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Michael Levi Rodkinson.

New edition of the Babylonian Talmud. Original text edited, corrected, formulated, and translated into English (Volume 20) online

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naniah was disconcerted by a woman, a girl, and a boy. What Brurih, tlie
wife of R. Meir, told to R. Jose, the Galilean, and also to a young scholar.
The explanation of Netzach, .Selah, and Voed mentioned in the Bible. If
the tables had not been broken the first time the law would not have been
forgotten by Israel. How to retain one's knowledge. How the method of
teaching the law was in the times of Moses. R. Preida would teach a dis-
ciple a thing four hundred times, and once twice four hundred times: his
reward for this from heaven. If a town is in the form of an arch. If one
comes to make a town square. The equinoxes. Note about the seven
planets of ancient astronomy, ....... 119-131

MiSHNAS II., III., IV., V. An allowance of seventy and two-thirds ells of
space must be made to the town. The difference of opinions whether to
each town, or between. What must the distance between the outer villages



SYNOPSIS OF SUBJECTS. xiii

be ? One must not measure the legal distance except with a line exactly fifty
ells long. The three kintls of cord. What is meant by cutting straight
through the mountain. The measurement must be undertaken only by an
expert. If a town belonging to an individual becomes public property. If
a town that is public property becomes the property of an individual. The
inhabitants of Kakunai came before R. Joseph and asked him to give them a
man to effect an Erub for them in their city, .... 131-140

MiSHNA VI., VII. A man who is at the east of his domicile, telling his
son to place his Erub towards the west, or vice versa. What is meant by
" toward the east " ? (and illustrations). If a town stands on the steep banks
of a lake. The discussions about the right of the inhabitants of Hamtan
and Gadar to carry or go. The inhabitants of a large town may traverse the
whole of a small town (but not vice versa). Mar Jeiiudah observed that the
inhabitants of Mabrakhta placed their Erub in the synagogue of the city of
Agubar, 140-144

CHAPTER VI.

MiSHNA I. One who dwells in the same court with a Gentile, or with
one who '-)es not acknowledge the laws of Erub. The dwelling of a Gentile,
as far as tlie laws of Erubin are concerned. May a disciple decide a
Halakha in the place where his master resides? If a slaughtering knife is
brought to a young scholar for examination. Who sends his gifts to one
priest to the exclusion of all others brings famine into the world. If several
Israelites rented apartments from a Gentile, and one of them forgot to make
an Erub. One who is tipsy should not pray. Prayer of one intoxicated
considered as blasphemy. A quarter of a lug of Italian wine inebriates.
Three miles' walk required to destroy the effects of wine. The night made
only for sleep, according to one. The moon made only to facilitate study
at night, according to another. The cases in which R. Samuel's father,
R. Samuel, and R. Papa would not pray. Wine made only for mourners
and to reward for good deeds the wicked in this world. A house where
wine flows not like water cannot be classed among those that are blessed.
What R. Hanina bar Joseph, R. Hyya bar Abba, and R. Assi discussed in
an inn, the proprietor of which was a Gentile. R. Hisda's lips would trem-
ble when he met R. Shesheth, because the latter was versed in Mishnaioth
and Boraithoth, while the whole body of R. Shesheth trembled when he met
R. Hisda, because of his sagacity. The discussion about warm water for a
new-born child. How is it possible that two such great men made no Erub.
Whether a Sadducee is considered the same as a Gentile, R. Gamaliel and
the sages differ. There are two kinds of Sadducees, . . 145-162

MiSHNAS II., III., and IV. If one of the householders of a court forgets,
and does not join in the Erub. From what time is the right to be conferred ?
If five men inhabited one court, one must resign his right, if he had forgot-
ten to join in the Erub. May an heir resign his right or not? The reason
of the difference between Beth Shammai and Beth Hillel about the meaning
of resigning the right to a place. The difference of opinion between the
sages and R. Simeon about partneiship in wine or oil. In courts an Erub
must be made with bread, but it is not allowed to do so with wine. Diffc"-



xiv SYNOPSIS OF SUBJECTS.

ence between Beth Shammai and Beth Hillel about five companies occupy-
ing during Sabbath one liall. Brothers or associates tal<ing their meals at
one table but sleeping in separate houses. One who has a vestibule, a gal-
lery, or balcony in the court of another, without an Erub. It happened that
an inhabitant of Naph'ha, who had five courts in Uqba, did not join in the
Erub with the inmates of the courts. What about the disciples of the col-
lege, eating in the inns of the valley and passing the night at the
college ? 162-169

MiSHNAS v., VI., and VII. If five courts open into each other and an
alley, if they combined both the courts and the alley, or only one of these.
How Samuel was asked a question and answered with silence. Does the
silence signify acquiescence ? If two courts were one within the other, and
all the inmates or one forgot to make an Erub ; if the courts were the prop-
erty of an individual. If an Erub was placed in the outer court and one of
the inmates either of the outer or inner forgot to join in an Erub, carrying is
prohibited ; and how if it was placed in one of the inner courts ? If there
was a third court between the two, also belonging to an individual, is it per-
mitted to carry in any of the three ? 170-178

CHAPTER VII.

