Miles Cannon.

Waiilatpu : its rise and fall, 1836-1847 : a story of pioneer days in the Pacific Northwest based entirely upon historical research online

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;'iP' JOHN M. e
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LIBRARY^-V



CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY




3 1924 102 204 181




m



Cornell University
Library



The original of tiiis book is in
tine Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright restrictions in
the United States on the use of the text.



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924102204181



In compliance with current

Copyright law, Cornell University

Library produced this

replacement volume on paper

that meets the ANSI Standard

Z39.48-1992 to replace the

irreparably deteriorated original.

2006



Huntington Free Library

Native American
Collection




CORNELL UNIVERSITY
LIBRARY



• • ^ " ^ - i



ili/f



Its Rise
and Fall

A stoiy of Mlssi onary days
in the Pacific Northwest

1636 -164r

Mile^ Cannoix




FRED LOCKLEY
RARE WESTERN BOOKS

1243 East Stark St.

PORTLAND. ORE.




HUNTINGTON FREE LIBRARY
AND READING ROOM



MUSEUM OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN
HEYE FOUNDATION



WAIILATPU

ITS RISE AND FALL

1836-1847

A STORY OF PIONEER DAYS IN THE PACIFIC

NORTHWEST BASED ENTIRELY UPON

HISTORICAL RESEARCH



By MILES CANNON



FEATURING THE JOURNEY OP NARCISSA
PRENTISS WHITMAN, THE FIRST AMERICAN
WOMAN TO CROSS THE CONTINENT AND LOOK
UPON THE COLUMBIA RIVER— HER BEAUTIFUL
CHARACTER— INCIDENTS OP THE TRAIL— HER
MISSIONARY LIFE WITH THE CAYUSE INDIANS
—HER DREADFUL MASSACRE TOGETHER WITH
HER HUSBAND AND TWELVE OTHERS— THE
TAKING INTO CAPTIVITY OF TWO SCORE
WOMEN AND GIRLS, AND THE TREATMENT
ACCORDED THEM BY THE SAVAGE INDIANS—
THE FINAL RESCUE, ETC.



"THUS WE ARE PUT IN TRAINING FOR A LOVE WHICH KNOWS
NO SEX, NOR PERSON, NOR PARTIALITT, BUT WHICH SEEKETH
VIRTUE AND WISDOM EVERYWHERE, TO THE END OF INCREAS-
ING VIRTUE AND WISDOM"



1915

Cafitai. News Job Rooms

Boise, Idaho



^'«JCr.ol7;j,^^









i^'.. ^^



r






TABLE OF CONTENTS



Chapter I Page 1

NARCISSA PRENTISS— THE AMERICAN BOARD— LIBERT T
LANDING — REV. SAMUEL PARKER— DR. MARCUS WHITMAN.

Chapter II . Page 5

A STUDY OF DR WHITMAN— THE MARRIAGE— HENRY H.
SPAULDING — A PEACE CONFERETNCE— WM. H. GRAY— MRS.
SPAULDING.

Chapter III Page 8

A STUDY OF HENRY H. SPAULDING — THE RECONCILIA-
TION—DESCRIPTION OF MRS. SPAULDING.

Chapter IV Page 11

THE START— ARRIVAL AT ST. LOUIS — TWILIGHT ON
THE MISSOURI— THE AMERICAN PUR COMPANY — OTOE
AGENCY — FORT LARAMIE — BELLEVUE — FORT HALL —
PAWNEE VILLAGE.

Chapter V Page 17

ON THE OREGON TRAIL— THE GREEN RIVER RENDEZ-
VOUS — INCIDENTS OF THE JOURNEY— GRAY'S IMPRES-
SIONS—JULY 4TH, ON THE SUMMIT— THE LAMENT.

Chapter VI Page 22

LEAVING GREEN RIVER— TROXTBLE AT BEAR RIVER-
DOWN THE RIVER FROM FORT HALL— PILGRIM SPRINGS —
FORDING SNAKE RIVER— ARRIVAL AT THE BOISE RIVEaR—
AT FORT BOISE— THE FIRST WAGON.

Chapter VII Page 27

THE FIRST WAGONS TO REACH THE COLUMBIA— THE
LONE PINE OF THE POWDER RIVER— GRANDE RONDE—
ARRIVAL AT THE WALLA WALLA— MRS. WHITMAN'S IM-
PRESSIONS—FORT WALLA WALLA.

