Michigan. Dept. of Public Instruction.

Manual and course of study, elementary schools online

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a ad, had, lad, mad

at, cat, hat, fat

am, ham, jam

an, tan, pan, fan

and, sand, hand, band
ed fed, bed, red

eU, teU, fell, sell

em, hem, gem, them

en, ten, pen, hen

est, best, nest, rest

et, set, met, let
i id, did, bid, hid

ig, big, dig, fig

ill, till, mill, will

im, him, dim, rim

in, tin, pin, wm

ing, sing, ring, king

it, hit, mit, sit
o op, stop, hop, mop

ot, hot, not, cot
u ub, rub, hub, tub

ug, bug, mug, rug

ut, hut, nut, but

ay day, may, say

ail pail; haU; sail

all ball, call, fall

eat seat; meat, neat

eed feed, seed, need

old sold, fold, hold

oon moon, noon, soon

ook book, look, took

ight sight, right, might

bl blue, blow, block

br bran, brave, brush

eh chain, chiU, chase

sh shall, shade

sp spell, spin, spade

st stand, stay, still

sw. .' swing, swim, sweep

pi play, please, plate

cr cry, crawl, crib

gr gray, grow, grain

gl glad, glass, glow

Teach that final e makes the vowel say its own name, as — •

ade spade, made, fade

ame came, same, game

ate rate, hate, late

ane cane, lane

ide side, hide, ride

ile mile, tile, while

ine fine, pine, line

ite bite, kite

ope rope, hope

Method of presentation.



Lesson I. To teach the sound of the initial consonant m.

Pupil's part
I. To hear the sound of m.

The child whose name is called sounds m.

The children give, — ^mother, mile, mit,
meat, mill.

IL To recognize the symbol which repre-
sents the sound of m.

One child at a time sounds in as directed.

A child pronounces the word man and
sounds the m.

The children, individually, sound m.

III. To give the sound of m and to recognize
quickly its written symbol.

The child called on follows the direc-

Teacher's part

I. To train the ear.

The teacher pronounces the following
words slowly and distinctly so as to attract
the attention to the initial consonant m:
m an; m ake; m at.

What sound did you first hear in all of
these words?

Give other words that begin in the same

II. To train the eye.

At the children's dictation, the teacher
writes the following words on the black-
board, — mother, make, man, mile, mit,
meat, etc. The teacher, then, pronounces
the word mother, prolonging the sound of m
and underlining its written form. She
next points to the m and sounds it. The
children are then directed to give the sound.

The word make is then treated in the same
way as was the word mother.

You see that these words which sound
ahke at the beginning look alike at the
beginning when written on the blackboard.

Underline the form in the word man that
looks the same as ?n (the teacher sounds
the letter) in mother. Pronounce the word.
Give the sound first heard when you pro-
nounced the word man.

The remaining words on the blackboard
are treated in a similar manner.

This letter (wi'iting m on the blackboard)
always says m. (The teacher sounds the
letter.) What does it say?

III. To train the voice and to provide drill

for the quick recognition of the
letter m.

Find and sound m as many times as it
appears on the blackboard.

As the work progresses the several
consonants may be reviewed by writing
them on the blackboard for the children to
pronounce, and quickly erasing them.
Review may also be conducted by means
of perception cards.



Lesson II. To teach the ai family.

Pupil's part

I. To hear similar sounds in words.

The children give the words, — bat, sat,
fat, mat, etc.

The child called on answers:

At (Sounding the phonogram.)

The last

II. To associate the sound of the phonogram
with its written symbol.

The children underline at in the several

The children, one at a time, pronounce
the underlined parts.

III. To build words containing the phono-
gram al.
The children in tm-n sound the elements
and pronounce the words as directed.

IV. To drill.

The children pronounce the words as

Teacher's part

I. To teach the children to hear similar

sounds and words.

The teacher pronounces the words, — cat,
hat, rat. She calls on the children to give
other words that rhyme with the word cat.

The teacher pronounces several words
as, — sat, hat, mat with exaggerated clear-
ness. Which part of these words sound
the same?

Sound the last part.

II. To teach the children to associate the

sound of the phonogram with its
written symbol.

