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of the land which Sir R. Browne, my wife's father,
freely gave to found and build their college, or alms-
houses on, at Deptford, it being my wife's after her
father's decease. It was a good and charitable' work and
gift, but would have been better bestowed on the poor
of that parish, than on the seamen's widows, the Trinity
Company being very rich, and the rest of the poor of
the parish exceedingly indigent.

26th May, 1671. The Earl of Bristol's house in Queen's
Street [Lincoln's Inn Fields] was taken for the Commis-
sioners of Trade and Plantations, and furnished with
rich hangings of the King's. It consisted of seven rooms
on a floor, with a long gallery, gardens, etc. This day
we met the Duke of Buckingham, Earl of Lauderdale,
Lord Culpeper, Sir George Carteret, Vice-Chamberlain,
and myself, had the oaths given us by the Earl of Sand-
wich, our President. It was to advise and counsel his
Majesty, to the best of our abilities, for the well-govern-
ing of his Foreign Plantations, etc., the form very little
differing from that given to the Privy Council. We then
took our places at the Board in the Council-Chamber, a
very large room furnished with atlases, maps, charts,
globes, etc. Then came the Lord Keeper, Sir Orlando
Bridgeman, Earl of Arlington, Secretary of State, Lord
Ashley, Mr. Treasurer, Sir John Trevor, the other Sec-
retary, Sir John Duncomb, Lord AUington, Mr. Grey,
son to the Lord Grey, Mr. Henry Broncher, Sir Hum-
phrey Winch, Sir John Finch, Mr. Waller, and Colonel
Titus, of the bedchamber, with Mr. Slingsby, Secretary
to the Council, and two Clerks of the Council, who had
all been sworn some days before. Being all set, our
Patent was read, and then the additional Patent, in
which was recited this new establishment; then, was de-
livered to each a copy of the Patent, and of instructions:
after which, we proceeded to business.
5



66 DIARY OF London

The first thing wc did was, to settle the form of a
circular letter to the Governors of all his Majesty's Plan-
tations and Territories in the West Indies and Islands
thereof, to give them notice to whom they should apply
themselves on all occasions, and to render us an account
of their present state and government; but, what we
most insisted on was, to know the condition of New
England, which appearing to be very independent as to
their regard to Old England, or his Majesty, rich and
strong as they now were, there were great debates in
what style to write to them; for the condition of that
Colony was such, that they were able to contest with all
other Plantations about them, and there was fear of
their breaking from all dependence on this nation; his
Majesty, therefore, commended this affair more expressly.
We, therefore, thought fit, in the first place, to acquaint
ourselves as well as we could of the state of that place,
by some whom we heard of that were newly come from
thence, and to be informed of their present posture and
condition; some of our Council were for sending them a
menacing letter, which those who better understood the
peevish and touchy humor of that Colony, were utterly
against.

A letter was then read from Sir Thomas Modiford,
Governor of Jamaica; and then the Council broke up.

Having brought an action against one Cocke, for money
which he had received for me, it had been referred to an
arbitration by the recommendation of that excellent good
man, the Chief-Justice Hale, * but, this not succeeding, I
went to advise with that famous lawyer, Mr. Jones, of
Gray's Inn, and, 27th of May, had a trial before Lord Chief
Justice Hale; and, after the lawyers had wrangled suffi-
ciently, it was referred to a new arbitration. This was
the very first suit at law that ever I had with any crea-
ture, and oh, that it might be the last!

ist June, 167 1. An installation at Windsor.

6th June, 1671. I went to Council, where was pro-
duced a most exact and ample information of the state

* Sir Matthew Hale, so famous as one of the justices of the bench
in Cromwell's time. After the Restoration, he became Chief Baron
of the Exchequer; then Chief Justice of the King's Bench, and
died in 1676. The author of numerous works, not only on profes-
sional subjects, but on mathematics and philosophy.



i67i JOHN EVELYN 67

of Jamaica, and of the best expedients as to New Eng-
land, on which there was a long debate; but at length
it was concluded that, if any, it should be only a con-
ciliating paper at first, or civil letter, till we had better
information of the present face of things, since we un-
derstood they were a people almost upon the very brink
of renouncing any dependence on the Crown.

