to gratify the King's suffering
party, preferring those who were the cause of our troubles.
But perhaps as many of these things were injuriously
laid to his charge, so he kept the government far steadier
than it has proved since. I could name some who I
think contributed greatly to his ruin, — the buffoons and
the MISSIS, to whom he was an eye-sore. It is true he
was of a jolly temper, after the old English fashion; but
France had now the ascendant, and we were become
quite another nation. The Chancellor gone, and dying
in exile, the Earl his successor sold that which cost
_;;^5o,ooo building, to the young Duke of Albemarle for
^25,000, to pay debts which how contracted remains yet
a mystery, his son being no way a prodigal. Some
imagine the Duchess his daughter had been chargeable
to him. However it were, this stately palace is decreed
to ruin, to support the prodigious waste the Duke of
Albemarle had made of his estate, since the old man died.
He sold it to the highest bidder, and it fell to certain
rich bankers and mechanics, who gave for it and the
ground about it, ;!^35,ooo; they design a new town, as it
were, and a most magnificent piazza [square]. It is said
they have already materials toward it with what they
sold of the house alone, more worth than what they paid
for it. See the vicissitudes of earthly things! I was
astonished at this demolition, nor less at the little army
of laborers and artificers leveling the ground, laying
foundations, and contriving great buildings at an expense
of _;!r2oo,ooo, if they perfect their design.

19th September, 1683. In my walks I stepped into a
goldbeater's workhouse, where he showed me the won-
derful ductility of that spreading and oily metal. He
said it must be finer than the standard, such as was

i683 JOHN EVELYN 187

old angel-gold, and that of such he had once to the value
of ^100 stamped with the agnus dei, and coined at the
time of the holy war; which had been found in a ruined
wall somewhere in the North, near to Scotland, some of
which he beat into leaves, and the rest sold to the curi-
osi in antiquities and medals.

23d September, 1683. We had now the welcome tidings
of the King of Poland raising the siege of Vienna, which
had given terror to all Europe, and utmost reproach to
the French, who it is believed brought in the Turks for
diversion, that the French King might the more easily
swallow Flanders, and pursue his unjust conquest on
the empire, while we sat unconcerned and under a deadly
charm from somebody.

There was this day a collection for rebuilding New-
market, consumed by an accidental fire, which removing
his Majesty thence sooner than was intended, put by the
assassins, who were disappointed of their rendezvous and
expectation by a wonderful providence. This made the
King more earnest to render Winchester the seat of his
autumnal field diversions for the future, designing a pal-
ace there, where the ancient castle stood; infinitely in-
deed preferable to Newmarket for prospects, air, pleasure,
and provisions. The surveyor has already begun the
foundation for a palace, estimated to cost ^35,000, and
his Majesty is purchasing ground about it to make a
park, etc.

4th October, 1683. I went to London, on receiving a
note from the Countess of Arlington, of some considera-
ble charge or advantage I might obtain by applying my-
self to his Majesty on this signal conjuncture of his
Majesty entering up judgment against the city charter;
the proposal made me I wholly declined, not being well
satisfied with these violent transactions, and not a little
sorry that his Majesty was so often put upon things of
this nature against so great a city, the consequence
whereof may be so much to his prejudice; so I returned
home. At this time, the Lord Chief-Justice Pemberton
was displaced. He was held to be the mo.st learned of
the judges, and an honest man. Sir George Jeffreys was
advanced, reputed to be most ignorant, but most daring.
Sir George Treby, Recorder of London, was also put by,
and one Genner, an obscure lawyer, set in his place.

i88 DIARY OF London

Eight of the richest and chief aldermen were removed,
and all the rest made only justices of the peace, and no
more wearing of gowns, or chains of gold; the Lord
Mayor and two sheriffs holding their places by new grants
as custodes, at the King's pleasure. The pomp and
grandeur of the most august city in the world thus changed
face in a moment ; which gave great occasion of discourse
and thoughts of hearts, what all this would end in. Pru-
dent men were for the old foundations.

