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brother), but that he was of that persuasion: he bid him
follow him into his closet, where opening a cabinet, he
showed him two papers, containing about a quarter of a

1 685 JOHN EVELYN 237

sheet, on both sides written, in the late King's own
hand, several arguments opposite to the doctrine of the
Church of England, charging her with heresy, novelty,
and the fanaticism of other Protestants, the chief whereof
was, as I remember, our refusing to acknowledge the pri-
macy and infallibility of the Church of Rome ; how iinpos-
sible it was that so many ages should never dispute it, till
of late ; how unlikely our Savior would leave his Church
without a visible Head and guide to resort to, during his
absence; with the like usual topic; so well penned as to
the discourse as did by no means seem to me to have been
put together by the late King yet written all with his own
hand, blotted and interlined, so as, if indeed it was not given
him by some priest, they might be such arguments and
reasons as had been inculcated from time to time, and
here recollected; and, in the conclusion, showing his
looking on the Protestant religion (and by name the
Church of England) to be without foundation, and con-
sequently false and unsafe. When his Majesty had shown
him these originals, he was pleased to lend him the
copies of these two papers, attested at the bottom in four
or five lines under his own hand.

These were the papers I saw and read. This nice and
curious passage I thought fit to set down. Though all
the arguments and objections were altogether weak, and
have a thousand times been answered by our divines;
they are such as their priests insinuate among their prose-
lytes, as if nothing were Catholic but the Church of Rome,
no salvation out of that, no reformation sufferable, bot-
toming all their errors on St. Peter's successors' uner-
ring dictatorship, but proving nothing with any reason,
or taking notice of any objection which could be made
against it. Here all was taken for granted, and iipon it
a resolution and preference implied.

I was heartily sorry to see all this, though it was no
other than was to be suspected, by his late Majesty's too
great indifference, neglect, and course of life, that he had
been perverted, and for secular respects only professed
to be of another belief, and thereby giving great advan-
tage to our adversaries, both the Court and generally the
youth and great persons of the nation becoming dissolute and
highly profane. God was incensed to make his reign very
troublesome and unprosperous, by wars, plagues, fires,

238 DIARY OF London

loss of reputation by an universal neglect of the public
for the love of a voluptuous and sensual life, which a
vicious Court had brought into credit. I think of it with
sorrow and pity, when I consider how good and debonair
a nature that unhappy Prince was ; what opportunities he
had to have made himself the most renowned King that
ever swayed the British scepter, had he been firm to
that Church for which his martyred and blessed father
suffered ; and had he been grateful to Almighty God, who
so miraculously restored him, with so excellent a relig-
ion; had he endeavored to own and propagate it as he
should have done, not only for the good of his king-
dom, but of all the Reformed Churches in Christendom,
now weakened and near ruined through our remissness and
suffering them to be supplanted, persecuted, and destroyed,
as in France, which we took no notice of. The conse-
quence of this, time will show, and I wish it may pro-
ceed no further. The emissaries and instruments of the
Church of Rome will never rest till they have crushed
the Church of England, as knowing that alone to be able
to cope with them, and that they can never answer her
fairly, but lie abundantly open to the irresistible force
of her arguments, antiquity and purity of her doctrine,
so that albeit it may move God, for the punishment of a
nation so unworthy, to eclipse again the profession of
her here, and darkness and superstition prevail, I am
most confident the doctrine of the Church of England
will never be extinguished, but remain visible, if not
eminent, to the consummation of the world, I have in-
numerable reasons that confirm me in this opinion, which
I forbear to mention here.

In the meantime, as to the discourse of his Majesty
with Mr. Pepys, and those papers, as I do exceedingly
prefer his Majesty's free and ingenuous profession of what
his own religion is, beyond concealment upon any politic
accounts, so I think him of a most sincere and honest
nature, one on whose word one may rely, and that he
makes a conscience of what he promises, to perform it.
In this confidence, I hope that the Church of England
may yet subsist, and when it shall please God to open
his eyes and turn his heart (for that is peculiarly in the
Lord's hands ) to flourish also. In all events, whatever
does become of the Church of England, it is certainly, of

i685 JOHN EVELYN 239

all the Christian professions on the earth, the most
primitive, apostolical, and excellent.

8th October, 1685. I had my picture drawn this week
by the famous Kneller.

