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lapse. Such examples of Christian behavior have not
been seen since the primitive persecutions; and doubtless
God will do some signal work in the end, if we can with
patience and resignation hold out, and depend on his
Providence.

24th March, 1688. I went with Sir Charles Littleton
to Sheen, a house and estate given him by Lord Broun-
ker; one who was ever noted for a hard, covetous, vicious
man; but for his worldly craft and skill in gaming few
exceeded him. Coming to die, he bequeathed all his
land, house, furniture, etc., to Sir Charles, to whom he
had no manner of relation, but an ancient friendship con-
tracted at the famous siege of Colchester, forty years
before. It is a pretty place, with fine gardens, and well
planted, and given to one worthy of them, Sir Charles



2/0 DIARY OF LONDON

being an honest gentleman and soldier. He is brother
to Sir Henry Littleton of Worcestershire, whose great
estate he is likely to inherit, his brother being without
children. They are descendants of the great lawyer of
that name, and give the same arms and motto. He is
married to one ^Irs. Temple, formerly maid of honor to
the late Queen, a beautiful lady, and he has many fine
children, so that none envy his good fortune.

After dinner, we went to see Sir William Temple's
near to it; the most remarkable things are his orangery
and gardens, where the wall-fruit-trees are most exquis-
itely nailed and trained, far better than I ever noted.

There are many good pictures, especially of Vandyke's,
in both these houses, and some few statues and small
busts in the latter.

From thence to Kew, to visit Sir Henry Capel's,
whose orangery and myrtetum are most beautiful and
perfectly well kept. He was contriving very high palisa-
does of reeds to shade his oranges during the summer,
and painting those reeds in oil.

ist April, 1688. In the morning, the first sermon was
by Dr. Stillingfleet, Dean of St. Paul's (at Whitehall), on
Luke X- 41, 42. The Holy Communion followed, but was
so interrupted by the rude breaking in of multitudes zealous
to hear the second sermon, to be preached by the Bishop
of Bath and Wells, that the latter part of that holy office
could hardly be heard, or the sacred elements be distrib-
uted without great trouble. The Princess being come, he
preached on Mich. vii. 8, 9, 10, describing the calamity of
the Reformed Church of Judah under the Babylonian per-
secution, for her sins, and God's delivery of her on her
repentance; that as Judah emerged, so should the now
Reformed Church, whenever insulted and persecuted.
He preached with his accustomed action, zeal, and en-
ergy, so that people flocked from all quarters to hear
him.

15th April, 1688. A dry, cold, backward spring; easterly
winds.

The persecution still raging in France, multitudes of
Protestants, and many very considerable and great per-
sons flying hither, produced a second general contribu-
tion, the Papists, by God's Providence, as yet making
small progress among us.



i688 JOHN EVELYN ' 271

29th April, 1688. The weather was, till now, so cold
and sharp, by an almost perpetual east wind, which had
continued many months, that there was little appearance
of any spring, and yet the winter was very favorable as
to frost and snow.

2d May, 1688. To London, about my petition for al-
lowances upon the account of Commissioner for Sick and
Wounded in the former war with Holland.

8th May, 1688. His Majesty, alarmed by the great fleet
of the Dutch (while we had a very inconsiderable one),
went down to Chatham; their fleet was well prepared,
and out, before we were in any readiness, or had any
considerable number to have encountered them, had there
been occasion, to the great reproach of the nation ; while
being in profound peace, there was a mighty land army,
which there was no need of, and no force at sea, where
only was the apprehension; but the army was doubtless
kept and increased, in order to bring in and countenance
Popery, the King beginning to discover his intention, by
many instances pursued by the Jesuits, against his first
resolution to alter nothing in the Church Establishment,
so that it appeared there can be no reliance on Popish
promises.

1 8th May, 1688. The King enjoining the ministers to
read his Declaration for giving liberty of conscience (as
it was styled ) in all churches of England, this evening,
six Bishops, Bath and Wells,* Peterborough,! Ely, J Chi-
chester,! St. Asaph, ¬І and Bristol, T" in the name of all
the rest of the Bishops, came to his Majesty to petition
him, that he would not impose the reading of it to the
several congregations within their dioceses ; not that they
were averse to the publishing it for want of due tender-
ness toward dissenters, in relation to whom they should
be willing to come to such a temper as should be thought
fit, when that matter might be considered and settled in
Parliament and Convocation; but that, the Declaration
being founded on such a dispensing power as might at
pleasure set aside all laws ecclesiastical and civil, it ap-
peared to them illegal, as it had done to the Parliament
in 1661 and 1672, and that it was a point of such conse-
quence, that they could not so far make themselves

* Thomas Ken. f Thomas White, f Francis Turner. [John Lake.
fciWilliam Lloyd. H Sir John Trelawny, Bart.