Chapter VIII Page 34

FORT VANCOUVER AS IT WAS IN 1839.

Chapter IX Page 37

WAHLATPU MISSION — CAYUSE INDIANS — LAPWAI MIS-
SION—THE ABODE IN THE WILDERNESS— OLD OREGON—
THE HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY— MAIL ROUTES.

HI.



Chapter X Page 43

THE FIEST CHILD IS BORN— PEU-PHU-MOX-MOX— HIS-
TORIC PLACES ON THE UMATILLA — THE PIOUS STICKAS—
PROGRESS AT WAHLATPU— THE FIRST BEEF— GRAY RE-
TURNS.

Chapter XI Page 49

DEATH OF LITTLE ALICEl— THE FUNERAL — TROUBLE
WITH THE INDIANS— TROUBLE AMONG THE MISSIONAIUBS
— GRAT'S OPINION OF SPAULDNG.

Chapter XII Page 54

A PATHETC LETTER— ARRIVAL OF THE CATHOLICS — THE
FIRST PRINTING PRESS— DEATH OF PAMBRUN— THE DE-
STRUCTIVE ORDER— THE ARRIVAL OF DR. WHITE AND A.
L. LOVBJOT— A CONFERENCE— A REX30NCILIATI0N— A WIN-
TER'S RIDE— THE ROUTE OF TRAVEL.

Chapter XIII. . Page 65

ARRIVAL AT BOSTON— THE RETURN JOURNEY— THE
TRAIN OF 1843— MRS. WHITMAN ALONE— AN ATTEMPT TO
ASSAULT— ZEAL OF THE MISSIONARIES— A TRIBUTE.

Chapter XIV Page 69

STORY OF THE SEVEN ORPHANS — THE TRAIN OF 1844—
THE OREGON TRAIL.

Chapter XV Page 74

THE STORY CONTINUED— A FROLIC IN THE SAGER FAM-
ILY—LIFE ON THE TRAIL— DEATH OF THE FATHER.

Chapter XVI Page 78

THE STORY CONTINUED — SUFFERING FROM ROUGH
ROADS — DEATH OF THE MOTHER— PILGRIM SPRINGS — THE
BURIAL— THE ISLAND FORD— ARRIVAL AT WAIILATPU.

Chapter XVII Page 83

LIFE AT THE MISSION— MRS. WHITMAN'S LETTERS— NO
INTIMATION OP HER DOOM.

Chapter XVIII Page 87

CONDITIONS BEFORE THE STROKE FELL— A STUDY OF
THE AMERICAN CITIZENSHIP— TOM HILL — THE CAUSE OF
THE MASSACRE— MISSIONARIES TAKE NO PRECAUTION.

Chapter XIX Page 92

THE AUTUMN OF 1847— RT. REV. A. M. A. BLANCHET—
OBLATE PRIESTS — THE YAKIMA MISSION— YOUNG CHIEF-
FATHER BROUILLET— THE BURNING OF THE GRIST MILL.

Iv.



Chapter XX Page 99

EMIGRATION OF 1847— RAVAGES OF DISEASE!— SPAULDINQ
ARRIVES AT THE MISSION— VISITS FORT WALLA -WALLA-
MEETS THE CATHOLICS— DR. WHITMAN VISITS THE UMA-
TILLA FOR THE LAST TIME— THE PARTING WITH SPAULD-
ING — INDIANS ENGAGED IN THE MASSACRE— TAMSUKY
THE MURDERER,

Chapter XXI Page 106

THE MISSION ROSTER— ANDREW ROGERS— MRS. WHIT-
MAN'S L.ETTERS.



Chapter XXII Page 112

DR. WHITMAN RETURNS— THE LAST NIGHT IN THE MIS-
SION-MONDAY MORNING — HOW ENGAGED — TILAUKAIT
AND TAMSUKY ARRIVEJ— THE BLOW FALLS — MARY ANN
BRIDGER — DR. WHITMAN MORTALLY WOUNDED— JOHN
SAGER KILLED— A CONCERTED ATTACK— "THE INDIANS
ARE KILLING US ALL."

Chapter XXIII Page 118

MR. HOFFMAN FIGHTS— DEATH OF L. W. SAUNDERS—
DEATH OF ISAAC GILLILAND— PETESR HALL ESCAPES —
SCENES IN THE MISSION HOUSE— MRS. WHITMAN WOUND-
ED—RETREAT TO THE CHAMBER— DAY DARKENS— DEATH
OF MRS. WHITMAN— ANDREW ROGERS— FRANCIS SAGER.