Following his Majesty this morning through the gal-
lery, I went with the few who attended him, into the
Duchess of Portmouth's dressing room within her bed-
chamber, where she was in her morning loose garment,
her maids combing her, newly out of her bed, his Majesty
and the gallants standing about her; but that which en-
gaged my curiosity, w^as the rich and splendid furniture
of this woman's apartment, now twice or thrice pulled
down and rebuilt to satisfy her prodigal and expensive
pleasures, while her Majesty's does not exceed some gen-
tlemen's ladies in furniture and accommodation. Here I
saw the new fabric of French tapestry, for design, ten-
derness of work, and incomparable imitation of the best
paintings, beyond anything I had ever beheld. Some
pieces had Versailles, St. Germains, and other palaces of
the French King, with huntings, figures, and landscapes,
exotic fowls, and all to the life rarely done. Then for
Japan cabinets, screens, pendule clocks, great vases of
wrought plate, tables, stands, chimney-furniture, sconces,
branches, braseras, etc., all of massy silver and out of
number, besides some of her Majesty's best paintings.

Surfeiting of this, I dined at Sir Stephen Fox's and
went contented home to my poor, but quiet villa. What
contentment can there be in the riches and splendor of
this world, purchased with vice and dishonor ?

loth October, 1683. Visited the Duchess of Grafton,
not yet brought to bed, and dining with my Lord Cham-
berlain (her father), went with them to see Montague
House, a palace lately built by Lord Montague, who had
married the most beautiful Countess of Northumberland.
It is a stately and ample palace. Signor VeiTio's fresco
paintings, especially the funeral pile of Dido, on the
staircase, the labors of Hercules, fight with the Centaurs,
his effeminacy with Dejanira, and Apotheosis or reception

i683 JOHN EVELYN 189

among- the gods, on the walls and roof of the great room
above, — I think exceeds anything he has yet done, both
for design, coloring, and exuberance of invention, com-
parable to the greatest of the old masters, or what they
so celebrate at Rome. In the rest of the chamber are
some excellent paintings of Holbein, and other masters.
The garden is large, and in good air, but the fronts of
the house not answerable to the inside. The court at
entry, and wings for offices seem too near the street, and
that so very narrow and meanly built, that the corridor
is not in proportion to the rest, to hide the court from
being overlooked by neighbors; all which might have
been prevented, had they placed the house further into
the ground, of which there was enough to spare. But
on the whole it is a fine palace, built after the French
pavilion- way, by Mr. Hooke, the Curator of the Royal
Society. There were with us my Lady Scroope, the
great wit, and Monsieur Chardine, the celebrated trav-

13th October, 1683. Came to visit me my old and
worthy friend, Mr. Packer, bringing with him his nephew
Berkeley, grandson to the honest judge. A most ingenious,
virtuous, and religious gentleman, seated near Worcester,
and very curious in gardening.

17th October, 1683. I was at the court-leet of this manor,
my Lord Arlington his Majesty's High Steward.

26th October, 1683. Came to visit and dine with me,
Mr. Brisbane, Secretary to the Admiralty, a learned and
agreeable man.

30th October, 1683. I went to Kew to visit Sir Henry
Capell, brother to the late Earl of Essex; but he being
gone to Cashiobury, after I had seen his garden and the
alterations therein, I returned home. He had repaired his
house, roofed his hall with a kind of cupola, and in a niche
was an artificial fountain ; but the room seems to me over-
melancholy, yet might be much improved by having the
walls well painted d fresco. The two green houses for
oranges and myrtles, communicating with the rooms below,
are very well contrived. There is a cupola made with
pole-work between two elms at the end of a walk, which
being covered by plashing the trees to them, is very
pretty; for the rest there are too many fir trees in the


17th November, 1683. I took a house in Villiers Street,
York Buildings, for the winter, having many important con-
cerns to dispatch, and for the education of my daughters.

23d November, 1683. The Duke of Monmouth, till now
proclaimed traitor on the pretended plot for which Lord
Russell was lately beheaded, came this evening to White-
hall and rendered himself, on which were various dis-

26th November, 1683. I went to compliment the Duchess
of Grafton, now lying-in of her first child, a son, which
she called for, that I might see it. She was become more
beautiful, if it were possible, than before, and full of
virtue and sweetness. She discoursed with me of many
particulars, with great prudence and gravity beyond her

29th November, 1683. Mr. Forbes showed me the plot
of the garden making at Burleigh, at my Lord Exeter's,
which I looked on as one of the most noble that I had seen.

The whole court and town in solemn mourning for the
death of the King of Portugal, her Majesty's brother.

30th November, 1683. At the anniversary dinner of the
Royal Society the King sent us two does. Sir Cyril Wych
was elected President.

