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who should first store himself with numbers of such fire
ships, would, through the help and countenance of such
frigates, be able to ruin the greatest force of such vast
ships as could be sent to sea, by the dexterity of work-
ing those light, swift ships to guard the fire ships. He
concluded there would shortly be no other method of
seafight; and that great ships and men-of-war, however
stored with guns and men, must submit to those who
should encounter them with far less number. He repre-
sented to us the dreadful effect of these fire ships; that
he continually observed in our late maritime war with
the Dutch that, when an enemy's fire ship approached,
the most valiant commander and common sailors were in
such consternation, that though then, of all times, there


was most need of the guns, bombs, etc., to keep the
mischief off, they grew pale and astonished, as if of a quite
other mean soul, that they slunk about, forsook their
guns and work as if in despair, every one looking about
to see which way they might get out of their ship, though
sure to be drowned if they did so. This he said was
likely to prove hereafter the method of seafight, likely
to be the misfortune of England if they continued to put
gentlemen-commanders over experienced seamen, on ac-
count of their ignorance, effeminacy, and insolence.

9th March, 1690. Preached at Whitehall Dr. Burnet, late
Bishop of Sarum, on Heb. iv. 13, anatomically describing
the texture of the eye; and that, as it received such in-
numerable sorts of spies through so very small a passage
to the brain, and that without the least confusion or
trouble, and accordingly judged and reflected on them; so
God who made this sensory, did with the greatest ease
and at once see all that was done through the vast uni-
verse, even to the very thought as well as action. This
similitude he continued with much perspicuity and apt-
ness; and applied it accordingly, for the admonishing us
how uprightly we ought to live and behave ourselves
before such an all-seeing Deity; and how we were to con-
ceive of other his attributes, which we could have no
idea of than by comparing them by what we were able to
conceive of the nature and power of things, which were
the objects of our senses; and therefore it was that in
Scripture we attribute those actions and affections of God
by the same of man, not as adequately or in any pro-
portion like them, but as the only expedient to make some
resemblance of his divine perfections; as when the Scrip-
ture says, " God will remember the sins of the penitent
no more:^^ not as if God could forget anything, but as
intimating he would pass by such penitents and receive
them to mercy.

I dined at the Bishop of St. Asaph's, Almoner to the
new Queen, with the famous lawyer Sir George Mac-
kenzie (late Lord Advocate of Scotland), against whom
both the Bishop and myself had written and published
books, but now most friendly reconciled.* He related to

* Sir George, as we have seen, had written in praise of a Private Life,
which Mr. Evelyn answered by a book in praise of Public Life and Ac-
tive Employment.

1690 JOHN EVELYN 303

us many particulars of Scotland, the present sad condi-
tion of it, the inveterate hatred which the Presbyterians
show to the family of the Stuarts, and the exceeding
tyranny of those bigots who acknowledge no superior on
earth, in civil or divine matters, maintaining that the
people only have the right of government ; their implaca-
ble hatred to the Episcopal Order and Church of Eng-
land. He observed that the first Presbyterian dissents
from our discipline were introduced by the Jesuits' order,
about the 20 of Queen Elizabeth, a famous Jesuit among
them feigning himself a Protestant, and who was the first
who began to pray extempore, and brought in that which
they since called, and are still so fond of, praying by
the Spirit. This Jesuit remained many years before he
was discovered, afterward died in Scotland, where he
was buried at . . . having yet on his monument,
*^ Rosa inter spinas. *^

nth March, 1690. I went again to see Mr. Charlton's
curiosities, both of art and nature, and his full and rare
collection of medals, which taken altogether, in all kinds,
is doubtless one of the most perfect assemblages of rar-
ities that can be any where seen. I much admired the
contortions of the Thea root, which was so perplexed,
large, and intricate, and withal hard as box, that it was
wonderful to consider. The French have landed in Ire-

1 6th March, 1690. A public fast,

24th May, 1690. City charter restored. Divers ex-
empted from pardon,

4th June, 1690, King William set forth on his Irish
expedition, leaving the Queen Regent,

loth June, 1690, Mr, Pepys read to me his Remon-
strance, showing with what malice and injustice he was
suspected with Sir Anthony Deane about the timber, of
which the thirty ships were built by a late Act of Par-
liament, with the exceeding danger which the fleet would
shortly be in, by reason of the tyranny and incompetency
of those who now managed the Admiralty and affairs of
the Navy, of which he gave an accurate state, and showed
his great ability.