Chapter XXIV Page 126

ISH-AL-HAI^OSBORNE ESCAPES— A CAROUSAL OF MUR-
DER—FIRST DAY CLOSES — HOW THE VICTIMS DIED— A
NIGHT OF HORROR— CANFIBLD ESCAPES— KIMBALL IN
CONCEALMENT— MARSH AND HOFFMAN DEAD— MORNING
DAWNS— THE SECOND DAY— DEATH OF NATHAN KIMBALL.



Chapter XXV Page 132

SECOND DAY CONTINUED— NICHOLIS PINLEY— THE MAN-
SON BOYS— STORY OF A WAIF— DAVID MARSHALL MALIN—
THE NEWS REACHES FORT WALLA WALLA— McBEAN'S
LETTER— STICKAS THERE— DEATH OF JAMES YOUNG —
STORY OP JOE STANFIELD AND MRS. HAYS.



Chapter XXVI Page 140

THE ARRIVAL OF FATHER BROUILLET — THE THIRD DAY
—THE BURIAIi OF THE DEAD— SPAULDING RETURNS FROM
THE LODGE OF STICKAS— HIS MEETING WITH THE PRIEST
—HIS ESCAPE— IN CAPTIVITY.



Chapter XXVII Page 147

THURSDAY, EVENTS OP — SCENES OF DESOLATION— FRI-
DAT— THE COUNCIL— THE NEWS SPREADS — SATURDAY-
MISS BEWLEY OUTRAGED — SUNDAY— DEATH OF LOUISE
SAGBR — MONDAY — ANOTHER MASSACRE — TUESDAY —
STORY CONTINUES— WEDNESDAY — OLD BEARDY.

Chapter XXVIII Page 154

THURSDAY— MESSENGER FROM FIVE CROWS— MISS BEW-
LEY TAKEN AWAY— HER TESTIMONY— SPAULDING WRITES
A LETTER— EDWARD TILAUKAIT MARRIED TO A CAPTIVE
GIRL— SUSAN KIMBALL — TREATMENT OF THE GIRLS.

Chapter XXIX Page 160

DESTRUCTION OF MISSION PROPERTY— COUNCIL ON THE
UMATILLA — PETER SKENE OGDEN ARRIVES AT FORT
WALLA WALLA— CALLS A COUNCIL THBRET— MISS BEWLEY
RELEASED FROM BONDAGE— ARRIVES AT WAIILATPU—
THE LAST NIGHT IN THE MANSION HOUSE.

Chapter XXX Page 167

THE DEPARTURE OF THE SURVIVORS— ARRIVAL AT FORT
WALLA. WALLA— ARRIVAL OF THE CAPTIVES FROM LAP-
WAI— CEPARTURE FOR FORT VANCOUVER— DESTRUCTION
OF WjMILATPU — MURDERERS SURRENDER — EXECUTED—
FINAL OURTAIN.



FOREWORD



It was on the evening of Monday, November 29th, 1897,
that the writer, a stranger in the country, chanced to be in the
city of Walla Walla, Washington. The fiftieth anniversary
of an Indian massacre was being commemorated, and, on the
morrow, there was to be dedicated to the victims, an imposing
monument. Eight survivors were present, and the assembled
multitude at the opera house betokened the interest taken in
the ceremonies upon the part of the inhabitants. The morning
papers of the day following carried a full account covering
the commemoration of the same event, which had been held in
the City of Washington, and at which Justice David B.
Brewer, of the United States Supreme Court, Hon. John L.
Wilson, of the United States Senate, and Gen. O. O. Howard,
were the speakers.

During the same week the press reported that the Catholic
clergy of Walla Walla had called a meeting at the opera house,
the capacity of which was taxed to the limit, and that the priest
had characterized certain public utterances at the former cele-
bration as historical fabrications and malicious slander. To a
stranger such proceedings were well intended to excite an in-
terest in the tragedy, if not in the controversy, and a diligent
enquiry was instituted for the purpose of infonning himself as
to the details of an event that had precipitated such an un-
seemly sectarian dispute. Like the traditional ghost the alter-
cation would not down, but, on the other hand, its power of
attraction increased until it drew into the fray not only the
masses but men of renown, and even books were printed in
numbers which sought to establish this or that theory arising^
out of the Whitman massacre. Nor was it content to confine
itself within sectarian limits, for it assumed a political phase
and drew into the debate secular gladiators, such as Harvey
Scott, Mrs. F. F. Victor, Hon. Elwood Evans, and Judge
Deady, though only a feeble light was thrown upon the trag-
edy itself.

