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season ; indeed, so wet and mild a season had scarce been
seen in man's memory.

At this Seal there also passed the creation of Sir Henry
Waldegrave to be a Peer. He had married one of the
King's natural daughters by Mrs. Churchill. These two
Seals my brother Commissioners passed in the morning
before I came to town, at which I was not displeased.
We likewise passed Privy Seals for ^276,000 upon sev-
eral^ accounts, pensions, guards, wardrobes, privy purse,
etc., besides divers pardons, and one more which I must
not forget ( and which by Providence I was not present at)
one Mr. Lytcott to be Secretary to the Ambassador to
Rome. We being three Commissioners, any two were a
quorum.



248 DIARY OF London

2ist January, 1686. I dined at my Lady Arlington's,
Groom of the Stole to the Queen Dowager, at Somerset
House, where dined the Countesses of Devonshire, Dover,
etc. ; in all eleven ladies of quality, no man but myself
being there.

24th January, 1686. Unheard-of cruelties to the perse-
cuted Protestants of France, such as hardly any age has
seen the like, even among the Pagans.

6th February 1686. Being the day on which his Majesty
began his reign, by order of Council it was to be solem-
nized with a particular office and sermon, which the Bishop
of Ely preached at Whitehall on Numb. xi. 12; a Court
oration upon the regal office. It was much wondered at,
that this day, which was that of his late Majesty's death,
should be kept as a festival, and not the day of the
present King's coronation. It is said to have been for-
merly the custom, though not till now since the reign of
King James I.

The Duchess of Monmouth, being in the same seat
with me at church, appeared with a very sad and afflicted
countenance.

8th February, 1686. I took the test in Westminster
Hall, before the Lord Chief Justice. I now came to lodge
at Whitehall, in the Lord Privy Seal's lodgings.

12th February, 1686. My great cause was heard by
my Lord Chancellor, who granted me a rehearing. I
had six eminent lawyers, my antagonist three, whereof
one was the smooth-tongued solicitor, whom my Lord
Chancellor reproved in great passion for a very small
occasion. Blessed be God for his great goodness to me
this day!

19th February, 1686. Many bloody and notorious duels
were fought about this time. The Duke of Grafton killed
Mr. Stanley, brother to the Earl of [Derby], indeed upon
an almost insufferable provocation. It is to be hoped
that his Majesty will at last severely remedy this un-
christian custom.

Lord Sunderland was now Secretary of State, President
of the Council, and Premier Minister.'

ist March, 1686, Came Sir Gilbert Gerrard to treat
with me about his son's marrying my daughter, Susanna.
The father being obnoxious, and in some suspicion and
displeasure of the King, I would receive no proposal till



i686 JOHN EVELYN 249

his Majesty had given me leave; which he was pleased
to do; but, after several meetings we broke off, on his
not being willing to secure anything competent for my
daughter's children ; besides that I found most of his estate
was in the coal-pits as far off as Newcastle, and on leases
from the Bishop of Durham, who had power to make
concurrent leases, with other difficulties.

7th March, 1686. Dr. Frampton, Bishop of Gloucester,
preached on Psalm xliv. 17, 18, 19, showing the several
afflictions of the Church of Christ from the primitive to
this day, applying exceedingly to the present conjuncture,
when many were wavering in their minds, and great
temptations appearing through the favor now found by
the Papists, so as the people were full of jealousies and
discouragement. The Bishop magnified the Church of
England, exhorting to constancy and perseverance.

loth March, 1686. A Council of the Royal Society
about disposing of Dr. Ray's book of Fishes, which was
printed at the expense of the Society.

12th March, 1686. A docket was to be sealed, import-
ing a lease of twenty-one years to one Hall, who styled
himself his Majesty's printer (he lately turned Papist)
for the printing missals, offices, lives of saints, portals,
primers, etc., books expressly forbidden to be printed or
sold, by divers Acts of Parliament; I refused to put my
seal to it, making my exceptions, so it was laid by.

14th March, 1686. The Bishop of Bath and Wells
preached on John vi. 17, a most excellent and pathetic
discourse : after he had recommended the duty of fasting
and other penitential duties, he exhorted to constancy in
the Protestant religion, detestation of the unheard-of
cruelties of the French, and stirring up to a liberal con-
tribution. This sermon was the more acceptable, as it
was unexpected from a Bishop who had undergone the
censure of being inclined to Popery, the contrary whereof
no man could show more. This indeed did all our
Bishops, to the disabusing and reproach of all their de-
lators: for none were more zealous against Popery than
they were.