14th October, 1685. I went to London about finishing
my lodgings at Whitehall.

15th October, 1685. Being the King's birthday, there
was a solemn ball at Court, and before it music of in-
struments and voices. I happened by accident to stand
the very next to the Queen and the King, who talked
with me about the music.

1 8th October, 1685. The King was now building all
that range from east to west by the court and garden to
the street, and making a new chapel for the Queen,
whose lodgings were to be in this new building, as also
a new Council chamber and offices next the south end
of the banqueting house. I returned home, next morn-
ing, to London.

2 2d October, 1685. I accompanied my Lady Clarendon
to her house at Swallowfield, in Berks, dining by the
way at Mr. Graham's lodge at Bagshot; the house, newly
repaired and capacious enough for a good family, stands

in a park.

Hence, we went to Swallowfield; this house is after the
ancient building of honorable gentlemen's houses, when
they kept up ancient hospitality, but the gardens and
waters as elegant as it is possible to make a flat by
art and industry, and no mean expense, my lady being
so extraordinarily skilled in the flowery part, and my lord
in diligence of planting; so that I have hardly seen a
seat which shows more tokens of it than what is to be
found here, not only in the delicious and rarest fruits of
a garden, but in those innumerable timber trees in the
ground about the seat, to the greatest ornament and bene-
fit of the place. There is one orchard of 1,000 golden,
and other cider pippins ; walks and groves of elms, limes,
oaks, and other trees. The garden is so beset with all
manner of sweet shrubs, that it perfumes the air. The
distribution also of the quarters, walks, and parterres, is
excellent. The nurseries, kitchen-garden full of the most
desirable plants; two very noble orangeries well furnished:
but, above all, the canal and fish ponds, the one fed with
a white, the other with a black running water, fed by a

240 DIARY OF London

quick and swift river, so well and plentifully stored with
fish, that for pike, carp, bream, and tench, I never saw
anything approaching it. We had at every meal carp
and pike of a size fit for the table of a Prince, and what
added to the delight was, to see the hundreds taken by
the drag, out of which, the cook standing by, we pointed
out what we had most mind to, and had carp that would
have been worth at London twenty shillings a piece.
The w^aters are flagged about with Calamus aromaticus,
with which my lady has hung a closet, that retains the
smell very perfectly. There is also a certain sweet wil-
low and other exotics: also a very fine bowling-green,
meadow, pasture, and wood; in a word, all that can
render a country seat delightful. There is besides a well-
furnished library in the house.

26th October, 1685. We returned to London, having
been treated with all sorts of cheer and noble freedom
by that most religious and virtuous lady. She was now
preparing to go for Ireland with her husband, made
Lord Deputy, and went to this country house and ancient
seat of her father and family, to set things in order
during her absence; but never were good people and
neighbors more concerned than all the country (the poor
especially) for the departure of this charitable woman;
everyone was in tears, and she as unwilling to part
from them. There was among them a maiden of primi-
tive life, the daughter of a poor laboring man, who
had sustained her parents (some time since dead) by
her labor, and has for many years refused marriage, or
to receive any assistance from the parish, besides the
little hermitage my lady gives her rent-free ; she lives on
four pence a day, which she gets by spinning; says she
abounds and can give alms to others, living in great
humility and content, without any apparent affectation,
or singularity; she is continually working, praying, or
reading, gives a good account of her knowledge in reli-
gion, visits the sick ; is not in the least given to talk ; very
modest, of a simple not unseemingly behavior; of a
comely countenance, clad very plain, but clean and tight.
In sum, she appears a saint of an extraordinary sort, in
so religious a life, as is seldom met with in villages now-

27th October, 1685. I was invited to dine at Sir Stephen

1 68 5 JOHN EVELYN 241

Fox's with my Lord Lieutenant, where was such a dinner
for variety of all things as I had seldom seen, and it
was so for the trial of a master-cook whom Sir Stephen
had recommended to go with his Lordship into Ireland;
there were all the dainties not only of the season, but
of what art could add, venison, plain solid meat, fowl,
baked and boiled meats, banquet [dessert], in exceeding
plenty, and exquisitely dressed. There also dined my
Lord Ossory and Lady (the Duke of Beaufort's daughter),
my Lady Treasurer, Lord Cornbury, and other visitors.

