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Michael Maher.

Psychology: empirical and rational online

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Hoffding's doctrine, 517— Criticism, 520— Law of I nertia, 523 —
Agnosticism, 524. """^ "

CHAPTER XXIV.

Immortality of the Soul ..... Pp. 525—544
Immortality and Psychology : Theism, 525 — Teleological Argu-
ment, 526— P:thical Argument, 529— Formal Theistic proof, 533—
Argument from Universal belief, 533 — Scholastic Ontological Argu-
ment, 5^^ — Objections against the doctrine of a Future Life, 537.

CHAPTER XXV.

Soul and Body Pp. 545—561

Individuality of the Human Soul, 544 — Unicity of the Soul in
man, 545 — Vitalism and Animism, 546— Organicism : Physico-
chemical theories of Life inadequate, 547 — Definitions of Life, 551
— Union of Soul and Body : Ultra-dualistic theories, 553 — Aristo-
telico-scholastic doctrine, 555— Soul and Body one Nature and
Person, 558 — Aristotle's definition of the Soul, 560.

CHAPTER XXVI.

Soul and Body {continued). Other Problems . Pp. 562 — 578
Locus of the Soul, 562 — The Soul present throughout the Body,
^5^ — Phrenology, 564 — Localization of Cerebral P^unctions, 565 —
Methods of research, 566— D. Ferrier, Plechsig, 567 — Origin of the
Soul, 572 — Traducianism and Creation, 574 — Time of its Origin :
Scholastic doctrine, 575 — Lotze and Ladd, 576 — Origin of the first
Human Soul : Evolution Theory, 578.

SUPPLEMENTS.

A. — Animal Psychology Pp. 579—594

Comparative Psychology, 579 — Difficulties of Animal Psycho-
logy, 580 — Cartesian Theory : Animals sentient, 582 — Animals
irrational, 583— Instinct, 5S7 — Origin of Instinct : Evolutionist
Theories, 588— Animal " Souls," 593.

B. — Hypnotism Pp. 594 — 601

Hypnotism : Historical sketch, 594 — Induction and Character-
istics of hypnotic state, 595 — Theories concerning Hypnotism, 598
C.— Repj^y to Mr. Mallock's Criticism . Pp. C03— Cio



DIAGRAMS ILLUSTRATING THE

STRUCTURE OF

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DESCRIBED'

IN THE TEXT.



For the subject-matter of Figures I. — III. see pp. 44 — 46-



Fig. I. — Side view of Brain and Spinal Cord.

(Barnet.)



CEREBRUM

MEDULLA
OBLONGATA J

3EREBELLUM



'INAL CORD




Fig. II.— Spinal Cord
and Nerves, with
Sympathetic Chain
on one side.



SPINAL COLUMK



CUT ENDS OF
SPINAL NERVEa



Fig. III.— Roots of a Spinal Nerve issuing from
the Cord : viewed (A) from before ; (B) from
the side; (C) from above; (D) the ^ roots
separated.




s^^



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v



alO



■>>■%



A\



\', pons varolii, below
which is the medulla
oblongata; C i to 8, the
cervical nerves ; a to x,



, anterior fissure ; 2, posterior fissure ; 3 and 4, lateral the sympathetic chain
grooves of cord ; 5, anterior, efferent, or motor root ; connected with spinal
6, posterior, afferent, or sensory root. (Furneau.x. ) nerves. (Furneau.x.)




FRONT




REAR



Fig. IV. — The Human
Brain.



A, cerebrum ; b, cerebellum
c, pons varolii ; D, medulk
oblongata ; e, fissure o
Silvius.



1

1

I



Fig.V. — Under surface ct
Brain, showing origi
of the twelve pairs (
cranial nerves.



I, great longitudinal fissur«

2, 2' 2", convolutions of ba
of cerebrum, frontal lobe;

3, base of fissure of Silviui

4, 4', 4", bases of cerebrur
temporal lobes ; 5, 5', oc<
pital lobes ; 7, 8, 9, 10, cat
bellum ; 6, medulla oblo
gata; I. — IX. .cranial nerv«
VI. VII. on pons varc
indicate roots of ocular a:
facial nerves. (Bastian.)



(See Text, pp. 44—4'^)-



Th



1



ig. VI. — Upper surface of Brain, arachnoid membrane being- removed. (Gray.)




LOWER
FROMTAL



FISSURE
ROL.ANDO



PARIETO-OCCIPITAL FISSURE



REAR



This illustration shows the chief convolutions and fissures of the cerebrum from above.
The two hemispheres are divided by the great longitudinal or median fissure.

(See Text, pp. 45, 567—570).



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PSYCHOLOGY.



> > > I






Introduction.



CHAPTER I.

DEFINITION AND SCOPE OF PSYCHOLOGY.

Definition. — Psychology (r?}? -^vxv^ X0709) is that
branch of philosophy which studies the human mind
or soul. By the mind or soul (yfruxv) is meant the
thinking principle, that by which I feel, know, and
will, and by which my body is animated. The
terms Ego, Self, Spirit, are used as synonymous
with mind and soul, and, though slight differences
attach to some of them, it will be convenient for us
(except where we specially call attention to diver-
gencies of meaning) to follow common usage and
employ them as practically equivalent.

Subjective and Objective. — In modern philo-
sophy the mind is also called the Subject, especially
when set in contrast with the external world, which
is characterized as the Object. The adjective sub-
jective is similarly opposed to objective, as denoting
mental in opposition to extra-mental facts, what
pertains to the knowing mind as contrasted with
B



PSYCHOLOGY.



what belongs to the object known. Thus a train of
thought, an emotion, and a dream are said to be
subjective ; whilst a horse, an election, and a war
are objective realities. Such are the primary signi-
fications of these terms, but the meanings vary with
different writers.^

An objection. — We may here be met with the
objection that wc are unwarrantably postulating at
the very commencement of our work the most
disputed doctrine in the whole science of Ps3^cho-
logy — the existence of some '* inscrutable entity,"
called the soul. To this we reply that for the
present we only use the term provisionally to indi-
cate the source or root of our conscious states. We
make no assumption as regards the nature of this
principle. Whether it be the brain, the nervous
system, the whole organism, or a pure spirit, we do
not yet attempt to decide. But we claim to be
justified, in employing the familiar terms soul and
mind to designate this apparent bond, by the obvious
fact that our various mental states manifest them-
selves as bound together in a single unity.

Scope of Psychology. — The subject-matter of
our science is, then, the Soul or Mind. The psycho-
logist investigates those phenomena which we call
sensations, perceptions, thoughts, volitions, and
emotions; he analyzes them, classifies them, and

^ In strict language the vv'ord miud designates the animating
principle as the subject of consciousness, while soul refers to it as the
root of all forms of vital activity. Spirit is of still narrower extension
than mind, indicating properly a being capable of the higher, rational,
or intellectual order of conscious life. E



Online LibraryMichael MaherPsychology: empirical and rational → online text (page 2 of 63)