1 8th June, 1690. Fast day. Visited the Bishop of St.
Asaph; his conversation was on the Vaudois in Savoy,
who had been thought so near destruction and final

304 DIARY OP London

extirpation by the French, being totally given up to
slaughter, so that there were no hopes for them ; but now
it pleased God that the Duke of Savoy, who had hitherto
joined with the French in their persecution, being now
pressed by them to deliver up Saluzzo and Turin as
cautionary towns, on suspicion that he might at last
come into the Confederacy of the German Princes, did
secretly concert measures with, and afterward declared
for, them. He then invited these poor people from their
dispersion among the mountains whither they had fled,
and restored them to their country, their dwellings, and
the exercise of their religion, and begged pardon for the
ill usage they had received, charging it on the cruelty
of the French who forced him to it. These being the
remainder of those persecuted Christians which the Bishop
of St. Asaph had so long affirmed to be the two witnesses
spoken of in the Revelation, who should be killed and
brought to life again, it was looked on as an extraor-
dinary thing that this prophesying Bishop should persuade
two fugitive ministers of the Vaudois to return to their
country, and furnish them with ;^2o toward their journey,
at that very time when nothing but universal destruction
was to be expected, assuring them and showing them
from the Apocalypse, that their countrymen should be
returned safely to their country before they arrived.
This happening contrary to all expectation and appear-
ance, did exceedingly credit the Bishop's confidence how
that prophecy of the witnesses should come to pass, just
at the time, and the very month, he had spoken of some
years before,

I afterward went with him to Mr. Boyle and Lady
Ranelagh his sister, to whom he explained the necessity
of it so fully, and so learnedly made out, with what
events were immediately to follow, viz, the French King's
ruin, the calling of the Jews to be near at hand, but
that the Kingdom of Antichrist would not yet be utterly
destroyed till thirty years, when Christ should begin the
Millenium, not as personally and visibly reigning on
earth, but that the true religion and universal peace
should obtain through all the world. He showed how
Mr. Brightman, Mr. Mede, and other interpreters of these
events failed, by mistaking and reckoning the year as
the Latins and others did, to consist of the present cal-

1690 JOHN EVELYN 305

culation, so many days to the year, whereas the Apoca-
lypse reckons after the Persian account, as Daniel did,
whose visions St. John all along explains as meaning
only the Christian Church.

24th June, 1690. Dined with Mr. Pepys, who the next
day was sent to the Gatehouse,* and several great per-
sons to the Tower, on suspicion of being affected to King
James ; among them was the Earl of Clarendon, the Queen's
uncle. King William having vanquished King James in
Ireland, there was much public rejoicing. It seems the
Irish in King James's army would not stand, but the
English-Irish and French made great resistance. Schom-
berg was slain, and Dr. Walker, who so bravely defended
Londonderry. King William received a slight wound by
the grazing of a cannon bullet on his shoulder, which he
endured with very little interruption of his pursuit. Ham-
ilton, who broke his word about Tyrconnel, was taken.
It is reported that King James is gone back to France.
Drogheda and Dublin surrendered, and if King William
be returning, we may say of him as Caesar said, " Veni,
vidi, vici.^'* But to alloy much of this, the French fleet
rides in our channel, ours not daring to interpose, and
the enemy threatening to land.

27th June, 1690. I went to visit some friends in the
Tower, when asking for Lord Clarendon, they by mis-
take directed me to the Earl of Torrington, who about
three days before had been sent for from the fleet, and
put into the Tower for cowardice and not fighting the
French fleet, which having beaten a squadron of the Hol-
landers, while Torrington did nothing, did now ride mas-
ters of the sea, threatening a descent.

20th July, 1690. This afternoon a camp of about 4,000
men was begun to be formed on Blackheath.

30th July, 1690. I dined with Mr. Pepys, now suffered
to return to his house, on account of indisposition.

I St August, 1690. The Duke of Grafton came to visit
me, going to his ship at the mouth of the river, in his
way to Ireland (where he was slain).

3d August, 1690. The French landed some soldiers at

*Poor Pepys, as the reader knows, had already undergone an im-
prisonment, with perhaps just as much reason as the present, on the
absurd accusation of having sent information to the French Court of
the state of the English Navy.

