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Mingchien Joshua Bau.

The foreign relations of China: a history and a survey online

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in China." During the Russo-Japanese War that en-
sued, though neutral, she extended her hospitality to the
Russian fleet en route to < )rient. When after the war,
however, Russia and Japan came to an agreement in
1907, she likewise followed and entered into an under-
standing with Japan on June 10, W07 14 engaging to
support "the territorial rights of the two contracting
parties in the continent of Asia." In reply to the neu-
tralization proposal of Knox, 18 while approving the
principles underlying the plan, she declined to adhere
thereto, "unless hy a common accord with the two pow-
ers (Russia and Japan) most interested had been dis-
posed to renounce the contract rights in Manchuria and
to side with the .American suggestion."

As a further evidence of the French policy of co-
operation with Russia in the Far East, M. A. Gerard,
the French Minister in Peking from 1894 to 1897, wrote
in his "Ma Mission En Chine" the following passage
regarding the instructions he received of cooperating
with Russia :



"Mes Instructions me preserivaient enfin, apres
quelques recommendations speciales pcn
Door would he maintained in the Yangtze Valley. 18

So far, the policy of ( lermany in China was more like
the Russian policy than that of the Open Door. She
maintained her railway guards along the Tsingtau-
Tsinan Railway much the same as Russia in Manchuria.
In 1900 the Kaiser made a speech to the Russian Gov-
ernment that his policy in China was just like the Rus-
sian policy. 18 In the ca of the Russian agression in
Manchuria, while Great Britain, Japan and the United
entered vigorous protests, 14 Germany remained
ominously silent. As France was not expected to pro-
being the ally of Russia, Germany's failure to pro-
tituted a lonely exception, clearly betraying her
intention and policy of silently countenancing Russian
expansion in Pastern Asia. 18

When the Russo- Japanese War came, however, the
policy of Germany in China underwent a radical change.
Isolated during the war and con fronted by two hostile
coalitions (the Dual Alliance of Prance and Russia and
the Anglo-Japanese Alliance) she realized that, if in
of the war, there should he any spoliation

of China, she could obtain only Shantung; while the

; whom were her enemies, would

gain the rest of China. This, obviously, was detrimental

to her interests. In anticipation, therefore, she proposed



THE POLICY OF GERMANY IN CHINA 127

to the United States Government to make a declaration
for the maintenance of the integrity of China, and to
counsel the Powers to retrain from any act of spoliation
at the close of the war. With this proposal the United
States agreed.

Dating from this proposal to the United States, Ger-
many committed herself thenceforth to the Open Door
Doctrine. Instead of keeping aloof, she joined the Pow-
ers in the Hukuang loan, 17 the currency reform and in-
dustrial development loan, 1 " and the reorganization
l'oan. loA Instead of aggression, she showed due respect
for Chinese sovereignty. By the end of 1905, she
handed her postal service to the Chinese. 1913 By the Con-
vention of November 28, 1905,-° she withdrew her
troops from Kiaochow and Kaomi. By the amendment
of December 1, 1905. - 1 to the agreement of April 17,
1899, concerning the maritime customs office at Tsingtau,
she abandoned her restrictions on the Chinese customs
derogatory to Chinese sovereignty and restored the
service almost to the same status as elsewhere except
requiring twenty percent of the proceeds as contribu-



Online LibraryMingchien Joshua BauThe foreign relations of China: a history and a survey → online text (page 10 of 39)