1 6th March, 1686. I was at a review of the army about
London in Hyde Park, about 6,000 horse and foot, in
excellent order; his Majesty and infinity of people being
present.



2 50 DIARY OF London

17th March, 1686. I went to my house in the country,
refusing to be present at what was to pass at the Privy
Seal the next day. In the morning Dr. Tenison preached
an incomparable discourse at Whitehall, on Timothy

ii- 3, 4-

24th March, 1686. Dr. Cradock (Provost of Eaton)
preached at the same place, on Psalm xlix. 13, showing
the vanity of earthly enjoyments.

28th March, 1686. Dr. White, Bishop of Peterborough,
preached in a very eloquent style, on Matthew xxvi. 29,
submission to the will of God on all accidents, and at
all times.

29th March, 1686. The Duke of Northumberland (a
natural son of the late King by the Duchess of Cleve-
land) marrying very meanly, with the help of his brother
Grafton, attempted in vain to spirit away his wife.

A Brief was read in all churches for relieving the
French Protestants, who came here for protection from
the unheard-of cruelties of the King.

2d April, 1686. Sir Edward Hales, a Papist, made
Governor of Dover Castle.

15th April, 1686. The Archbishop of York now died
of the smallpox, aged 62, a corpulent man. He was my
special loving friend, and while Bishop of Rochester
(from whence he was translated) my excellent neighbor.
He was an inexpressible loss to the whole church, and
that Province especially, being a learned, wise, stout,
and most worthy prelate ; I look on this as a great stroke
to the poor Church of England, now in this defecting
period.

1 8th April, 1686. In the afternoon I went to Camber-
well, to visit Dr. Parr. After sermon, I accompanied
him to his house, where he showed me the Life and
Letters of the late learned Primate of Armagh (Usher),
and among them that letter of Bishop Bramhall's to the
Primate, giving notice of the Popish practices to pervert
this nation, by sending a hundred priests into England,
who were to conform themselves to all sectaries and
conditions for the more easily dispersing their doctrine
among us. This letter was the cause of the whole
impression being seized, upon pretense that it was a politi-
cal or historical account of things not relating to theol-
ogy, though it had been licensed by the Bishop; which



i686 JOHN EVELYN 251

plainly showed what an interest the Papists now had, —
that a Protestant book, containing- the life and letters of
so eminent a man, was not to be published. There were
also many letters to and from most of the learned per-
sons his correspondents in Europe. The book will, I
doubt not, struggle through this unjust impediment.

Several Judges were put out, and new complying ones
put in.

25th April, 1686. This day was read in our church
the Brief for a collection for relief of the Protestant
French so cruelly, barbarously, and inhumanly oppressed
without any thing being laid to their charge. It had
been long expected, and at last with difficulty procured
to be published, the interest of the French Ambassador
obstructing it.

5th May, 1686. There being a Seal, it was feared we
should be required to pass a docket dispensing with Dr.
Obadiah Walker and four more, whereof one was an
apostate curate of Putney, the others officers of Univer-
sity College, Oxford, who hold their masterships, fellow-
ships, and cures, and keep public schools, and enjoy all
former emoluments, notwithstanding they no more fre-
quented or used the public forms of prayers, or com-
munion, with the Church of England, or took the Test
or oaths of allegiance and supremacy, contrary to twenty
Acts of Parliament; which dispensation being also con-
trary to his Majesty's own gracious declaration at the
beginning of his reign, gave umbrage (as well it might)
to every good Protestant; nor could we safely have
passed it under the Privy Seal, wherefore it was done
by immediate warrant, signed by Mr. Solicitor.

This Walker was a learned person, of a monkish
life, to whose tuition I had more than thirty years
since recommended the sons of my worthy friend, Mr.
Hyldyard, of Horsley in Surrey, believing him to be far
from what he proved — a hypocritical concealed Papist —
by which he perverted the eldest son of Mr. Hyldyard,
Sir Edward Hale's eldest son, and several more, to the
great disturbance of the whole nation, as well as of the
University, as by his now public defection appeared. All
engines being now at work to bring in Popery, which
God in mercy prevent !

This day was burned in the old Exchange, by the com-



252 DIARY OF LONDON

mon hangman, a translation of a book written by the
famous Monsieur Claude, relating only matters of fact
concerning the horrid massacres and barbarous proceed-
ings of the French King against his Protestant subjects,
without any refutation of any facts therein; so mighty a
power and ascendant here had the French Ambassador,
who was doubtless in great indignation at the pious and
truly generous charity of all the nation, for the re-
lief of those miserable sufferers who came over for shel-
ter.