3o6 DIARY OF London

Teijjnmouth, in Devon, and burned some poor houses. The
French fleet still hovering about the western coast, and
we having 300 sail of rich merchant-ships in the bay of
Plymouth, our fleet began to move toward them, under
three admirals. The country in the west all on their
gfuard. A very extraordinary fine season; but on the 12th
was a very great storm of thunder and lightning, and on
the 15th the season much changed to wet and cold.
The militia and trained bands, horse and foot, which
were up through England, were dismissed. The French
King having news that King William was slain, and his
army defeated in Ireland, caused such a triumph at Paris,
and all over France, as was never heard of; when, in the
midst of it, the unhappy King James being vanquished,
by a speedy flight and escape, himself brought the news
of his own defeat.

15th August, 1690. I was desired to be one of the
bail of the Earl of Clarendon, for his release from the
Tower, with divers noblemen. The Bishop of St. Asaph
expounds his prophecies to me and Mr. Pepys, etc. The
troops from Blackheath march to Portsmouth. That sweet
and hopeful youth. Sir Charles Tuke, died of the wounds
he received in the fight of the Boyne, to the great sorrow
of all his friends, being (I think) the last male of that
family, to which my wife is related. A more virtuous
5'^oung gentleman I never knew; he was learned for his
age, having had the advantage of the choicest breeding
abroad, both as to arts and arms; he had traveled much,
but was so unhappy as to fall in the side of his unfor-
tunate King.

The unseasonable and most tempestuous weather hap-
pening, the naval expedition is hindered, and the extrem-
ity of wet causes the siege of Limerick to be raised,
King William returned to England. Lord Sidney left
Governor of what is conquered in Ireland, which is near
three parts [in four].

17th August, 1690. A public feast. An extraordinary
sharp, cold, east wind.

12th October, 1690. The French General, with Tyrcon-
nel and their forces, gone back to France, beaten out by
King William. Cork delivered on discretion. The Duke
of Grafton was there mortally wounded and dies. Very
great storms of wind. The 8th of this month Lord

1690-91 JOHN EVELYN 307

Spencer wrote me word from Althorpe, that there hap-
pened an earthquake the day before in the morning,
which, though short, sensibly shook the house. The
*^ Gazette '^ acquainted us that the like happened at the same
time, half-past seven, at Barnstaple, Holyhead, and Dub-
lin. We were not sensible of it here.

26th October, 1690. Kinsale at last surrendered, mean-
time King James's party burn all the houses they have in
their power, and among them that stately palace of Lord
Ossory's, which lately cost, as reported, ;^4o,ooo By a
disastrous accident, a third-rate ship, the Breda, blew up
and destroyed all on board; in it were twenty-five pris-
oners of war. She was to have sailed for England the
next day.

3d November, 1690. Went to the Countess of Clan-
carty, to condole with her concerning her debauched and
dissolute son, who had done so much mischief in Ireland,
now taken and brought prisoner to the Tower.

1 6th November, 1690. Exceeding great storms, yet a
warm season

23d November, 1690. Carried Mr. Pepys's memorials
to Lord Godolphin, now resuming the commission of the
Treasury, to the wonder of all his friends.

ist December, 1690. Having been chosen President
of the Royal Society, I desired to decline it, and with
great difficulty devolved the election on Sir Robert
Southwell, Secretary of State to King William in Ireland.

20th December, 1690. Dr. Hough, President of Mag-
dalen College, Oxford, who was displaced with several
of the Fellows for not taking the oath imposed by King
James, now made a Bishop Most of this month cold
and frost One Johnson, a Knight, was executed at Ty-
burn for being an accomplice with Campbell, brother to
Lord Argyle, in stealing a young heiress.

4th January, 1690-91. This week a plot was discov-
ered for a general rising against the new Government,
for which (Henry) Lord Clarendon and others were sent
to the Tower The next day, I went to see Lord Clar-
endon. The Bishop of Ely searched for. Trial of Lord
Preston, as not being an English Peer, hastened at the
Old Bailey.