The teacher wTites the words belonging
to the at family (without naming it) on the
blackboard. To help the children dis-
tinguish the parts that sound the same
(the phonograms) she pronounces the words
one after the other, covering the phonogram
while she sounds the initial consonant and
by covering the initial consonant while she
sounds the phonogram. For example, in
the word cat she covers at while sounding c;
she covers c while pronouncing at. The
teacher calls on the children to underline
the parts that sound aUke; to pronounce
these parts.

The parts that sound the same look the
same. We know, then, that when we see
this (writing at on the board) that it says
at (pronouncing it). Words containing this
syllable (drawing a circle around at) we
say belong to the at family.

III. To build the at family.

Let us find how many words are in this
at family.

The teacher writes the following chart
on the board for children to sound the
consonant, the phonogram, — then to pro-
nounce the word:










IV. To drill

The teacher drills on the quick recogni-
tion of the at family from perception cards.



Phonic spelling and visualization.

Phonic spelling. Spell by sound words which are made up of an initial consonant and
a general phonogiam.

Visualization. Visualize the words in the phonic spelling list and the simplest and most
commonly used words in the reading lessons. The steps in an exercise in visualization are:

1. The teacher writes the word on the blackboard.

2. The teacher calls attention to its form and erases the word.

3. The children reproduce the word on the blackboard or on paper.

Oral spelling.

Note. — The names of the letters have been learned in the writing lesson.s. By the end of the first
half year the child knows the name and the form of all the letters, small or capital, script or print.

Spell phonograms that are words in themselves, as — at, in, am, etc. Spell words built
on these phonograms then on the remaining general phonograms given in the phonics list.
Spell the simplest and the most commonly used words in the reading lesson.

The steps in an oral spelling lesson are:

1. The teacher writes the word on the blackboard.

2. A child pronounces the word.

3. The child spells the word as the teacher points to the letters.

4. The child visualizes the word and spells it orally without lookmg at the word.


If a series of readers with a method peculiar to them is in use in the school, that method
can doubtless be followed with the greatest success. If such a series is not in use, a method
which combines the best features of the sentence, word and phonetic methods as given
in the preceding outlines is recommended.

If the children are to learn real reading, that is if they are to learn to interpret and enjoy
what books contain, they should have from the very first plenty of material that is worth
while. Much of such interesting material will grovv out of the regular work of the school.
In addition to such material, several of the best recently pubhshed primers and first readers
contain collections of Mother Goose rhymes and cumulative tales. The district authorities
should be induced to furnish a sufficient number of several of these primers and first readers
to go around the beginning class. Children learn to read by reading. They cannot
learn to read simply by learning to pronounce words.

Books which are used in the class should not be kept by the children at their seats.
For the children to study without direction at this time initiates and promotes the growth
of bad reading habits. It is desirable, however, that the children have free access to the
extra sets of readers for the mere pleasure of reading.

Rarely, if ever, after the blackboard lessons are finished should the teacher read for
imitation. If the reading is unsatisfactory, the teacher may say, " Now it is my turn to
read." In this way she may arouse in the children the feeling expressed by the selection
and inspire them with a desire to read well. Later in review, the children may read the
same part, but never immediately following the teacher's reading.

The children should be kept attentive and interested tliroughout the recitation period.
If the attention lags, the teacher should seek the cause. Inattention may be due to holding
the class at work on one thing for too long a time, to impure or overheated air, to lack
of animation in presenting words or phrases, or in doing other preparatory work.


The first half of the year should be devoted to blackboard wi'iting. The aim is to learn
the letter forms. However, the child should write with freedom and a fair degree of speed.
The chalk is held in a horizontal position, the first three fingers on top and thumb below,
the pupil standing du-ectly in front of the board and facing it; the left hand holding the
eraser and placed behind the back. Guide fines hinder freedom, so they should seldom be
used. The exercises and writing should be quite large — four or five inches in height —
and in front of the face, the child stepping along as he writes.

We must eliminate cramped and jerky motions, and in order to do this, freedom and
rhythm are necessary. The manner of counting for rhythm is immaterial so long as it is
regular. To determine the count for an exercise or letter, the teacher should write it with
freedom and note the impulses required. As a general rule, count for down strokes, but


sometimes it is better to count for both up and down strokes, especially in the lower
grades. The exercises and writing should have a uniform slant to the right. The letters
and words used in reading are, as a rule, the best for practice in this grade.