Til



In view of the subsequent prosperity of both the Catholics
and Prostestants, and their tireless efforts to better conditions
and elevate our citizenship, it vi^ould seem that the contro-
versy resulted in no particular good, except that it may have
served to uproot some obnoxious weeds in the historical fields
of old Oregon. To engage in the work of destruction of a
co-ordinate institution, it is quite necessary to lapse, as it were,
in the more commendable work of construction upon which all
progress is founded. To the secular mind, therefore, it would
appear as the better part of wisdom for all denominations to
strive to outdo, rather than undo their brethren of a different
creed.

In the government of mankind, as well as in the promotion
of science, we are constantly accumulating and bringing for-
ward from one generation to another, in so far as it has proven
an element of national strength, the experience and wisdom
of the past, with which we amalgamate the comparatively
meager achievements of the present. To know the past,
therefore, and to become more intimately acquainted with the
characters that live in history, promote a higher and a more
sincere appreciation of what has been undergone in the acqui-
sition of that which has been bequeathed to us — the priceless
boon of human liberty — and the better enables us to preserve
it to posterity.

In searching through the darkened corridors of the past,
it has been a source of much gratification to the author to find
in Narcissa Prentiss Whitman a character well intended to
exemplify the higher and nobler qualities of our race. It was
her great privilege to be the first American woman to cross the
continent and look upon the waters of the Columbia River,
and that fact alone should entitled her to distinction. But
when, moreover, the records of the past reveal in her the beau-
tiful personality we so much admire, and the womanly quali-
ties we would perpetuate, it would be strange indeed if her
followers, actuated by her untimely death and the serene and
courageous manner in which she faced it, failed to confer upon
her, in love and in memory, the mystic crown of martyrdom.

While the author, during the intervening years since 1897,

vill.



had gathered much detailed information, it was not until the
present year, 1915, that he was privileged to meet three of the
survivors, and hear from their lips the dreadful story of the
Whitman massacre. Their recollections, however, have not
been wholly relied upon as a basis of this narrative, owing
largely to their tender age at the time it occurred, without a
thorough comparison with contemporaneous statements of
people of more mature age. All reasonable allowances have
been made for faulty memory and only the most reliable tes-
timony, gathered from innumerable sources, has been used.
Spurious writings, voluminous as they are, have been disre-
garded altogether. The Transactions of the Oregon Pio-
neer Society have been drawn upon without stint, as have con-
temporaneous accounts and statements made previous to and
independent of the sectarian controversy, and, it is believed,
the narrative as set down is substantially true.

The fall of Waiilatpu, deplorable as it was, came not with-
out its compensation, for it helped to awaken a supine and
halting government to its obligations and responsibilities to
the territory beyond the Rocky Mountains, and directed the
attention of a people to a country destined in point of diversi-
fied resources, scenic grandeur, soil and climatic conditions, to
rival the world. If the story of Waiilatpu should inspire a
more enduring regard for our traditions, and promote in the
mind of the reader a more solemn reflection upon the standard
of our citizenship, the work will not have been in vain.



ix.



CHAPTER I.

NARCISSA PRENTISS THB AMERICAN BOARD LIBERTY LAND-
ING REV. SAMUEL PARKER DR. MARCUS WHITMAN.

Narcissa Prentiss, daughter of Judge and Mrs. Stephen
Prentiss, first saw the Hght of day in the village of Pratts-
burg, New York., on March 14th, 1808. She was the third
child in a family of nine children, and was reared in the at-
mosphere of culture, refinement and learning. Her father
ranked high as a citizen and jurist and they all were active
members of the Congregational Church; Narcissa having
united at the age of 1 1 years with a class of some 70 souls.

She was a plump, fair, golden-haired, blue-eyed girl and is
said to have presented a very beautiful picture as she stood at
the altar and took upon herself the vowsi of a Christian —
Vows that were never broken even to the end. Miss Prentiss
attended the Miss Willards Seminary at Troy, New York,
and completed her education at the Franklin Academy in the
town of Prattsburg. Afterards she and her sister Jane estab-
lished a sort of kindergarten school at Bath, where she re-
mained until 1834, when she removed with the family to An-
gelica, N. Y., at which place she was united in marriage in
February, 1836, to Dr. Marcus Whitman, of Rushville, N. Y.