28th October, 1685. At the Royal Society, an urn full
of bones was presented, dug up in a highway, while re-
pairing it, in a field in Camberwell, in Surrey; it was
found entire with its cover, among many others, believed
to be truly Roman and ancient.

Sir Richard Bulkeley described to us a model of a
chariot he had invented, which it was not possible to
overthrow in whatever uneven way it was drawn, giving
us a wonderful relation of what it had performed in that
kind, for ease, expedition, and safety; there were some
inconveniences yet to be remedied — it would not contain
more than one person; was ready to take fire every ten
miles; and being placed and playing on no fewer than
ten rollers, it made a most prodigious noise, almost in-
tolerable. A remedy was to be sought for these incon-

31st October, 1685. I dined at our great Lord Chan-
cellor Jefferies", who used me with much respect. This
was the late Chief-Justice who had newly been the West-
ern Circuit to try the Monmouth conspirators, and had
formerly done such severe justice among the obnoxious
in Westminster Hall, for which his Majesty dignified
him by creating him first a Baron, and now Lord Chan-
cellor. He had some years past been conversant in
Deptf ord ; is of an assured and undaunted spirit, and has
served the Court interest on all the hardiest occasions; is
of nature cruel, and a slave of the Court.

3d November, 1685. The French persecution of the
Protestants raging with the utmost barbarity, exceeded
even what the very heathens used: innumerable persons
of the greatest birth and riches leaving all their earthly
substance, and hardly escaping with their lives, dispersed
through all the countries of Europe. The French tyrant


abrogated the Edict of Nantes which had been made in
favor of them, and without any cause; on a sudden
demolishing all their churches, banishing, imprisoning,
and sending to the galleys all the ministers; plundering
the common people, and exposing them to all sorts of
barbarous usage by soldiers sent to ruin and prey on
them; taking away their children; forcing people to the
Mass, and then executing them as relapsers; they burnt
their libraries, pillaged their goods, ate up their fields
and substance, banished or sent the people to the galleys,
and seized on their estates. There had now been num-
bered to pass through Geneva only (and that by stealth,
for all the usual passages were strictly guarded by sea
and land) 40,000 toward Switzerland. In Holland, Den-
mark, and all about Gerraany, were dispersed some hun-
dred thousands; besides those in England, where, though
multitudes of all degree sought for shelter and welcome
as distressed Christians and confessors, they found least
encouragement, by a fatality of the times we were fallen
into, and the uncharitable indifference of such as should
have embraced them; and I prey it be not laid to our
charge. The famous Claude fled to Holland; AUix and
several more came to London, and persons of great
estates came over, who had forsaken all. France was
almost dispeopled, the bankers so broken, that the tyrant's
revenue was exceedingly diminished, manufactures
ceased, and everybody there, save the Jesuits, abhorred
what was done, nor did the Papists themselves approve
it. What the further intention is, time will show; but
doubtless portending some revolution.

I was shown the harangue which the Bishop of Va-
lentia on Rhone made in the name of the Clergy, cele-
brating the French King, as if he was a God, for
persecuting the poor Protestants, with this expression in
it, **• That as his victory over heresy was greater than all
the conquests of Alexander and Caesar, it was but what
was wished in England; and that God seemed to raise
the French King to this power and magnanimous action,
that he might be in capacity to assist in doing the same
here.* This paragraph is very bold and remarkable;
several reflecting on Archbishop Usher's prophecy as now
begun in France, and approaching the orthodox in all
other reformed churches. One thing was much taken

i685 JOHN EVELYN 243

notice of, that the ^* Gazettes *' which^ were still constantly
printed twice a week, informing us what was done all
over Europe, never spoke of this wonderful proceeding
in France; nor was any relation of it published by any,
save what private letters and the persecuted fugitives
brought. Whence this silence, I list not to conjecture;
but it appeared very extraordinary in a Protestant coun-
try that we should know nothing of what Protestants
suffered, while great collections were made for them in
foreign places, more hospitable and Christian to appearance.

5th November, 1685. It being an extraordinarily wet
morning, and myself indisposed by a very great rheum,
I did not go to church, to my very great sorrow, it being
the first Gunpowder Conspiracy anniversary that had been
kept now these eighty years under a prince of the Ro-
man religion. Bonfires were forbidden on this day; what
does this portend!

