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conscious choice. They imply then a considerable
development of the activities of ideation and volition.
Moreover, those movements, which are ordinarily called
voluntary, are really so only with respect to certain of
their elements ; they also contain elements which must
be classed as reflex, centrally coordinated, and impul-
sive. The term ' voluntary ' fitly lays the emphasis
upon the conscious act of choice ; and this in turn
implies ideas of various possible forms of bodily motion
gained by previous experience with the correlated states
of conscious feeling and conditions of the body as giving
rise to or modifying these states." ^

We may therefore classify movements according to
their origin, their voluntariness, and their conscious
or unconscious character thus :

** Lotze accurately observes: "An action is 'voluntary' in
case the interior initial state (impulse) from which a motion would
originate as a result does not merely take place, but is approbated, or
adopted, or endorsed, by the will. Every action is ' involuntary '
which mechanically considered issues from the same initial point,
and wholly in the same manner, but without having experienced
such approbation.''' {Outlines of Psychology , p. 87.)

^ Elements of Physiological Psychology, p. 528.



2is SENSUOUS LIFE.



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Online LibraryMichael MaherPsychology: empirical and rational → online text (page 22 of 63)