19th June, 167 1. To a splendid dinner at the great
room in Deptford Trinity House, Sir Thomas Allen
chosen Master, and succeeding the Earl of Craven.

20th June, 167 1. To carry Colonel Middleton to White-
hall, to my Lord Sandwich, our President, for some in-
formation which he was able to give of the state of the
Colony in New England.

2 1 St June, 1 67 1. To Council again, when one Colonel
Cartwright, a Nottinghamshire man, (formerly in com-
mission with Colonel Nicholls) gave us a considerable
relation of that country ; on which the Council concluded
that in the first place a letter of amnesty should be
dispatched.

24th June, 1671. Constantine Huygens, Signor of Zuy-
lichem, that excellent learned man, poet, and musi-
cian, now near eighty years of age, a vigorous, brisk
man,* came to take leave of me before his return into
Holland with the Prince, whose Secretary he was.

26th June, 167 1. To Council, where Lord Arlington
acquainted us that it was his Majesty's proposal we
should, every one of us, contribute jT^zo toward building
a Council chamber and conveniences somewhere in White-
hall, that his Majesty might come and sit among us, and
hear our debates; the money we laid out to be reim-
bursed out of the contingent moneys already set apart
for us, viz, ;^i,ooo yearly. To this we unanimously
consented. There came an uncertain bruit from Barba-
does of some disorder there. On my return home I

* He died in 1687, at the great age of 90 years and 6 months. Constan-
tine and his son, Christian Huygens, were both eminent for scientific
knowledge and classical attainments; Christian, particularly so; for
he was the inventor of the pendulum, made an improvement in the
air-pump, first discovered the ring and one of the satellites of Saturn,
and ascertained the laws of collision of elastic bodies. He died in
1695. Constantine, the father, was a person of influence and distinc-
tion in Holland, and held the post of secretary to the Prince of
Orange.



68 DIARY OF London

stepped in at the theater to see the new machines for the
intended scenes, which were indeed very costly and mag-
nificent.

29th June, 167 1. To Council, where were letters from
Sir Thomas Modiford, of the expedition and exploit of
Colonel Morgan, and others of Jamaica, on the Spanish
Continent at Panama.

4th July, 167 1. To Council, where we drew up and
agreed to a letter to be sent to New England, and made
some proposal to Mr. Gorges, for his interest in a planta-
tion there.

24th July, 167 1. To Council. Mr. Surveyor brought
us a plot for the building of our Council chamber, to be
erected at the end of the Privy garden, in Whitehall.

3d August, 167 1. A full appearance at the Council.
The matter in debate was, whether we should send a
deputy to New England, requiring them of the Massa-
chusetts to restore such to their limits and respective
possessions, as had petitioned the Council ; this to be the
open commission only; but, in truth, with secret instruc-
tions to inform us of the condition of those Colonies,
and whether they were of such power, as to be able to
resist his Majesty and declare for themselves as inde-
pendent of the Crown, which we were told, and which
of late years made them refractory. Colonel Middleton,
being called in, assured us they might be curbed by a
few of his Majesty's first-rate frigates, to spoil their trade
with the islands; but, though my Lord President was
not satisfied, the rest were, and we did resolve to advise
his Majesty to send Commissioners with a formal com-
mission for adjusting boundaries, etc., with some other
instructions.

19th August, 167 1 To Council. The letters of Sir
Thomas Modiford were read, giving relation of the ex-
ploit at Panama, which was very brave ; they took, burned,
and pillaged the town of vast treasures, but the best of
the booty had been shipped off, and lay at anchor in
the South Sea, so that, after our men had ranged the
country sixty miles about, they went back to Nombre de
Dios, and embarked for Jamaica. Such an action had not
been done since the famous Drake.