MiSHNAS I., II., III., and IV. If there be an aperture, four spans square,
ttc, between two courts. If in the attic of a house there was a hole for the
purpose of fastening a ladder therein, should the house be considered solid ?
If there be a wall ten spans high and four spans wide between two courts.
If a man comes to diminish the size of the wall referred to in the Mishna.
An Egyptian ladder does not diminish a wall, but a ladder of Tyre does. If
one erected two benches, one above the other, at the foot of a wall. What
is the law if several pegs be placed on the pillar in question ? I have a tra-
dition that a ladder standing straight against a wall also diminishes its size.
What is the law if a man used a tree, which grew right at the wall, for a
ladder? If two courts are separated by a ditch, ten spans deep and four
wide. " Thou wouldst prove a contradiction from a law pertaining to unclean-
ness to a Sabbath-law?" If there be between two courts a straw-rick, ten
spans high. If a house which was filled with straw stand between two
tourts ? 179-189

MiSHNAS v., VI., VII., and VIII. How are alleys to be combined ? If
alleys or legal limits are combined. Whether a transfer of ownership is
necessary in case of Erubin of cooked articles. R. Zera was asked whether
it may be rented from the man's wife. Note about a misprint that has
existed since the Talmud has been published and reprinted. If the quan-
tity of food required for the combination becomes diminished. How much
is this legal quantity. Eighteen dried figs are sufficient for two meals. The
Erub of courts or combination of alleys may be effected with all kinds of
nutriment except water and salt. Is it permitted to make an Erub with
bread made of rice or millet? A man may give money to the wine-seller
or baker in order to acquire the right to join in the Erub. About a Meshikha
to a sale and its explanation. If additional inhabitants came into the alley,
the right of possession must be transferred to them, . . 189-197



SYNOPSIS OF SUBJECTS. xv

CHAPTER VIII.

MiSHNAS I.. II., and III. How are the legal limits to be combined ? A
child that is only six years old may go out in the legal limits which have
been combined by its mother. How much is the legal quantity of food
required to efifect the combination of limits ? Note about coins and meas-
ures mentioned in the Tract. If the inhabitants of a court and balcony
should have forgotten to combine an Erub. If there were three ruins be-
tween two houses, each house may use the adjoining ruin by throwing
therein, except the middle one (with illustrations), . . . 198-204

MlSHN.\S IV., v., VI., and VII. If a man deposit his Erub for the com-
bination of courts in a vestibule, gallery, or balcony. If a company was
seated at table on the eve of Sabbath, the bread on the table may be
depended upon to serve as an Erub. If a man leaves his house and goes to
take his Sabbath-rest in another town (without previously joining in the
Erub). If there be a well between two courts it is not lawful to draw water.
If a canal runs through a court it is not lawful to draw water, unless there
be a partition. If a canal flows between two walls which contain aper-
tures 204-209

MiSHNAS VIII. and IX. If there be a balcony above the water. The
law concerning robbery is applicable also on Sabbath. If the court be less
than four ells square it is not permitted to pour water therein on Sabbath,
unless a sewer is made. All these regulations concerning the pouring of
water apply only to summer 209-213

CHAPTER IX.

MiSHNAS I. and II. All the roofs of a town are considered one private
ground, provided there be not one roof ten hands higher than the rest. If a
man erected an attic on top of his house and provided it with a small door
four spans wide, he may carry things in all the roofs. All roofs are con-
sidered as one private ground in their own right. " It happened in a time
of danger that we brought up the sacred scrolls from a court to a roof." If a
large roof adjoins a small one. If there are three woodsheds opening into
each other, of which the two outer arc enclosed while the middle one is not
(with illustrations), 214-223

MiSHNAS III., IV., and V. If a court (through an incavation of its walls)
is laid open to public ground. In a court (the corner walls of which had
fallen in on Sabbath so) that it has been laid open to public ground on two
sides. If an attic be built over two houses, also if bridges are open at both
ends, 223-226

CHAPTER X.