About this time also, the Duke of Savoy, instigated by
the French King to extirpate the Protestants of Piedmont,
slew many thousands of those innocent people, so that
there seemed to be an universal design to destroy all
that would not go to mass, throughout Europe. Quod
Aver tat D. O. M.! No faith in Princes !

12th May, 1686. I refused to put the Privy Seal to
Doctor Walker's license for printing and publishing divers
Popish books, of which I complained both to my Lord
of Canterbury (with whom I went to advise in the Coun-
cil Chamber), and to my Lord Treasurer that evening at
his lodgings. My Lord of Canterbury's advice was, that
I should follow my own conscience therein; Mr. Treas-
urer's, that if in conscience I could dispense with it, for
any other hazard he believed there was none. Notwith-
standing this, I persisted in my refusal.

29th May, 1686. There was no sermon on this anni-
versary, as there usually had been ever since the reign
of the present King.

2d June, 1686. Such storms, rain, and foul weather,
seldom known at this time of the year. The camp at
Hounslow Heath, from sickness and other inconveniences
of weather, forced to retire to quarters; the storms being
succeeded by excessive hot w^eather, many grew sick.
Great feasting there, especially in Lord Dunbarton's
quarters. There were many jealousies and discourses of
what was the meaning of this encampment.

A seal this day; mostly pardons and discharges of
Knight Baronets' fees, which having been passed over for
so many years, did greatly disoblige several families who
had served his Majesty. Lord Tyrconnel gone to Ireland,
with great powers and commissions, giving as much cause
of talk as the camp, especially nineteen new Privy-Coun-



i686 JOHN EVELYN 253

cillors and Judges being now made, among which but
three Protestants, and Tyrconnel made General.

New judges also here, among which was Milton, a
Papist (brother to that Milton who wrote for the Regi-
cides), who presumed to take his place without passing
the Test. Scotland refused to grant liberty of mass to
the Papists there.

The French persecution more inhuman than ever. The
Protestants in Savoy successfully resist the French dra-
goons sent to murder them.

The King's chief physician in Scotland apostatizing
from the Protestant religion, does of his own accord
publish his recantation at Edinburg.

nth June, 1686. I went to see ;Middleton's receptacle
of water at the New River, and the New Spa Wells near.

20th June, 1686. An extraordinary season of violent
and sudden rain. The camp still in tents.

24th June, 1686. My Lord Treasurer settled my great
business with Mr. Pretyman, to which I hope God will at
last give a prosperous issue.

25th June, 1686. Now his Majesty, beginning with
Dr. Sharp and Tully, proceeded to silence and suspend
divers excellent divines for preaching against Popery.

27th June, 1686. I had this day been married thirty-
nine years — blessed be God for all his mercies!

The new very young Lord Chief-Justice Herbert de-
clared on the bench, that the government of England
was entirely in the King; that the Crown was abso-
lute; that penal laws were powers lodged in the Crown
to enable the King to force the execution of the law,
but were not bars to bind the King's power; that he
could pardon all offenses against the law, and forgive the
penalties, and why could he not dispense with them; by
which the Test was abolished ? Everyone was aston-
ished. Great jealousies as to what would be the end of
these proceedings.

6th July, 1686. I supped with the Countess of Roches-
ter, where was also the Duchess of Buckingham and
Madame de Govern^, whose daughter was married to
the Marquis of Halifax's son. She made me a character
of the French King and Dauphin, and of the persecu-
tion; that they kept much of the cruelties from the
King's knowledge; that the Dauphin was so afraid of



2 54 DIARY OF LONDON

his father, that he dared not let anything appear of his
sentiments; that he hated letters and priests, spent all
his time in hunting, and seemed to take no notice of
what was passing.

This lady was of a great family and fortune, and had
fled hither for refuge.

8th July, 1686. I waited on the Archbishop at Lam-
beth, where I dined and met the famous preacher and
writer, Dr. Allix, doubtless a most excellent and learned
person. The Archbishop and he spoke Latin together,
and that very readily.

nth July, 1686. Dr. Meggot, Dean of Winchester,
preached before the household in St. George's Chapel at
Windsor, the late King's glorious chapel now seized on
by the mass priests. Dr. Cartwright, Dean of Ripon,
preached before the great men of the Court in the same
place.

We had now the sad news of the Bishop of Oxford's
death, an extraordinary loss to the poor Church at this
time. Many candidates for his Bishopric and Deanery,
Dr. Parker, South, Aldrich, etc. Dr. Walker (now apos-
tatizing) came to Court, and was doubtless very busy.