272 DIARY OF LONDON

parties to it, as the reading of it in church in time of
divine service amounted to.

The King was so far incensed at this address, that he
with threatening expressions commanded them to obey
him in reading it at their perils, and so dismissed them.

2oth May, i6SS. I went to Whitehall Chapel, where,
after the morning lessons, the Declaration was read by
one of the choir who used to read the chapters. I hear
it was in the Abbey Church, Westminster, but almost
universally forborne throughout all London: the conse-
quences of which a little time will show.

25th May, 1688. All the discourse now was about the
Bishops refusing to read the injunction for the abolition
of the Test, etc. It seems the injunction came so crudely
from the Secretary's office, that it was neither sealed nor
signed in form, nor had any lawyer been consulted, so as
the Bishops who took all imaginable advice, put the
Court to great difficulties how to proceed against them.
Great were the consults, and a proclamation was expected
all this day; but nothing was done. The action of the
Bishops was universally applauded, and reconciled many
adverse parties, Papists only excepted, who were now
exceedingly perplexed, and violent courses were every
moment expected. Report was, that the Protestant
secular Lords and Nobility would abet the Clergy.

The Queen Dowager, hitherto bent on her return into
Portugal, now on the sudden, on allegation of a great
debt owing her by his Majesty disabling her, declares her
resolution to stay.

News arrived of the most prodigious earthquake that
was almost ever heard of, subverting the city of Lima
and country in Peru, with a dreadful inundation following it.

8th June, 1688. This day, the Archbishop of Canter-
bury, with the Bishops of Ely, Chichester, St. Asaph,
Bristol, Peterborough, and Bath and Wells, were sent from
the Privy Council prisoners to the Tower, for refusing to
give bail for their appearance, on their not reading the
Declaration for liberty of conscience ; they refused to give
bail, as it would have prejudiced their peerage. The con-
cern of the people for them was wonderful, infinite crowds
on their knees begging their blessing, and praying for
them, as they passed out of the barge along the Tower
wharf.



i688 JOHN EVELYN 273

loth June, 1688. A young prince born, which will cause
disputes.

About two o'clock, we heard the Tower ordnance dis-
charged, and the bells ring for the birth of a Prince of
Wales. This was very surprising, it having been univer-
sally given out that her Majesty did not look till the next
month.

13th June, 1688. I went to the Tower to see the
Bishops, visited the Archbishop and the Bishops of Ely, St.
Asaph, and Batti and Wells.

14th June, 1688. Dined with the Lord Chancellor.

15th June, 1 688. Being the first day of term, the
Bishops were brought to Westminster on habeas corpus,
when the indictment was read, and they were called on to
plead; their counsel objected that the warrant was illegal;
but, after long debate, it was overruled, and they pleaded.
The Court then offered to take bail for their appearance ;
but this they refused, and at last were dismissed on their
own recognizances to appear that day fortnight; the
Archbishop in ^200, the Bishops in ^100 each.

17 June, 1688. Was a day of thanksgiving in London
and ten miles about for the young Prince's birth ; a form
of prayer made for the purpose by the Bishop of
Rochester.

29th June, 1688. They appeared; the trial lasted from
nine in the morning to past six in the evening, when the
jury retired to consider of their verdict, and the Court
adjourned to nine the next morning. The jury were
locked up till that time, eleven of them being for an ac-
quittal; but one (Arnold, a brewer) would not consent.
At length he agreed with the others. The Chief Justice,
Wright, behaved with great moderation and civility to the
Bishops. Alibone, a Papist, was strongly against them;
but Holloway and Powell being of opinion in their favor,
they were acquitted. When this was heard, there was
great rejoicing; and there was a lane of people from the
King's Bench to the water side, on their knees, as the
Bishops passed and repassed, to beg their blessing. Bon-
fires were made that night, and bells rung, which was
taken very ill at Court, and an appearance of nearly sixty
Earls and Lords, etc., on the bench, did not a little com-
fort them ; but indeed they were all along full of comfort
and cheerful.
18



274 DIARY OF London

Note, they denied to pay the Lieutenant of the Tower
(Hales, who used them very surlily), any fees, alleging
that none were due.

The night was solemnized with bonfires, and other fire-
works, etc.

2d July, 1688. The two judges, HoUoway and Powell,
were displaced.

3d July, 1688. I went with Dr. Godolphin and his
brother vSir William to St. Alban's, to see a library he
would have bought of the widow of Dr. Cartwright,
late Archdeacon of St. Alban's, a very good collection
of books, especially in divinity; he was to give ^j^soo
for them. Having seen the great Church, now newly
repaired by a public contribution, we returned home.

8th July, 1688. One of the King's chaplains preached
before the Princess on Exodus xiv. 13,



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