5th December, 1683. I was this day invited to a wed-
ding of one Mrs. Castle, to whom I had some obligation,
and it was to her fifth husband, a lieutenant-colonel of
the city. She was the daughter of one Burton, a broom-
man, by his wife, who sold kitchen stuff in Kent Street,
whom God so blessed that the father became a very rich,
and was a very honest man ; he was sheriff of Surrey, where
I have sat on the bench with him. Another of his
daughters was married to Sir John Bowles; and this
daughter was a jolly friendly woman. There was at the
wedding the Lord Mayor, the Sheriff, several Aldermen
and persons of quality; above all, Sir George Jeffreys,
newly made Lord Chief Justice of England, with Mr.
Justice Withings, danced with the bride, and were ex-
ceedingly merry. These great men spent the rest of the
afternoon, till eleven at night, in drinking healths, taking
tobacco, and talking much beneath the gravity of judges,
who had but a day or two before condemned Mr. Al-
gernon Sidney, who was executed the 7th on Tower Hill,
on the single witness of that monster of a man, Lord

i683 JOHN EVELYN 191

Howard of Escrick, and some sheets of paper taken in
Mr. Sidney's study, pretended to be written by him, but
not fully proved, nor the time when, but appearing to
have been written before his Majesty's Restoration, and
then pardoned by the Act of Oblivion; so that though
Mr. Sidney was known to be a person obstinately averse
to government by a monarch (the subject of the paper
was in answer to one by Sir E. Filmer), yet it was
thought he had very hard measure. There is this yet
observable, that he had been an inveterate enemy to
the last king, and in actual rebellion against him; a
man of great courage, great sense, great parts, which
he showed both at his trial and death ; for, when he came
on the scaffold, instead of a speech, he told them only
that he had made his peace with God, that he came not
thither to talk, but to die; put a paper into the sheriff's
hand, and another into a friend's; said one prayer as
short as a grace, laid down his neck, and bid the execu-
tioner do his office.

The Duke of Monmouth, now having his pardon, re-
fuses to acknowledge there was any treasonable plot ; for
which he is banished Whitehall. This is a great dis-
appointment to some who had prosecuted Trenchard,
Hampden, etc., that for want of a second witness were
come out of the Tower upon their habeas corpus.

The King had now augmented his guards with a new
sort of dragoons, who carried also grenades, and were
habited after the Polish manner, with long peaked caps,
very fierce and fantastical.

7th December, 1683. I went to the Tower, and visited
the Earl of Danby, the late Lord High Treasurer, who
had been imprisoned four years: he received me with
great kindness. I dined with him, and stayed till night.
We had discourse of many things, his Lady railing
sufficiently at the keeping her husband so long in prison.
Here I saluted the Lord Dumblaine's wife, who before
had been married to Emerton, and about whom there
was that scandalous business before the delegates.

23d December, 1683. The smallpox very prevalent and
mortal ; the Thames frozen.

26th December, 1683. I dined at Lord Clarendon's,
where I was to meet that ingenious and learned gentle-
man. Sir George Wheeler, who has published the excellent


description of Africa and Greece, and who, being a knight
of a very fair estate and young, had now newly entered
into holy orders.

27th December, 16S3. I went to visit Sir John Chardin,
a French gentleman, who traveled three times by land
into Persia, and had made many curious researches in his
travels, of which he was now setting forth a relation. It
being in England this year one of the severest frosts
that has happened of many years, he told me the cold in
Persia was much greater, the ice of an incredible thick-
ness ; that they had little use of iron in all that country,
it being so moist (though the air admirably clear and
healthy) that oil would not preserve it from rusting, so
that they had neither clocks nor watches; some padlocks
they had for doors and boxes.

30th December, 1683. Dr. Sprat, now made Dean of
Westminster, preached to the King at Whitehall, on Matt,
vi. 24. Recollecting the passages of the past year, I gave
God thanks for his mercies, praying his blessing for the

ist January, 1683-84. The weather continuing intoler-
ably severe, streets of booths were set up on the Thames ;
the air was so very cold and thick, as of many years there
had not been the like. The smallpox was very mortal.

2d January, 1684. I dined at Sir Stephen Fox's: after
dinner came a fellow who ate live charcoal, glowingly
ignited, quenching them in his mouth, and then champ-
ing and swallowing them down. There was a dog also
which seemed to do many rational actions.

6th January, 1684. The river quite frozen.