When seat writing is taken up, use a large beginner's pencil and unruled paper. The
letters from one to two inches high are more easily formed, then as the forms become
fixed in mind they may be decreased gradually. The teacher should write the exercises
and letters on the board or paper, before the pupils, the same size and rhythm as she expects
them to write. If any of the pupils do not get the form and rhythm readily, the teacher
must take hold of the child's hand and guide it. The whole arm movement wiU be found
more practicable in this grade; however, if any of the pupils can write with the muscular
movement, so much the better.

All ivriling in the grade must he done under the eye of the teacher — do not give writing as
"busy work."


(See Introduction and Appendix.)

The purpose of the work in the primary grades is two-fold, — the acquiring of ideas
and the acquiring of words. Introductory to the work of developing the power of ex-
pression, is that of putting the child in possession of the right kind of ideas and knowledge
to express. The first factor is selection. The materials should be such as will inspire
and make the highest appeal to the imagination and emotions and must be gathered from
the very choicest of the best works of all time, in literature, history, art and nature.

A large portion of the language development in primary grades must be accomplished
through story-telling. The stories selected should be masterpieces of English. They
should enlarge the imaginative powers and increase the vocabulary. Pupils should be
required to retell a story told by the teacher and it should be repeated frequently. Do not
allow pupils to select their own stories. The stories should include fairy-tales, folk-lore,
nature stories, biographies, and the best stories of literature.

Work for clear articulation, distinct enunciation, and correct pronunciation. Aim to
have the children acquire well-modulated, pleasing voices. Cultivated voices are quite
as important as correct language.

A very important feature of the work is the dramatizing of stories and the memorizing
of poems, and should be carefully planned and executed. There is no other way by which
a full, pure vocabulary can be acquired as satisfactorily as in the memorizing of poems.

Natiu-e furnishes unlimited resources for language work. Pupils should learn to see
things; to recognize the flowers, trees and weeds; to know the growing things of their
environment, the habits, growth and use. Study the bhds and then- habits. This and
other similar work will furnish the child with interesting ideas to express.

The verb forms used by the childi-en may be acted out, as lie, fly, drink, throw and the
use of the correct forms of each made habitual.

The names of persons, places, streets, points of the compass, may be familiarized and

The teacher should frame her questions so that answers may be given in complete


Aesop's Fables. The Rabbit's Walk.

Indian Child-Life. Three Bears.

Happy Heart Family. The Bundle of Sticks.

The Snow Baby. The Lamp and the Sun.

A Visit to Dreamland. The Wind and the Moon.

Nursery Tales. Hiawatha Stories.

The Little Red Hen. Pippa.

Summer is Coming

Summer is nigh.

How do I loiow?
Why, this very day

A robin sat on a tilting spray.
And merrily sang a song of May.


Jack Frost has fled
From the ripphng brook,

And a trout peeped out
• From his shady nook.

A butterfly, too.
Flew lazily by,

And the willow catkins
Shook from on high

Their yellow dust,
As I passed by;

And so I know
That summer is nigh.

In the Heart of a Seed
K. L. Brown

In the heart of a seed
Buried deep, so deep,

A dear little plant
Lay fast asLeep.

"Wake!" said the sunshine,
"And creep to the light."

"Wake!" said the voice
Of the raindrops bright.

The little plant heard

And it rose to see
What the wonderful

Outside world might be.

Whole Duty of Children
Robert Louis Slevenson

A child should always say what's true
And speak when he is spoken to.
And behave mannerly at table;
At least as far as he is able.

The Swing
Robert Louis Stevenson

How do you like to go up in a swing.

Up in the air so blue?
Oh, I do think it the pleasantest thing

Ever a child can do!

Up in the air and over the wall,

Till I can see so wide,
Rivers and trees and cattle and all

Over the countryside —

Till I look down on the garden green
Down on the roof so brown —

Up in the air I go flying again,
Up in the air and down!


Stars and Daisies

Frank Dempster Sherman

At evening when I go to bed
I see the stars shine overhead;
They are the little daisies white,
That dot the meadow of the Night.

And often while I'm dreaming so,
Across the sky the Moon Nvill go;
She is a lady, sweet and fair,
Who comes to gather daisies there.