1 8th January, 1691. Lord Preston condemned about a
design to bring in King James by the French. Ashton

3oS DIARY OF London

executed. The Bishop of Ely, Mr. Graham, etc., ab-

13th March, 1691. I went to visit Monsieur Justell
and the Library at St. James's, in which that learned
man had put the MSS. (which were in good number)
into excellent order, they having lain neglected for
many years Divers medals had been stolen and em-

2ist March, 1691. Dined at Sir William Fermor's,
who showed me many good pictures. After dinner, a
French servant played rarely on the lute. Sir William
had now bought all the remaining statues collected
with so much expense by the famous Thomas, Earl of
Arundel, and sent them to his seat at Easton, near Tow-
cester. *

25th March, 1691. Lord Sidney, principal Secretary
of State, gave me a letter to Lord Lucas, Lieutenant of
the Tower, to permit me to visit Lord Clarendon; which
this day I did, and dined with him.

loth April, 1 69 1. This night, a sudden and terrible
fire burned down all the buildings over the stone gallery
at Whitehall to the water side, beginning at the apart-
ment of the late Duchess of Portsmouth (which had been
pulled down and rebuilt no less than three times to
please her), and consuming other lodgings of such lewd
creatures, who debauched both King Charles II. and
others, and were his destruction.

The King returned out of Holland just as this accident
happened — Proclamation against the Papists, etc.

i6th April, 1691. I went to see Dr. Sloane's curiosities,
being an universal collection of the natural productions
of Jamaica, consisting of plants, fruits, corals, minerals,
stones, earth, shells, animals, and insects, collected with
great judgment; several folios of dried plants, and one
which had about 80 several sorts of ferns, and another
of grasses; the Jamaica pepper, in branch, leaves, flower,
fruit, etc. This collection,! with his Journal and other
philosophical and natural discourses and observations,
indeed very copious and extraordinary, sufficient to

* They are now at Oxford, having been presented to the University
in 1755 by Henrietta, Countess Dowager of Pomfret, widow of Thomas,
the first Earl.

•j- It now forms part of the collection in the British Museum.

1691 JOHN EVELYN 309

furnish a history of that island, to which I encouraged

19th April, 1 69 1. The Archbishop of Canterbury, and
Bishops of Ely, Bath and Wells, Peterborough, Glouces-
ter, and the rest who would not take the oaths to King
William, were now displaced; and in their rooms, Dr.
Tillotson, Dean of St. Paul's, was made Archbishop:
Patrick removed from Chichester to Ely; Cumberland to

2 2d April, 1 69 1. I dined with Lord Clarendon in the

24th April, 1 69 1. I visited the Earl and Countess of
Sunderland, now come to kiss the King's hand after his
return from Holland. This is a mystery. The King pre-
paring to return to the army.

7th May, 1 69 1. I went to visit the Archbishop of
Canterbury [Sancroft] yet at Lambeth. I found him
alone, and discoursing of the times, especially of the newly
designed Bishops ; he told me that by no canon or divine
law they could justify the removing of the present incum-
bents; that Dr. Beveridge, designed Bishop of Bath and
Wells, came to ask his advice ; that the Archbishop told
him, though he should give it, he believed he would not
take it; the Doctor said he would; why then, says the
Archbishop, when they come to ask, say ^'- Nolo,^^ and say
it from the heart; there is nothing easier than to resolve
yourself what is to be done in the case: the Doctor
seemed to deliberate. What he will do I know not, but
Bishop Ken, who is to be put out, is exceedingly beloved
in his diocese; and, if he and the rest should insist on
it, and plead their interest as freeholders, it is believed
there would be difficulty in their case, and it may endan-
ger a schism and much disturbance, so as wise men think
it had been better to have let them alone, than to have
proceeded with this rigor to turn them out for refusing
to swear against their consciences. I asked at parting,
when his Grace removed; he said that he had not yet
received any stimmons, but I found the house altogether
disfurnished and his books packed up.

ist June, 1 69 1. I went with my son, and brother-in-
law, Glanville, and his son, to Wotton, to solemnize the
funeral of my nephew, which was performed the next
day very decently and orderly by the herald in the


afternoon, a very great appearance of the country being
there. I was the chief mourner; the pall was held by
Sir Francis Vincent, Sir Richard Onslow, Mr. Thomas
Howard (son to Sir Robert, and Captain of the King's
Guard), Mr. Hyldiard, Mr. James, Mr. Herbert, nephew
to Lord Herbert of Cherbury, and cousin-german to my
deceased nephew. He was laid in the vault at Wotton
Church, in the burying place of the family. A great
concourse of coaches and people accompanied the so-

loth June, 1691. I went to visit Lord Clarendon, still
prisoner in the Tower, though Lord Preston being par-
doned was released.