I dined at the Hamburg Resident's, and, after din-
ner, went to the christening of Sir Samuel Tuke's son^



i67i JOHN EVELYN 69

Charles, at Somerset House, by a Popish priest, and many
odd ceremonies. The godfathers were the King, and Lord
Arundel of Wardour, and godmother, the Countess of
Huntingdon.

29th August, 167 1. To London, with some more papers
of my progress in the Dutch War, delivered to the
Treasurer.

I St September, 167 1. Dined with the Treasurer, in
company with my Lord Arlington, Halifax, and Sir
Thomas Strickland ; and next day, went home, being the
anniversary of the late dreadful fire of London.

13th September, 167 1. This night fell a dreadful tem-
pest.

15th September, 167 1. In the afternoon at Council,
where letters were read from Sir Charles Wheeler, con-
cerning his resigning his government of St. Christopher's.

2ist September, 167 1. I dined in the city, at the fra-
ternity feast in Ironmongers' Hall, where the four stew-
ards chose their successors for the next year, with
a solemn procession, garlands about their heads, and
music playing before them; so, coming up to the upper
tables where the gentlemen sat, they drank to the new
stewards; and so we parted.

22d September, 167 1. I dined at the Treasurer's,
where I had discourse with Sir Henry Jones (now come
over to raise a regiment of horse), concerning the French
conquests in Lorraine; he told me the King sold all
things to the soldiers, even to a handful of hay.

Lord Sunderland was now nominated Ambassador to
Spain.

After dinner, the Treasurer carried me to Lincoln's
Inn, to one of the Parliament Clerks, to obtain of him,
that I might carry home and peruse, some of the Jour-
nals, which were, accordingly, delivered to me to examine
about the late Dutch War. Returning home, I went on
shore to see the Custom House, now newly rebuilt since
the dreadful conflagration.

9th and loth October, 167 1. I went, after evening
service, to London, in order to a journey of refreshment
with Mr. Treasurer, to Newmarket, where the King then
was, in his coach with six brave horses, which we changed
thrice, first, at Bishop-Stortford, and last, at Chesterford;
so, by night, we got to Newmarket, where Mr. Henry



70 DIARY OF London

Jermain (nephew to the Earl of St. Alban) lodged
me very civilly. We proceeded immediately to Court,
the King and all the English gallants being there at their
autumnal sports. Supped at the Lord Chamberlain's;
and, the next day, after dinner, I was on the heath,
where I saw the great match run between Woodcock
and Flatfoot, belonging to the King, and to Mr. Eliot,
of the bedchamber, many thousands being spectators;
a more signal race had not been run for many years.

This over, I went that night with Mr. Treasurer to
Euston, a palace of Lord Arlington's, where we found
Monsieur Colbert (the French Ambassador), and the fa-
mous new French Maid of Honor, Mademoiselle Que-
rouaille, now coming to be in great favor with the King.
Here was also the Countess of Sunderland, and several
lords and ladies, who lodged in the house.

During my stay here with Lord Arlington, near a fort-
night, his Majesty came almost every second day with
the Duke, who commonly returned to Newmarket, but the
King often lay here, during which time I had twice
the honor to sit at dinner with him, with all free-
dom. It was universally reported that the fair lady ,

was bedded one of these nights, and the stocking flung,
after the manner of a married bride ; I acknowledge she
was for the most part in her undress all day, and that
there was fondness and toying with that young wanton;
nay, it was said, I was at the former ceremony; but it
is utterly false ; I neither saw nor heard of any such thing
while I was there, though I had been in her chamber,
and all over that apartment late enough, and was myself
observing all passages with much curiosity. However, it
was with confidence believed she was first made a Miss,
as they called these unhappy creatures, with solemnity at
this time.

On Sunday, a young Cambridge divine preached an
excellent sermon in the chapel, the King and the Duke
of York being present.

1 6th October, 1671. Came all the great men from New-
market, and other parts both of Suffolk and Norfolk, to
make their court, the whole house filled from one end
to the other with lords, ladies, and gallants; there was
such a furnished table, as I had seldom seen, nor any-
thing more splendid and free, so that for fifteen days



i67i JOHN EVELYN 71

there were entertained at least 200 people, and half as
many horses, besides servants and guards, at infinite ex-
pense.