For, when at morning I arise,

There's not a star left in the skies"

She's picked them all and dropped them down

Into the meadows of the town.

The Rock-A-By Lady
Eugene Field

The Rock-a-By Lady from Hushaby Street

Comes stealing; comes creeping;
And the poppies they hang from her head to her feet,
And each hath a dream that is tiny and fleet^
She bringeth her poppies to you, my sweet,

When she findeth you sleeping!

There is one little dream of a beautiful drum —

' Rub-a-dub ! ' it goeth ;
There is one little dream of a big sugar-plum,
And lo! thick and fast the other dreams come
Of pop-guns that bang, and tin tops that hum,

And a trumpet that bloweth!

And dollies peep out of those wee little dreams

With laughter and singing;
And boats go a-floating on silvery streams, _
And the stars peek-a-boo with theh own misty gleams.
And up, up, and up, where the Mother Moon beams.

The fairies go winging!

Would you dream all these dreams that are tiny and fleet?

They'll come to you sleeping;
So shut the two eyes that are weary, my sweet,
For the Rock-a-By Lady from Hushaby Street,
With poppies that hang from her head to her feet,

Comes stealing; comes creeping.

Bed in Simuner
Robert Louis Stevenson

In winter I get up at night
And dress by yellow-candle light.
In sximmer, quite the other way,
I have to go to bed by day.

I have to go to bed and see
The birds still hopping on the tree.
Or hear the grown-up people's feet
Still going past me in the street.


And does it not seem hard to you,
When all the sky is clear and blue,
^ And I should like so much to play,

To have to go to bed by day?

My Shadow
Robert Louis Stevenson

I have a little shadow that goes in and out with me,
And what can be the use of him is more than I can see.
He is very, very like me from the heels up to the head;
And I see him jump before me when I jump into my bed.

The funniest thing about him is the way he likes to grow —
Not at all like proper children, which is always very slow;
For he sometimes shoots up taller like an india-rubber ball.
And he sometimes gets so little that there's none of him at all.

He hasn't got a notion of how children ought to play,
And can only make a fool of me in every sort of way.
He stays so close beside me, he's a coward, you can see;
I'd think shame to stick to nursie as that shadow sticks to me!

One morning, very eai'ly, before the sun was up,
I rose and found the shining dew on every buttercup;
But my lazy little shadow, like an arrant sleepy-head.
Had stayed at home behind me and was fast asleep in bed.

The Glad New Year

Dinah M. Mulock

Who comes dancing over the snow,
His soft little feet all bare and rosy?

Open the door, though the wild winds blow.
Take the child in and make him cosy.
Take him in and hold him dear,
He is the wonderful glad New Year.

Little Boy Blue

Eugene Field

The httle toy dog is covered with dust,
But stm-dy and staunch he stands;

And the little toy soldier is red with rust,
And his musket moulds in his hands.

Time was when the little toy dog was new,

And the soldier was passing fair;
And that was the time when our Little Boy Blue

Kissed them and put them there.

'Now, don't you go till I come,' he said,

'And don't you make any noise!'
So toddling off to his trundle-bed,

He dreamt of the pretty toys; '

And, as he was dreaming, an angel song

Awakened our Little Boy Blue^
Oh! the years are many, the years are long,

But the little toy friends are true!


Ay, faithful to Little Boy Blue they stand,

Each in the same old place —
Awaiting the touch of a Uttle hand,

The smile of a httle face;

And they wonder, as waiting the long years through

In the dust of that Uttle chair,
What has become of our Little Boy Blue,

Since he kissed them and put them there.

Child's Thought of a Star
Jane Taylor

Twinkle, twinkle, Uttle star;
How I wonder what you are!
LTp above the world so high.
Like a diamond in the sky!

When the blazing sun is set,
And the grass with dew is wet.
Then you show your little Ught,
Twinkle, twinkle, all the night.

In the dark blue sky j-ou keep.
And often thi-ough my curtains peep;
For you never shut yoiu- eye
Till the sun is in the sky.

Then if I were in the dark,
I would thank you for your spark;
I could not see which way to go.
If you did not twinkle so.

Where Go the Boats?

Robert Louis Slevetison

Dark brown is the river.

Golden is the sand.
It flows along forever,

With trees on either hand.