13th July, 1686. Note, that standing by the Queen at
basset (cards), I observed that she was exceedingly con-
cerned for the loss of ^80; her outward affability much
changed to stateliness, since she has been exalted.

The season very rainy and inconvenient for the camps.
His Majesty very cheerful.

14th July, 1686. Was sealed at our office the con-
stitution of certain commissioners to take upon them full
power of all Ecclesiastical affairs, in as unlimited a man-
ner, or rather greater, than the late High Commission-
Court, abrogated by Parliament; for it had not only
faculty to inspect and visit all Bishops' dioceses, but to
change what laws and statutes they should think fit to
alter among the colleges, though founded by private
men; to punish, suspend, fine, etc., give oaths and call
witnesses. The main drift was to suppress zealous preach-
ers. In sum, it was the whole power of a Vicar-General
— note the consequence! Of the clergy the commission-
ers were the Archbishop of Canterbury [Sancroft], Bishop
of Durham [Crewe], and Rochester [Sprat] ; of the Tem-
porals, the Lord Treasurer, the Lord Chancellor [Jefferies]



i686 JOHN EVELYN 255

(who alone was ever to be of the quorum), the Chief
Justice [Herbert], and Lord President [Earl of Sunder-
land].

18th July, 1686. I went to see Sir John Chardin, at
Greenwich.

4th August, 1686. I dined at Signor Verrio's, the
famous Italian painter, now settled in his Majesty's gar-
den at St. James's, which he had made a very delicious
paradise.

8th August, 1686. Our vicar gone to dispose of his
country living in Rutlandshire, having St. Dunstan in the
east given him by the Archbishop of Canterbury.

I went to visit the Marquis Ravign6, now my neigh-
bor at Greenwich, retired from the persecution in France.
He was the deputy of all the Protestants of that king-
dom in the parliament of Paris, and several times Am-
bassador in this and other Courts; a person of great
learning and experience.

8th September, 1686. Dr. Compton, Bishop of London,
was on Monday suspended, on pretense of not silencing
Dr. Sharp at St. Giles's, for something of a sermon in
which he zealously reproved the doctrine of the Roman
Catholics. The Bishop having consulted the civilians,
they told him he could not by any law proceed against
Dr. Sharp without producing witnesses, and impleaded
according to form; but it was overruled by my Lord
Chancellor, and the Bishop sentenced without so much as
being heard to any purpose. This was thought a very
extraordinary way of proceeding, and was universally
resented, and so much the rather for that two Bishops,
Durham and Rochester, sitting in the commission and
giving their suffrages the Archbishop of Canterbury
refused to sit among them. He was only suspended ab
officio^ and that was soon after taken off. He was brother
to the Earl of Northampton, had once been a soldier,
had traveled in Italy, but became a sober, grave, and
excellent prelate.

1 2th September, 1686. Buda now taken from the Turks;
a form of thanksgiving was ordered to be used in the
(as yet remaining) Protestant chapels and church of
Whitehall and Windsor.

The King of Denmark was besieging Hamburg, no
doubt by the French contrivance, to embroil the Protes-



456 DIARY OF London

tant Princes in a new war, that Holland, etc,, being en-
gaged, matter for new quarrel might arise: the unheard-of
persecution of the poor Protestants still raging more than
ever.

2 2d September, 1686. The Danes retire from Ham-
burg, the Protestant Princes appearing for their succor,
and the Emperor sending his minatories to the King of
Denmark, and also requiring the restoration of the Duke
of Saxe Gotha. Thus it pleased God to defeat the
French designs, which were evidently to kindle a new
war.

14th October, 1686. His Majesty's birthday; I was at
his rising in his bedchamber, afterward in the park, where
four companies of guards were drawn up. The officers,
etc., wonderfully rich and gallant; they did not head their
troops, but their next officers, the colonels being on horse-
back by the King while they marched. The ladies not
less splendid at Court, where there was a ball at night;
but small appearance of quality. All the shops both in
the city and suburbs were shut up, and kept as solemnly
as any holiday. Bonfires at night in Westminster, but
forbidden in the city.

17th October, 1686. Dr. Patrick, Dean of Peterborough,
preached at Covent Garden Church on Ephes. v. 18, 19,
showing the custom of the primitive saints in serving
God with hymns, and their frequent use of them upon
all occasions: touching the profane way of mirth and
intemperance of this ungodly age. Afterward I visited
my Lord Chief Justice of Ireland, with whom I had long
and private discourse concerning the miserable condition
that kingdom was like to be in, if Tyrconnel's counsel
should prevail at Court.