MiSHNAS I., II., and III. If a man finds tephilin on the road he should
watch them and bring them into the nearest town or village ; likewise his
child he should hand to his companion, etc. If one buys tephilin of a man who
is not an expert, he must examine two tephilin. How came his child on the
field or on the road ? This refers to a child that was born there. If a man
reads in a scroll (of sacred scriptures) on the threshold of the house and it



xvi SYiNOPSIS OF SUBJECTS.

slips out of his hand. On a ledge outside a window it is permitted to place
vessels, 227-235

MiSHNAS IV., v., VI., VII., VIII., and IX. A man may stand in private
ground and move things that are in public ground. A man must not,
standing in private ground, drink in public ground. A man may catch
water dropping from a spout on the roof. If a well, standing in public
ground, have an enclosure ten spans high. Beneath a tree, the branches of
which droop and cover the ground. The shutters of a bleaching ground or
thorn bushes, 235-240

MiSHNAS X. to XVIII. A man must not, standing in private ground,
unlock with a key something in public ground. A loose bolt, with a knob
to it, is prohibited to use on Sabbath, A loose bolt that is fastened to a
rope may be used in the Temple only. In the Temple the lower hinge of a
cupboard door may be refitted into its place. Priests who minister may
replace a plaster in the Temple. The Levites performing on musical instru-
ments may tie a string. The priests who minister may remove a wart from
an animal on Sabbath. A ministering priest who hurts his finger may bind
it up with reeds in the Temple. Should the carcass of a dead reptile be
found in the Temple on the Sabbath the priest shall move it out with his
belt. From which parts of the Temple should it be removed ? It is per-
mitted for anyone to enter the Temple for the purpose of building, 240-251



SYNOPSIS OF SUBJECTS

OF

VOLUME IV.— TRACT SHEKALIM.*



CHAPTER I.



MiSHNA a treats of: What were the duties of the Beth Din in the month
of Adar in the time of the second Temple. When the Megillah (Book of
Esther) was to be read in the fortified cities. For what purpose messengers
were sent out, and what were the things to be heralded.

MiSHNA b treats of : What was the punishment for not obeying the com-
mandments of Kelayim in the former times and later.

MiSHNA c deals with : When the money-changers, with their tables,
began their work in the countries of Judea and in Jerusalem. The time for
pledges which were taken for not paying the Shekalim. From what persons
the pledges were to be taken. If a father might pay the Shekalim for his
children.

MiSHNA ^treats of: What ordinance Ben Buchri proclaimed in Jamnia
in behalf of the priests, and what R. Johanan b. Zakkai rejoined. The
defence of the priests, with their interpretation of biblical passages, which
was accepted only for the sake of peace.

MiSHNA e treats of: The voluntary payment of Shekalim from women,
slaves, and minors being accepted, but not from the heathens or Samaritans.
I5ird-offerings not accepted from persons affected with venereal diseases or
from women after confinement. Sin and vow offerings, however, were
accepted from the Samaritans. The vow-offerings were also accepted from
heathens. The general rule concerning this.

MiSHNA f deals with : The premium one had to pay in addition to the
half-shekel. Who was obliged to do so? The different opinions of the
sages and R. Meir. How much one had to pay if given one Selah and taking
a shekel in exchange.

* See introduction to synopsis in Tract Sabbath, Vol. I., p. xxix. This tract has
no Gemara. The synopsis contains the Mishnas, with their commentaries.

xiii



xiv SYNOPSIS OF SUBJECTS.

MlSHNA^ treats of: The law concerning one who pays for a poor man,
for a neighbor, and for a countryman. Law concerning brothers and part-
ners paying together; also, law regarding cattle-tithe. How much was the
premium.

CHAPTER II.

MiSHNA a. One may put together the Shekalim and exchange them for
a gold coin called Darkon. Concerning the chests which were given to the
collectors in the country and at Jerusalem. What is the law if money were
stolen or lost by the messengers of a city, when a portion of the Shekalim
was already expended ; what is the law if not expended.

MiSHNA b. Concerning the law when one gives his shekels to another to
pay his head-taxes for him ; if he pays his shekels from the money of the
second tithes or from the money of the fruit of the Sabbatical year. Con-
cerning how he shall replace it and use it for the same purpose.