Green leaves a-floating,

Castles of the foam,
Boats of mine a-boating —

Where wiU aU come home?

On goes the river

And out past the miU,
Away down the valley.

Away down the hill.

Away down the river,

A hundred miles or more.
Other little children

Shall bring my boats ashore.


The Wind

Christina Rosetli

Who has seen the wind?
i Neither I nor you;
But when the leaves hang trembling,
The wind is passing through.

Who has seen the wind?

Neither you nor I;
But when the trees bow down their heads,

The wind is passing by.

The Man in the Moon

Old Rhyme, Anonymous

The Man in the Moon as he sails the sky

Is a very remarkable skipper,

But he made a mistake

When he tried to take

A drink of millc from the Dipper.

He dipped right into the Milky Way

And slowly and carefully filled it.

The Big Bear growled

And the Little Bear howled.

And scared him so that he spilled it.

The Stars
May Moore Jackson

Do you know what the Uttle stars do at night?

They play on a deep blue hill.
Mother Moon watches to keep them in sight,

For they're never, never still.

Do you know what the little stars do at dawn?

They sink in a sun-kissed sea.
And there they sleep till the day is gone,

As still as still can be.

The above may be supplemented by poems printed in previous editions of the Course
of Study and by such poems as, To Mother Fairie, Alice Gary; Obedience, Phoebe Gary;
Little DandeUon, Helen Bostwick; Selections from Hiawatha, Longfellow; Dutch Lullaby,
Eugene Field; Mother Goose Rhymes; Autumn Fires, Robert Louis Stevenson.

*Sense Training Leading to Arithmetic and Language

(See Appendix.)

In the first grade the exercises are chiefly counting, making comparisons, and visualizing
of simple combinations. Ghildren should be able to count to one hundred. The work
is largely objective to create interest, and many illustrative devices are used for com-
parisons such as sets of blocks, cards, etc. This is the child's natural method of satisfying
the needs of his developing mind. Teaching will be successful when it meets these needs.
The teacher who knows the child knows that attention is a condition of thinking and
interest a condition of attention.

The fundamental thing in the teaching of arithmetic is to induce judgments of relative
magnitudes. The presentation regards the fact that it is the relation of things that makes
them what they are mathematically. The products of the senses, especially those of

*By permission of Ginn & Co., publishers, some material for the first and third grades has been
taken from Speer's Arithmetics.


rfight, hearing and touch, form the basis of all the higher thought processes. Since mathe-
matics deals with definite relations of magnitudes it suggests the need of creating definite
ideas, and forbids presenting things as isolated, independent or absolute in themselves.
If relations are to come into consciousness, the comparing which brings them there must
take place.

It is the definite relations of magnitudes established by means of solids, surfaces and
lines, that enable us to conceive or interpret the relations of quantities which cannot be
brought within the range of perception. The ratios which we actually see are few but
out of these grows the science of mathematics.

Give appropriate exercises in the following:

(a) Sense training: sight, touch, hearing.

(b) Visualizing of forms, relative positions, colors, pictures, etc.

(c) Handwork in cutting, drawing, building of forms with blocks and tablets, shaping

of forms with plastic materials, etc.

(d) Ratio work in magnitudes with solids, tablets, drawings, etc.

(e) Apphcations of this work with the simplest measures of length, volume and value;

foot, yard; pint, quart, gallon; cent, nickel, dime; etc.

(f) Simple problems based on ratios of quantities.

(g) Visuahzing of simple combinations.

(a) Sense training:

It is one of the first duties of the schools to test the senses and to devise means
for their development.
Sight training:

Pupils find solids, surfaces, colors, etc. Compare with one another and with

familiar objects in the room and at home.
Show pupils the base of a cup, a cyhnder or a cone, and tell them that it is a circle.
Conduct the exercises so that the doing will call forth variety of oral expression
in telhng what is done.

1. Find circles.

2. Find circles that are larger than others. Find circles that are smaller.

3. Find the largest circle in the room.

4. Find one of the smallest.

6. Find circles in going to and from school and at home, and tell where you saw

Finding forms of the same general shape as those taken as types is of the highest importance. Unless
this is done pupils are not learning to pass from the particular to the general. They are not taught

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Online LibraryMichigan. Dept. of Public InstructionManual and course of study, elementary schools → online text (page 3 of 22)