9th January, 1684. I went across the Thames on the
ice, now become so thick as to bear not only streets of
booths, in which they roasted meat, and had divers shops
of wares, quite across as in a town, but coaches, carts,
and horses passed over. So I went from Westminster
stairs to Lambeth, and dined with the Archbishop: where
I met my Lord Bruce, Sir George Wheeler, Colonel Cooke,
and several divines. After dinner and discourse with his
Grace till evening prayers. Sir George Wheeler and I
walked over the ice from Lambeth stairs to the Horse-

loth January, 1684. I visited Sir Robert Reading, where
after supper we had music, but not comparable to that

1683-84 JOHN EVELYN 193

which Mrs. Bridgeman made us on the guitar with such
extraordinary skill and dexterity.

1 6th January, 1684. The Thames was filled with peo-
ple and tents selling all sorts of wares as in the city.

24th January, 1684. The frost continues more and
more severe, the Thames before London was still planted
with booths in formal streets, all sorts of trades and
shops furnished, and full of commodities, even to a
printing press, where the people and ladies took a fancy
to have their names printed, and the day and year set
down when printed on the Thames: this humor took so
universally, that it was estimated that the printer gained
;^5 a day, for printing a line only, at sixpence a name,
besides what he got by ballads, etc. Coaches plied from
Westminster to the Temple, and from several other stairs
to and fro, as in the streets, sleds, sliding with skates,
a bull-baiting, horse and coach-races, puppet-plays and
interludes, cooks, tippling, and other lewd places, so that
it seemed to be a bacchanalian triumph, or carnival on
the water, while it was a severe judgment on the land,
the trees not only splitting as if the lightning struck, but
men and cattle perishing in divers places, and the very
seas so locked up with ice, that no vessels could stir out
or come in. The fowls, fish, and birds, and all our
exotic plants and greens, universally perishing. Many
parks of deer were destroyed, and all sorts of fuel so
dear, that there were great contributions to preserve the
poor alive. Nor was this severe weather much less in-
tense in most parts of Europe, even as far as Spain and
the most southern tracts. London, by reason of the ex-
cessive coldness of the air hindering the ascent of the
smoke, was so filled with the fuliginous steam of the
sea-coal, that hardly could one see across the street, and
this filling the lungs with its gross particles, exceedingly
obstructed the breast, so as one could scarcely breathe.
Here was no water to be had from the pipes and engines,
nor could the brewers and divers other tradesmen
work, and every moment was full of disastrous acci-

4th February, 1684. I went to Sayes Court to see how

the frost had dealt with my garden, where I found many

of the greens and rare plants utterly destroyed. The

oranges and myrtles very sick, the rosemary and laurels



dead to all appearance, but the cypress likely to en-
dure it.

5th February, 1684. It began to thaw, but froze again.
My coach crossed from Lambeth, to the Horse-ferry at
Milbank, Westminster. The booths were almost all taken
down ; but there was first a map or landscape cut in cop-
per representing all the manner of the camp, and the
several actions, sports, and pastimes thereon, in memory
of so signal a frost.

7th February, 1684. I dined with my Lord Keeper,
[North], and walking alone with him some time in his
gallery, we had discourse of music. He told me he had
been brought up to it from a child, so as to sing his
part at first sight. Then speaking of painting, of which
he was also a great lover, and other ingenious matters,
he desired me to come oftener to him.

8th February, 1684. I went this evening to visit that
great and knowing virtuoso. Monsieur Justell. The
weather was set in to an absolute thaw and rain; but
the Thames still frozen.

loth February, 1684. After eight weeks missing the
foreign posts, there came abundance of intelligence from

12th February, 1684. The Earl of Danby, late Lord-
Treasurer, together with the Roman Catholic Lords im-
peached of high treason in the Popish Plot, had now
their habeas corpus, and came out upon bail, after five
years' imprisonment in the Tower. Then were also tried
and deeply fined Mr. Hampden and others, for being
supposed of the late plot, for which Lord Russell and
Colonel Sidney suffered; as also the person who went
about to prove that the Earl of Essex had his throat
cut in the Tower by others; likewise Mr. Johnson, the
author of that famous piece called Julian.

15th February, 1684. News of the Prince of Orange
having accused the Deputies of Amsterdam of crimen
lessee MaJestatiSy and being pensioners to France.

Dr. Tenison communicated to me his intention of erect-
ing a library in St. Martin's parish, for the public use,
and desired my assistance, with Sir Christopher Wren,

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