Dr. Whitman was born in Rushville in September, 1802, re-
ceived a good common school education and took a course in
the Berkshire Medical College, at Pittsfield, Massachusetts,
from which he received a diploma. He practiced several years
in Canada, when he returned to his old home and became a part
owner with his brother in a saw mill. He first united with the
Congregational Church in January, 1824, but in February,
1833, joined the Presbyterian Church and became a ruling-
Elder within a month. Miss Prentiss united with the Presby-
terian Church soon after moving to Angelica, in 1834.

During the year 1833 much interest was aroused throughout
the eastern States, more especially in religious circles, rela-
tive to Indian missions west of the Rocky Mountains. Rev.
Jason Lee, of the Methodist Church, was appointed to the po-



2 WAIILATPU

sition of superintendent of a mission in the Oregon country,
as was Rev. Daniel Lee, hi s nephew, Cyrus Shepard and
P. L- Edwards being engaged to accompany them to their
new field. This party left Independence, Mo., on the 25th of
April, 1834, having secured passage with Mr. Nathaniel J.
Wyeth, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, then on his second ex-
pedition to Oregon.

The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Mis-
sions, which included both the Presbyterian and Congrega-
tional Churches, made haste to get into the promising field.
Rev. Samuel Parker, of Ashfield, Massachusetts, was en-
gaged to explore the territory and report the general condi-
tion for missionary work. Mr. Parker secured the services
of Dr. Whitman, who had already applied to the American
Board for an appointment in the Oregon country, and to-
gether they hurried to ^Liberty, Missouri, in order to join
the expedition of the American Fur Company in the spring
of 1835.

The fur traders of that day usually traveled by boat from
St. Louis, the metropolis, to Liberty Landing, from which
place they followed the Indian trail on the east bank of the
Missouri River to a point opposite the old trading post at
Bellevue, six miles below where the city of Omaha now
stands. Here the trail crossed the river and paralleled the
north bank of the Platte to the west. The missionaries ar-
rived at the traders' rendezvous on Green River, Wyoming, on
the evening of August 18th, when it was agreed that Whit-
man should return to the States.

Mr Parker at this time was 56 years of age, a gentleman
of education and refinement, very firm in his likes and dis-
likes and had no hesitancy in criticising the action of those
whose conduct failed to meet with his approval. Mr. Gray

' Liberty, Missouri, situated about three miles back from the river,
a few miles to the northeast of the present Kansas City, was for many
years the starting- point to the Rocky Mountains. Later the rendez-
vous was changed to the south side of the river at the old Mor non
town of Independence. The erosion of the river in time necessitated
a new landing, however, and a place farther up stream, which became
known as Westport, was selected. The ancient site of Westport .s now
near the center of Kansas City, Kansas.



WAIILATPU 3

speaks of him as having been "inclined to self-applause, re-
quiring his full share of ministerial approbation and respect,
though not fully qualified to draw it cheerfully from an audi-
ence or his Hsteners; was rather fastidious."

It was arranged that Dr. Whitman should return to the
East and bring out a party of missionaries the following
spring. Mr. Parker was to continue his explorations, visit the
trading stations of the Hudson's Bay Company on the Colum-
bia, acquire all information possible and meet Whitman at the
rendezvous the following summer. This last part of the agree-
ment Mr. Parker failed to keep, but, doubtless for good and
sufficient reasons, returned home by water via Honolulu. Soon
after his return he severad his connection with the American
Board and wrote a book covering his tour beyond the Rocky
Mountains.

It is interesting to observe the relationship which must have
existed between Mr. Parker and Dr. Whitman, evidently the
predominating feature which prompted the agreement to sep-
arate on the banks of Green River. Myron Eells, in his book
entitled "Marcus Whitman," page 29, informs us that "the
prospects seemed to be so favorable that it was thought best
for Dr Whitman to return at once and obtain missionary
help."

Mowry in his "Marcus Whitman," page 55, records similar
views in these words : "Being thoroughly satisfied with what
he had seen of the Indians who had come in such large num-
bers from Oregon to the rendezvous, he (Whitman) was
ready to return with the pack train of the American Fur Com-
pany, so as to start west the following spring with re-enforce-
ments to establish the mission."