MiSHNA c. The law concerning one who gathered single coins little by
little and said : "With this money I shall pay my shekels." The different
opinions of the schools of Hillel and Shamai in tliis matter. Concerning the
same case when one gathers money for sin-offerings. What shall be done
with the eventual remains of such money.

MiSHNA d. Concerning the explanauon of R. Simeon of the teachings
of the school of Hillel. The discussion of the former with R. Jehudah. The
claims of the latter that the coins of the Shekalim were also changed in times
and places. The rejoinder of R. Simeon to this.

MiSHNA e. The law concerning the remainder of money intended for
Shekalim when considered to be ordinary. Regarding the remainder of the
tenth part of an ephah, bird-offerings, and guilt-offerings : what shall be done
with it. A rule concerning this matter. Also, regulations concerning the
remainder of Passover sacrifices, Nazarite offerings, the remainder of moneys
for the poor in general and individuals, of money for prisoners, for burial of
the dead, and R. Meir and R. Nathan's opinions regarding this matter,

CHAPTER III.

MiSHNA a. Regarding the appointed periods of the year when the money
was drawn from the treasury. The dififerent opinions, concerning this
matter, of R. Aqiba b. Asai, R. Eliezer, and R. Simeon. The same time
appointed for cattle-tithes.

MiSHNA b. Concerning the ceremony of drawing the money at all
periods of the year. The law regarding measures of the boxes in which tlie
coins of the Shekalim were filled, and the numbers of the chests in which
the money was drawn from the boxes for the expenses of the Temple.
Which box must be opened first, and which last. What garments the person
drawing the money must wear. How a man must stand unblemished before
his fellow-man and before his God.

MiSHNA c. Concerning the custom of the house of Rabban Gamaliel,
when the members of the house had paid their Shekalim. The law regarding



SYNOPSIS OF SUBJECTS. xv

one who drew money did not commence until he had said to the bystanders,
" I will now draw," and they answered, " Draw, draw, draw," three times.

MiSHNA d. Concerning the covering of tlie boxes after drawing the
money. For which countries the drawings were performed in the first
period, the second, and the third.

CHAPTER IV.

MiSHNA a. What was done with the money drawn ? Concerning the
watchmen that were sent out to guard the after-growth of the Sabbatical
year, of which the Omer and two loaves were taken for sacrifice. The
opinion of R. Jose in this matter, and what the rabbis answered.

MiSHNA b. Concerning the red heifer, the goat that was to be sent away,
the strip of scarlet, the bridge for the cow, the bridge for the goat, the canal,
the city wall, the towers, and other necessities of the city : all were paid for
out of the Shekalim money. What Abba Saul said.

MiSHNA c. What was done with the balance of the money left over in
the treasury. The discussion of R. Ishmael and R. Aqiba in this matter.
Some of the many things which are enumerated in the Palestinian Talmud
and which were done with this money. Among them was the hiring of
teachers for priests to teach them the laws of the sacrifices.

MiSHNA d. What was done with the remainder of the moneys of the
chest. The different opinions of R. Ishmael, R. Aqiba, and R. Hanina, the
assistant chief of the priests, concerning profit : if it might be raised from
the remaining money or not, and of what money the gold plates for the
decorations of the Holy of Holies were made. Also, concerning the benefit
of the altar.

MiSHNA e. What was done with the remainder of the incense (as the
incense of the New Year must be bought with the new Shekalim money).
The sanctification of the incense on hand then transferred to that money,
and then redeemed with the money of the new revenue.

MiSHNAy. Concerning the law when one devoted his entire possessions
in honor of the Lord : what should be done with them. The discussions of
R. Aqiba and Ben Asai regarding this matter.

MiSHNA^. Concerning the law when one devoted his possessions, and
among them were cattle, male and female, fit for the altar. The discussions
of this matter between R. Eliezer and R. Jehoshua. R. Aqiba is inclined
to the opinion of R. Eliezer, which seems to him to be more proper, but adds
that he had heard that both opinions were right according to circumstances.

MiSHNA h. If one devote his possessions, and among them are things
fit for the altar, such as wines, oils, and birds, what should be done with
them. R. Eliezer decreed it, and no one opposed him.

MiSHNA i. Contractors, for the delivery of all things for the altar and
♦he improvements of the Temple, were appointed every month ; but if the



xvi SYNOPSIS OF SUBJECTS.

prices changed during the thirty days, the Sanctuary must not suffer any
injury. Such was the agreement made between them. The illustration
of this.

CHAPTER V.

MiSHNA a. Concerning some names of the offices and the heads of them
in the Sanctuary during the entire period when the second Temple was in
existence. What were the officers' duties, and how they officiated.