17th June, 1691. A fast.

nth July, 1 69 1. I dined with Mr. Pepys, where was
Dr. Cumberland, the new Bishop of Norwich,* Dr. Lloyd
having been put out for not acknowledging the Govern-
ment. Cumberland is a very learned, excellent man.
Possession was now given to Dr. Tillotson, at Lambeth,
by the Sheriff; Archbishop Sancroft was gone, but had
left his nephew to keep possession; and he refusing to
deliver it up on the Queen's message, was dispossessed
by the Sheriff, and imprisoned. This stout demeanor of
the few Bishops who refused to take the oaths to King
William, animated a great party to forsake the churches,
so as to threaten a schism ; though those who looked
further into the ancient practice, found that when (as
formerly) there were Bishops displaced on secular ac-
counts, the people never refused to acknowledge the new
Bishops, provided they were not heretics. The truth is,
the whole clergy had till now stretched the duty of
passive obedience, so that the proceedings against these
Bishops gave no little occasion of exceptions; but this
not amounting to heresy, there was a necessity of re-
ceiving the new Bishops, to prevent a failure of that
order in the Church. I went to visit Lord Clarendon
in the Tower, but he was gone into the country for
air by the Queens permission, under the care of his

1 8th July, 1 69 1. To London to hear Mr. Stringfellow
preach his first sermon in the newly erected Church of

*A mii=take. Dr. Cumberland was made Bishop of Peterborough
and Dr. John Moore succeeded Dr. Lloyd in the see of Norwich.

1 69 1 JOHN EVELYN 311

Trinity, in Conduit Street; to which I did recommend
him to Dr. Tenison for the constant preacher and lec-
turer. This Church, formerly built of timber on Houn-
slow-Heath by King James for the mass priests, being
begged by Dr. Tenison, rector of St. Martin's, was set
up by that public-minded, charitable, and pious man near
my son's dwelling in Dover Street, chiefly at the charge
of the Doctor. I know him to be an excellent preacher
and a fit person. This Church, though erected in St.
Martin's, which is the Doctor's parish, he was not only
content, but was the sole industrious mover, that it should
be made a separate parish, in regard of the neighbor-
hood having become so populous. Wherefore to counte-
nance and introduce the new minister, and take possession
of a gallery designed for my son's family, I went to
London, where,

19th July 1 69 1. In the morning Dr. Tenison preached
the first sermon, taking his text from Psalm xxvi. 8.
** Lord, I have loved the habitation of thy house, and the
place where thine honor dwelleth. " In concluding, he
gave that this should be made a parish church so soon
as the Parliament sat, and was to be dedicated to the
Holy Trinity, in honor of the three undivided persons in
the Deity; and he minded them to attend to that faith
of the church, now especially that Arianism, Socinianism,
and atheism began to spread among us. In the after-
noon, Mr. Stringfellow preached on Luke vii. 5. " The
centurion who had built a synagogue. " He proceeded to
the due praise of persons of such public spirit, and thence
to such a character of pious benefactors in the person
of the generous centurion, as was comprehensive of all
the virtues of an accomplished Christian, in a style so
full, eloquent, and moving, that I never heard a sermon
more apposite to the occasion. He modestly insinuated
the obligation they had to that person who should be
the author and promotor of such public works for the
benefit of mankind, especially to the advantage of religion,
such as building and endowing churches, hospitals, libra-
ries, schools, procuring the best editions of useful books,
by which he handsomely intimated who it was that had
been so exemplary for his benefaction to that place.
Indeed, that excellent person. Dr. Tenison, had also erected
and furnished a public library [in St. Martin's]; and set



up two or three free schools at his own charges. Besides
this, he was of an exemplary, holy life, took great pains
in constantly preaching, and incessantly employing him-
self to promote the service of God both in public and
private. I never knew a man of a more universal and
generous spirit, with so much modesty, prudence, and

The great victory of King William's army in Ireland
was looked on as decisive of that war. The French
General, St. Ruth, who had been so cruel to the poor
Protestants in France, w^as slain, with divers of the best
commanders; nor was it cheap to us, having i,ooo killed,
but of the enemy 4,000 or 5,000.

26th July, 1 69 1. An extraordinary hot season, yet
refreshed by some thundershowers.

28th July, 1691. I went to Wotton.

2d August, 1 69 1. No sermon in the church in the after-
noon, and the curacy ill-served.

i6th August, 1691. A sermon by the curate; an honest
discourse, but read without any spirit, or seeming con-
cern; a great fault in the education of young preachers.
Great thunder and lightning on Thursday, but the rain
and wind very violent. Our fleet come in to lay up the

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