In the morning-, we went hunting and hawking; in the
afternoon, till almost morning, to cards and dice, yet I
must say without noise, swearing, quarrel, or confusion
of any sort. I, who was no gamester, had often dis-
course with the French Ambassador, Colbert, and went
sometimes abroad on horseback with the ladies to take
the air, and now and then to hunting; thus idly passing
the time, but not without more often recess to my pretty
apartment, where I was quite out of all this hurry, and
had leisure when I would, to converse with books, for
there is no man more hospitably easy to be withal than
my Lord Arlington, of whose particular friendship and
kindness I had ever a more than ordinary share. His
house is a very noble pile, consisting of four pavilions
after the French, beside a body of a large house, and,
though not built altogether, but formed of additions to
an old house (purchased by his Lordship of one Sir T.
Rookwood) yet with a vast expense made not only capa-
ble and roomsome. but very magnificent and commo-
dious, as well within as without, nor less splendidly
furnished. The staircase is very elegant, the garden
handsome, the canal beautiful, but the soil dry, barren,
and miserably sandy, which flies in drifts as the wind
sits. Here my Lord was pleased to advise with me about
ordering his plantations of firs, elms, limes, etc., up his
park, and in all other places and avenues. I persuaded
him to bring his park so near as to comprehend his
house within it; which he resolved upon, it being now
near a mile to it. The water furnishing the fountains,
is raised by a pretty engine, or very slight plain wheels,
which likewise serve to grind his com, from a small cas-
cade of the canal, the invention of Sir Samuel Morland.
In my Lord's house, and especially above the staircase,
in the great hall and some of the chambers and rooms
of state, are paintings in fresco by Signor Verrio, being
the first work which he did in England.

17th October, 1671. My Lord Henry Howard coming
this night to visit my Lord Chamberlain, and staying a
day, would needs have me go with him to Norwich, prom-
ising to convey me back, after a day or two; this, as I



72 DIARY OF NORWICH

could not refuse, I was not hard to be pursuaded to, hav-
ing a desire to see that famous scholar and physician,
Dr. T. Browne, author of the *вАҐ'- Religio MedicP'^ and
* Vulgar Errors,** now lately knighted. Thither, then,
went my Lord and I alone, in his flying chariot with six
horses; and by the way, discoursing with me of several
of his concerns, he acquainted me of his going to marry
his eldest son to one of the King's natural daughters, by
the Duchess of Cleveland ; by which he reckoned he should
come into mighty favor. He also told me that, though

he kept that idle creature, Mrs. B , and would leave

;^2oo a year to the son he had by her, he would never
marry her, and that the King himself had cautioned him
against it. All the world knows how he kept his prom-
ise, and I was sorry at heart to hear what now he confessed
to me ; and that a person and a family which I so much
honored for the sake of that noble and illustrious friend
of mine, his grandfather, should dishonor and pollute
them both with those base and vicious courses he of late
had taken since the death of Sir Samuel Tuke, and that
of his own virtuous lady (my Lady Anne Somerset, sister
to the Marquis) ; who, while they lived, preserved this
gentleman by their example and advice from those many
extravagances that impaired both his fortune and repu-
tation.

Being come to the Ducal palace, my Lord made very
much of me ; but I had little rest, so exceedingly desirous
he was to show me the contrivance he had made for the
entertainment of their Majesties, and the whole Court
not long before, and which, though much of it was but
temporary, apparently framed of boards only, was yet
standing. As to the palace, it is an old wretched build-
ing, and that part of it newly built of brick, is very ill
understood ; so as I was of the opinion it had been much
better to have demolished all, and set it up in a better
place, than to proceed any further; for it stands in the
very market-place, and, though near a river, yet a very
narrow muddy one, without any extent.