MiSHNA i>. Concerning the order of the head officers ; namely, the king,
the high priest, his assistant, two catholicoses, and seven chamberlains, not
less than two officers being put in charge of public moneys.

MiSHNA c. Regarding the seals that were in the Sanctuary, serving for
the beverages and meat-offerings which must be brought, according to the
Bible, with every sacrifice. Concerning the inscription on the seals and
their usage. Ben Azai added one seal for the poor sinner. The names of
the officers, of the seal-keeper and the officer who sells the above offerings.

MiSHNA ^. The date must be put on every seal. The law regarding
surplus money being found in the treasury of the seal-keeper : to whom it
belongs ; and if a deficit, who must supply it.

MiSHNA e. The law concerning one who lost his seal ; what must be
done.

MiSHNA /. Concerning the two chambers in the Sanctuary, of which
one was called " Chamber of Silence" and the other "Chamber of Utensils."
What was done there, during what time they were investigated, and what
was done with the presented utensils which were useless for the Temple.

CHAPTER VI.

MiSHNA a. Concerning the thirteen covered chests and thirteen tables
which were in the Sanctuary. How many prostrations took place in the
Sanctuary. How R. Gamaliel and R. Hanina, assistant chief of the high
priest, added one in the place where the ark was hidden.

MiSHNA d. Relates how a blemished priest who was engaged in select-
ing and peeling wood had noticed the place where the ark was hidden, but
before he had time to tell it to the others he expired.

MiSHNA c. Concerning the directions where the prostrations were
made. How many gates were in the Temple : their names, and why they
were so named ; also, different opinions of the sages concerning this.
There were two gates which were nameless.

MiSHNA d. Of what material the thirteen tables were made, where they
stood, for what purpose they were used. Concerning the golden table in
the Temple itself, upon which the showbreads were constantly lying.

MiSHNA e. Concerning the inscriptions on the thirteen covered chests
in the Sanctuary, and what was done with them. The different opinions of
R. Jehudah and the sages as to using certain money put in some chests.



SYNOPSIS OF SUBJECTS. xvii

MiSHNA /. Concerning the amount of articles to be furnished in pay-
ment of a vow one made, who did not explain how much he intended to
give ; for instance, wood, incense, gold coins, etc. A rule that was made
concerning this. The hides of all sacrifices belong to the priest.



CHAPTER VII.

MlSHNA a. If money was found in between the differently marked
rhests, to which chest the money belonged. Concerning this the rule was:
One must be guided by the proximity, even in the case of the less impor-
tant, etc.

MiSHNA b. Concerning money found in Jerusalem, in the court of the
Temple, in the times of the Festivals and in the ordinary times.

MiSHNA c. Concerning meat found in the court of the Temple, in the
city, and any place where Israelites resided and where Gentiles and Israel-
ites together resided.

MiSHNA d. Concerning cattle found between Jerusalem and Migdal
Eder, and in the vicinity of the city in all directions : what the law pre-
scribes. The different opinions of some sages.

MiSHNA e. Relates how, in former days, the finder of such cattle was
pledged to bring drink-offerings, and how afterwards the high court decreed
to furnish them from the public moneys.

MiSHNAS/and ^. R. Simeon named seven decrees which were promul-
gated by the high court, and the above decree was one of them. R. Jehudah,
however, does not agree on some points with him. R. Jose hag also some-
thing to say about this.

CHAPTER VIII.

MiSHNA a. Concerning streets in which people must walk during the
time of the Festival in Jerusalem, for the sake of cleanness. The different
opinions, in this matter, of R. Meir and the sages.

MiSHNA b. Regarding utensils found on the way towards the plunge-
baths : if they are clean or not, and the different opinions of R. Meir and
R. Jose.

MiSHNA c. Regarding the butcher-knife, if it was found in the street on
tlie 14th of Nissan ; and what is the case if the 14th falls on a Sabbath.

MiSHNA d. Concerning where the curtain of the Sanctuary must be
submerged if it become defiled. The first time it was submerged it was
spread out for the people to admire the beauty of the work.

MiSHNA e. What Rabban Simeon b. Gamaliel had to tell in the name of
Simeon, the son of the assistant high priest. How the curtain was made :
the great amount of the cost and how many hundred priests were required
to submerge it.



xviii SYNOPSIS OF SUBJECTS.

MiSHNA/. If meat of the Holy of Holies became defiled, where it must
be burned. The different opinions of the schools of Shamai and Hillel on


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