23d October, 1686. Went with the Countess of Sun-
derland to Cranbourne, a lodge and walk of my Lord
Godolphin's in Windsor park. There was one room in
the house spared in the pulling down the old one, because
the late Duchess of York was born in it; the rest was
built and added to it by Sir George Carteret, Treasurer
of the Nav}'; and since, the whole was purchased by my
Lord Godolphin, who spoke to me to go see it, and advise
what trees were fit to be cut down to improve the dwelling,
being environed with old rotten pollards, which corrupt
the air. It stands on a knoll which though insensibly



1686 JOHN EVELYN 257

rising, gives it a prospect over the Keep of Windsor,
about three miles N. E. of it. The ground is clayey and
moist; the water stark naught; the park is pretty; the
house tolerable, and gardens convenient. After dinner,
we came back to London, having two coaches both going
and coming, of six horses apiece, which we changed at
Hounslow.

24th October, 1686. Dr. Warren preached before the
Princess at Whitehall, on 5th Matthew, of the blessedness
of the pure in heart, most elegantly describing the bliss
of the beatifical vision. In the afternoon. Sir George
Wheeler, knight and baronet, preached on the 4th Matt,
upon the necessity of repentance, at St. Margaret's, an
honest and devout discourse, and pretty tolerably per-
formed. This gentleman coming from his travels out of
Greece, fell in love with the daughter of Sir Thomas
Higgins, his Majesty's resident at Venice, niece to the
Earl of Bath, and married her. When they returned into
England, being honored with knighthood, he would needs
turn preacher, and took orders. He published a learned
and ingenious book of his travels, and is a very worthy
person, a little formal and particular, but exceedingly
devout.

27th October, 1686. There was a triumphant show of
the Lord Mayor both by land and water, with much so-
lemnity, when yet his power has been so much diminished,
by the loss of the city's former charter.

5th November, 1686. I went to St. Martin's in the
morning, where Dr. Birch preached very boldly against the
Papists, from John xvi. 2. In the afternoon I heard Dr.
Tillotson in Lincoln's Inn chapel, on the same text, but
more cautiously.

1 6th November, 1686. I went with part of my family
to pass the melancholy winter in London at my son's
house in Arundel Buildings.

5th December, 1686. I dined at my Lady Arlington's,
Groom of the Stole to the Queen Dowager at Somerset
House, where dined divers French noblemen, driven out
of their country by the persecution.

1 6th December, 1686. I carried the Countess of Sun-
derland to see the rarities of one Mr. Charlton in the
Middle Temple, who showed us such a collection as I had
never seen in all my travels abroad cither of orivate
17



258 DIARY OF London

gentlemen, or princes. It consisted of minatures, draw-
ings, shells, insects, medals, natural things, animals (of
which divers, I think loo, were kept in glasses of spirits
of wine), minerals, precious stones, vessels, curiosities in
amber, cr5'stal, agate, etc. ; all being very perfect and rare
of their kind, especially his books of birds, fish, flowers,
and shells, drawn and minatured to the life. He told us
that one book stood him in ^300; it was painted by
that excellent workman, whom the late Gaston, Duke of
Orleans, employed. This gentleman's whole collection,
gathered by himself, traveling over most parts of Europe,
is estimated at ;:^8,ooo. He appeared to be a modest and
obliging person.*

29th December, 1686. I went to hear the music of the
Italians in the new chapel, now first opened publicly at
Whitehall for the Popish Service. Nothing can be finer
than the magnificent marble work and architecture at the
end, where are four statues, representing St. John, St.
Peter, St. Paul, and the Church, in white marble, the
work of Mr. Gibbons, with all the carving and pillars of
exquisite art and great cost. The altar piece is the Sal-
utation ; the volto in fresco, the Assumption of the blessed
Virgin, according to their tradition, with our blessed
Savior, and a world of figures painted by Verrio. The
throne where the King and Queen sit is very glorious, in
a closet above, just opposite to the altar. Here we saw
the Bishop in his mitre and rich copes, with six or seven
Jesuits and others in rich copes, sumptuously habited,
often taking off and putting on the Bishop's mitre, who
sat in a chair with arms pontifically, was adored and
censed by three Jesuits in their copes; then he went to
the altar and made divers cringes, then censing the im-
ages and glorious tabernacle placed on the altar, and now
and then changing place : the crosier, which was of silver,



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