Next morning, I went to see Sir Thomas Browne (with
whom I had some time corresponded by letter, though I
had never seen him before ) ; his whole house and garden
being a paradise and cabinet of rarites; and that of the
best collection, especially medals, books, plants, and



i67i JOHN EVELYN 73

natural things. Among other curiosities, Sir Thomas had
a collection of the eggs of all the fowl and birds he could
procure, that country (especially the promontory of Nor-
folk) being frequented, as he said, by several kinds
which seldom or never go further into the land, as cranes,
storks, eagles, and variety of water fowl. He led me
to see all the remarkable places of this ancient city, being
one of the largest, and certainly, after London, one of the
noblest of England, for its venerable cathedral, number
of stately churches, cleanness of the streets, and build-
ings of flint so exquisitely headed and squared, as I was
much astonished at ; but he told me they had lost the art
of squaring the flints, in which they so much excelled,
and of which the churches, best houses, and walls, are
built. The Castle is an antique extent of ground, which
now they call Marsfield, and would have been a fitting
area to have placed the Ducal palace in. The suburbs
are large, the prospects sweet, with other amenities, not
omitting the flower gardens, in which all the inhabitants
excel. The fabric of stufEs brings a vast trade to this
populous town.

Being returned to my Lord's, who had been with me
all this morning, he advised with me concerning a plot
to rebuild his house, having already, as he said, erected
a front next the street, and a left wing, and now resolv-
ing to set up another wing and pavilion next the garden,
and to convert the bowling green into stables. My
advice was, to desist from all, and to meditate wholly on
rebuilding a handsome palace at Arundel House, in the
Strand, before he proceeded further here, and then to
place this in the Castle, that ground belonging to his
Lordship.

I observed that most of the church yards ( though some
of them large enough ) were filled up with earth, or rather
the congestion of dead bodies one upon another, for
want of earth, even to the very top of the walls, and
some above the walls, so as the churches seemed to be
built in pits.

1 8th October, 167 1. I returned to Eu.ston, in Lord
Henry Howard's coach, leaving him at Norwich, in com-
pany with a very ingenious gentleman, Mr. White, whose
father and mother (daughter to the late Lord Treasurer
Weston, Earl of Portland ) I knew at Rome, where this



74 DIARY OF London

gentleman was bom, and where his parents lived and
died with much reputation, during their banishment in
our civil broils.

2 1 St October, 167 1. Quitting Euston, I lodged this
night at Newmarket, where I found the jolly blades rac-
ing, dancing, feasting, and reveling; more resembling a
luxurious and abandoned rout, than a Christian Court.
The Duke of Buckingham was now in mighty favor, and
had with him that impudent woman, the Countess of
Shrewsbury, with his band of fiddlers, etc.

Next morning, in company with Sir Bernard Gascoyne,
and Lord Hawley, I came in the Treasurer's coach to
Bishop Stortford, where he gave us a noble supper. The
following day, to London, and so home.

14th November, 1671. To Council, where Sir Charles
Wheeler, late Governor of the Leeward Islands, having
been complained of for many indiscreet managements, it
was resolved, on scanning many of the particulars, to
advise his Majesty to remove him; and consult what was
to be done, to prevent these inconveniences he had brought
things to. This business staid me in London almost a
week, being in Council, or Committee, every morning
till the 25th.

27th November, 167 1. We ordered that a proclamation
should be presented to his Majesty to sign, against what
Sir Charles Wheeler had done in St. Christopher's since
the war, on the articles of peace at Breda. He was
shortly afterward recalled.

6th December, 167 1. Came to visit me Sir William
Haywood, a great pretender to English antiquities.

14th December, 167 1. Went to see the Duke of
Buckingham's ridiculous farce and rhapsody, called the
"The Recital,*** buffooning all plays, yet profane enough.

23d December, 167 1. The Councillors of the Board of
Trade dined together at the Cock, in Suffolk street.

12th January, 1671-72. His Majesty renewed us our
lease of Sayes Court pastures for ninety-nine years, but
ought, according to his solemn promise f (as I hope he
will still perform), have passed them to us in fee-farm.

23d January, 1672. To London, in order to Sir Rich-
ard Browne, my father-in-law, resigning his place as Clerk

*The well-known play of



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