9th November, 1685. Began the Parliament. The King
in his speech required continuance of a standing force
instead of a militia, and indemnity and dispensation to
Popish officers from the Test; demands very unexpected
and unpleasing to the Commons. He also required a
supply of revenue, which they granted; but returned no
thanks to the King for his speech, till farther considera-

12th November, 1685. The Commons postponed finish-
ing the bill for the Supply, to consider the Test, and
Popish officers; this was carried but by one voice.

14th November, 1685. I dined at Lambeth, my Lord
Archbishop carrying me with him in his barge; there
were my Lord Deputy of Ireland, the Bishops of Ely
and St. Asaph, Dr. Sherlock, and other divines; Sir Will-
iam Hayward, Sir Paul Rycaut, etc.

20th November, 1685. The Parliament was adjourned
to February, several both of Lords and Commons ex-
cepting against some passage of his Majesty's speech re-
lating to the Test, and continuance of Popish officers in
command. This was a great surprise in a Parliament
which people believed would have complied in all things.

Popish pamphlets and pictures sold publicly; no books
nor answers to them appearing till long after.

2ist November, 1685. I resigned my trust for com-
posing a difference between Mr. Thynn and his wife.

244 DIARY OF Greenwich

22d November, 1685. Hitherto was a very wet, warm

4th December, 1685. Lord Sunderland was declared
President of the Council, and yet to hold his Secretary's
place. The forces disposed into several quarters through
the kingdom are very insolent, on which are great com-

Lord Brandon, tried for the late conspiracy, was con-
demned and pardoned; so was Lord Grey, his accuser
and witness.

Persecution in France raging, the French insolently
visit our vessels, and take away the fugitive Protestants;
some escape in barrels,

loth December, 1685. *To Greenwich, being put into
the new Commission of Sewers.

13th December, 1685. Dr. Patrick, Dean of Peterbor-
ough, preached at Whitehall, before the Princess of Den-
mark, who, since his Majesty came to the Crown,
always sat in the King's closet, and had the same
bowings and ceremonies applied to the place where
she was, as his Majesty had when there in person.

Dining at Mr. Pepys's, Dr. Slayer showed us an ex-
periment of a wonderful nature, pouring first a very cold
liquor into a glass, and superfusing on it another, to ap-
pearance cold and clear liquor also; it first produced a
white cloud, then boiling, divers coruscations and actual
flames of fire mingled with the liquor, which being a lit-
tle shaken together, fixed divers suns and stars of real
fire, perfectly globular, on the sides of the glass, and
which there stuck like so many constellations, burning
most vehemently, and resembling stars and heavenly
bodies, and that for a long space. It seemed to exhibit
a theory of the eduction of light out of the chaos, and
the fixing or gathering of the universal light into lumi-
nous bodies. This matter, or phosphorus, was made
out of human blood and urine, elucidating the vital
flame, or heat in animal bodies. A very noble experi-

1 6th December, 1685. I accompanied my Lord-Lieu-
tenant as far as St. Alban's, there going out of town
with him near 200 coaches of all the great officers and
nobility. The next morning taking leave, I returned to

1685 JOHN EVELYN 245

1 8th December, 1685. I dined at the great entertain-
ment his Majesty gave the Venetian Ambassadors, Sig-
ners Zenno and Justiniani, accompanied with ten more
noble Venetians of their most illustrious families, Cor-
naro, Maccenigo, etc., who came to congratulate their
Majesties coming to the Crown. The dinner was most
magnificent and plentiful, at four tables, with music,
kettledrums, and trumpets, which sounded upon a whistle
at every health. The banquet [dessert] was twelve vast
chargers piled up so high that those who sat one against
another could hardly see each other. Of these sweet-
meats, which doubtless were some days piling up in that
exquisite manner, the Ambassadors touched not, but
leaving them to the spectators who came out of curiosity
to see the dinner, were exceedingly pleased to see in
what a moment of time all that curious work was de-
molished, the comfitures voided, and the tables cleared.
Thus his Majesty entertained them three days, which
(for the table only) cost him ^600, as the Clerk of the
Greencloth (Sir William Boreman) assured me. Dinner
ended, I saw their procession, or cavalcade, to White-
hall, innumerable coaches attending. The two Ambas-
sadors had four coaches of their own, and fifty footmen
(as I remember), besides other equipage as splendid as
the occasion would permit, the Court being still in
mourning. Thence, I went to the audience which they
had in the Queen's presence chamber, the Banqueting
House being full of goods and furniture till the galleries
on the garden -side, council chamber, and new chapel,
now in the building, were finished. They went to their
audience in those plain black gowns and caps which they
constantly wear in the city of Venice. I was invited to
have accompanied the two Ambassadors in their coach to
supper that night, returning now to their own lodgings,
as no longer at the King's expense; but, being weary, I
excused myself.