Mr. Parker records in his book, "Parker's Exploring Tour
Beyond the Rocky Mountains," page 81, his version of the
affair as follows :

"Dr. Whitman, on further consideration, felt some mis-
givings about leaving me, lest, if any calamity should befall
me, he should be blamed by the Christian public. It was
my desire that no disquietude should be felt for me, for we
could not go safely together without divine protection, and
with it, I was secure in any situation."



4 WAIILATPU

In Gray's History of Oregon, page 108, the author records
some interesting observations as to why the Doctor returned
contrary to original plans. It will be recalled that Mr. Gray
was a member of the Whitman party the following year, and,
doubtless, obtained his impressions from Dr. Whitman him-
self. First stating that a "reason" must be given why Whit-
man returned to the States, he says :

"The peculiarities of Messrs. Parker and Whitman were
such, that, when they had reached the rendezvous on Green
River, in the Rocky Mountains, they agreed to separate;
not because Dr. Whitman was not wilHng and anxious to
continue the exploring expedition, in company with Mr.
Parker, but because Mr. Parker could not 'put up' with the
off hand, careless, and, as he thought, slovenly manner in
which Dr. Whitman was inclined to travel. Dr. W. was
a man that could accommodate himself to circumstances;
such as dipping the water from the running stream with
his hand, to drink; having but a hunter's knife (without a
fork) to cut and eat his food; in short, could rough it with-
out qualms of stomach."

Dr. Whitman, through the practice of his profession, had
already become fairly well established with the hardy trappers
of the mountains, especially those famous leaders, Messrs.
Fitzpatrick and Bridger, of the American Fur Company, and
they were willing to furnish him with accommodation with
the returning company. The Doctor conceived the idea of
taking back with him two Indian boys, that the American
Board might have a better knowledge of the Indians with
whom they proposed to labor. He christened these boys Rich-
ard and John, and proceeded directly to his home in Rushville,
arriving there in the early winter of 1835.



CHAPTER II.

A STUDY OF DR. WHITMAN THE MARRIAGE HENRY H.

SPAULDING A PEACE CONFERENCE WM. H. GRAY MRS.

SPAUI.DING.

The manner of announcing- his return was quite characteris-
tic of the Doctor. Without exchanging his mountain garb
for more conventional apparel, and accompanied by the In-
dian boys, in a most unconcerned manner he walked into the
Presbyterian Church while the Sunday morning service was
being conducted. One account of this event informs us that
"he produced a sensation that was fresh in the memory of
many of the members of the congregation forty years after-
wards."

Before finishing her course at the Franklin Academy, Miss
Prentiss had made it known to the American Board that she
cherished a desire to engage in the missionary work. She
had now developed into a woman of remarkable strength of
character, firm but tolerant in religious matters, and prepos-
sessing in appearance. She had cultivated her voice, and, at
the time of the Doctor's return, was a member of the choir
of the Angelica Presbyterian Church, where a protracted
meeting was in progress; thither the Doctor, after placing
the Indians in school, made his way.

How long Dr. Whitman had known Miss Prentiss is
largely a matter of conjecture, but it is reasonable to pre-
sume that he met her not later than the spring of 1833. A
letter written to her from Liberty, Missouri, while on his way
to the West in the spring of 1835, would probably indicate
that they were engaged before his departure from New York.
The Doctor could not have reached Angelica, after his re-
turn from the West, before December, and they were mar-
ried in February, 1836.

At the time of his marriage. Dr. Whitman was in his thirty-
fourth year and it may safely be assumed that the union was
a happy one. He possessed an amiable disposition, generally
speaking, was incapable of harboring a grudge, no matter how



6 WADLATPU

serious the provocation, and considered generous to a fault.
He was tall, but rather spare in stature, had a large, but well
formed head, dark brown hair interspersed with blocks of
white which tended to give him a rather striking appearance.
His eyes were of sparkling blue set far back under a prominent
brow ; his mouth was noticeably large, and the outlines of his
face denoted sternness. With the exception of his upper
lip, which he kept shaved, he wore a full beard and was never
inclined to be squeamish in taste nor fastidious in dress. In
the practice of his profession in the Oregon country, he fre-
quently was called a distance of some 200 miles, and even in
the dead of winter he uttered no complaint. He was reason-
ably successful in both medical and surgical practice, always
patient, sympathizing, yet calm and courageous under the
most trying circumstances.

It was easy for the Doctor to adapt himself to all condi-
tions and to mingle with all classes. He possessed a peculiar


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