19th December, 1685. My Lord Treasurer made me
dine with him, where I became acquainted with Monsieur
Barillon, the French Ambassador, a learned and crafty

20th December, 1685. Dr. Turner, brother to the
Bishop of Ely, and sometime tutor to my son, preached
at Whitehall on Mark viii, 38, concerning the submission

246 DIARY OF London

of Christians to their persecutors, in which were some
passages indiscreet enough, considering the time, and the
rage of the inhuman French tyrant against the poor

2 2d December, 1685. Our patent for executing the
office of Privy Seal during the absence of the Lord Lieu-
tenant of Ireland, being this day sealed by the Lord
Chancellor, we went afterward to St. James, where the
Court then was on occasion of building at Whitehall; his
Majesty delivered the seal to my Lord Tiviot and myself,
the other Commissioners not being come, and then gave
us his hand to kiss. There were the two Venetian Am-
bassadors and a world of company; among the rest the
first Popish Nuncio that had been in England since the
Reformation ; so wonderfully were things changed, to the
universal jealousy.

24th December, 1685. We were all three Commissioners
sworn on our knees by the Clerk of the Crown, before
my Lord Chancellor, three several oaths: allegiance,
supremacy, and the oath belonging to the Lord Privy
Seal, which last we took standing. After this, the Lord
Chancellor invited us all to dinner, but it being Christ-
mas eve we desired to be excused, intending at three in
the afternoon to seal divers things which lay ready at
the office ; so attended by three of the Clerks of the Sig-
net, we met and sealed. Among other things was a par-
don to West, who being privy to the late conspiracy, had
revealed the accomplices to save his own neck. There
were also another pardon and two indenizations; and so
agreeing to a fortnight's vacation, I returned home.

31st December, 1685, Recollecting the passages of the
year past, and having made up accounts, humbly be-
sought Almighty God to pardon those my sins which had
provoked him to discompose my sorrowful family; that
he would accept of our humiliation, and in his good time
restore comfort to it. I also blessed God for all his unde-
served mercies and preservations^ begging the continuance
of his grace and preservation. The winter had hitherto
been extraordinarily wet and mild.

ist January, 1685-6. Imploring the continuance of
God's providential care for the year now entered, I
went to the public devotions. The Dean of the Chapel
and Clerk of the Closet put out, viz. Bishop of London

1685-86 JOHN EVELYN 247

and . . . , and Rochester and Durham put in their
places ; the former had opposed the toleration intended,
and shown a worthy zeal for the reformed religion as

6th January, 1686. I dined with the Archbishop of
York, where was Peter Walsh, that Romish priest so well
known for his moderation, professing the Church of Eng -
land to be a true member of the Catholic Church. He
is used to go to our public prayers without scruple, and
did not acknowledge the Pope's infallibility, only primacy
of order.

19th January, 1686. Passed the Privy Seal, among

others, the creation of Mrs. Sedley ( concubine to )

Countess of Dorchester, which the Queen took very griev-
ously, so as for two dinners, standing near her, I observed
she hardly ate one morsel, nor spoke one word to the
King, or to any about her, though at other times she
used to be extremely pleasant, full of discourse and good
humor. The Roman Catholics were also very angry:
because they had so long valued the sanctity of their
religion and proselytes.

Dryden, the famous playwriter, and his two sons, and

Mrs. Nelly (miss to the late ), were said to go to

mass; such proselytes were no great loss to the Church.

This night was burnt to the ground my Lord Mon-
tague's palace in Bloomsbury, than which for painting
and furniture there was nothing more glorious in England.
This happened by the negligence of a servant airing, as
they call it, some of the goods by the fire in a moist

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