Minnesota State Horticultural Society.

Annual report of the Minnesota State Horticultural Society for the year .. online

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S. D. HiLLMAN, Secretary, Wyman Elliot, Resident,

Minneapolis. Minneapolis.



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STATE HOETIOULTURAL SOCIETY. 19



PREMIUM LIST.



Prof. £. D. Pobtbb, Saperinteadeot of Exhibits.



STBAWBBBRIBS.

Iflt Prem. 2d Prem.
Best general coUectioa of not lees than fiire named varieties,

one pint each $5 00 |3 00

Best fbnr Tarieties, one qnart each ^ 3 00 2 00

Best Minnesota Seedling, not before exhibited 3 00 2 00

Best quart ^9mM>n's Albany.. 2 00 1 00

Best qnart Gonntess 2 00 1 00

Best qnart Charles Downing ^.a 2 00 1 00

Best quart Crescent Seedling 2 00 1 00

Best quart James Vick 2 00 1 00

Bert quart Manchester 2 00 1 00

Best quart Glendale .^^^^»^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 2 00 1 00

Best qnart Prince of Berries 2 00 100

Best quart Sharpless 2 00 1 00

Best quart Windsor Chief.. 2 00 1 00

Bert qnart Seth Boyden 2 00 1 00

Best qoart Green Prolific 2 00 1 00

BertquartCapt Jack« 2 00 1 00

Bert qnittt Col. Cheney 2 00 1 00

Bert quart Daniel Boone 2 00 1 00

Bert quart Kentncky Seedling .f 2 00 1 Oq

Bert quart Old Ironclad 2 00 * 1 00

Bert quart Cumberland Triumph. 2 00 100

Bert quart Minnetonka Chief 2 00 1 00

Lsigert fruit of any variety ._. 2 00 1 00

The same premiums may be awarded upon other varieties of equal merit.

VBOSTABLBS.

Bert collection, not less than six varieties grown by ex-
hibitor : $5 00 $3 00

Bert 3 bunches of asparagus 1 00 50

Bert6 beets 1 00 * 60

Bert 6 carrots 1 00 60

Bert 6 onions.. 1 00 50

Bert 6 radishes.. 1 00 50

Bert 6 turnips 1 00 50



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20 ANNUAL BEPOBT

Best 6 stalks pieplant |1 00

Best 6 heads lettuce 1 00

Beet 3 heads of cabbage 1 00

Beet 3 heads of cauliflower 1 00

Best } peck green peas 1 00

Best i peck of string beans. 1 00

Best } peck of new potatoes 1 00

Best 6 cucumbers 1 00

Best 6 Bummar squash 1 00

FLOWEBS.

Best collection cut flowers $5 00

. Best collection of roses 2 00

Best hand bouquet 2 00

Best collection of pansies 2 00

BULBS.

The awarding committee shall close their labor and report to the Society at
12 o'clock M. They shall have power to recommend special premiums for
seedlings, and articles of merit, not provided for in the schedule of premiums.
They shall not award premiums to contributions unworthy of exhibition, even
if there is no competition.

Competition shall be open to all, but the annual membership fee of f 1
will be deducted from premiums awarded to persons who are not members of
the Society.



$ 60


50


60


60


60


60


60


60


60


$3 00


1 00


1 00


1 00



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STATE HOBTIOULTUBAL SOCIETY. 21



PROCEEDINGS AT THE SUMMER MEETING.



THURSDAY, JUNE 17, 1886.



The purpose had in view in holding the summer meeting of
the State Horticultural Society at the state farm was to afford .
the members of the Society, and others, an opportunityto observe
the practical in horticulture, and to take some notes concerning
the methods pursued in the various departments of agriculture,
horticalture, floriculture, etc., conducted at the experimental
&rm of the Minnesota State Agricultural College.

The day was very pleasant, and everything conduced to an
enjoyable occasion. There were nearly one hundred persons
present at the meeting during the day, among the number sev-
eral from a (tistance. The forenoon ^as devoted to making en-
tries of articles for exhibition, and taking observations of the
progress made in horticultural work, and experiments being con-
ducted upon the farm, under the management of Prof. Porter.
About sixtv entries were made for premiums.

APPOINTMENT OF COMMITTEES.

President Elliot announced the following committees:

On FruU$ — ^Ditus Day, Farmington; W. B. Quinn, Rose Town;
John T. Blaisdell, Minneapolis. #

On Vegetables— W. B. Brimhall, St. Paul; J. G. Bass, St. Paul;
J. P. Gilmore, Richfield.

On Flowen — Mrs. W. G. Hendrickson, St. Paul; Mrs. Isabell
K BlaisdeU, Minneai>olis; Mrs. Lizzie S. Smith, St. Paul.

On Be9olutian9—H. H. Young, St. Paul; J. W. Boxell, St. Paul;
F. O. €k>uld, Excelsior.

'Hie total amount awarded in premiums was $51.50. Follow-
ing is the list:



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22 ANNUAL REPORT

AWARD OF PRBMITJMS.

STBAWBEBBIES.

Best four varieties, William Lyons, Minneapolis, first pre-
mium, $3.

Largest firuit of any variety (Crescent), W. G. Hendrickson,
St. Paul, first premium, $2; Geo. S. Woolsey (Windsor ChieO,
Minneapolis, second, $1.

Best Minnesota seedling not before exhibited, William Lyons,
Minneapolis, first premium, $3.

WUson^ 8 Albany — W. H. Brimhall, St. Paul, first premium,
$2; W. B. Brimhall, St. Paul, second, $1.

Countess — William Lyons, Minneapolis, first premium, $2.

Orescent — W. G. Hendrickson, St. Paul, first premium, $2;
William Lyons, Minneapolis, second, $1.

James Vick — William Lyons, Minneapolis, first premium, $2.

Manchester — M. C. Bunnell, Newport, first premium, $2; W.
J. Hopkins, Bloomington, second, $1.

Glendale — W. E. Brimhall, St. Paul, first premium, $2;H. F.
Busse, Minneapolis, second, $1.

Windsor Chief — WilliamLyons, Minneapolis, first ]»remium, $2*

Captain Jack — Greo. S. Woolsey, Minneapolis, first pre-
mium, $2.

Jersey Qiieen — H. F. Busse, Minneapolis, first premium, $2.

BASPBEKBIES.

Crimson Beauty — Truman M. Smith, St. Paul, first prenii-
um, 12.

OUBBANTS.

Fay^s FroUfic^J.. P. Gilmore, Richfield, first premium, $2;
also second premium on Stewart's Seedling, $1.

FLOWEES.

Collection Roses — Mrs. M. S. Gould, Excelsior, first premi-
um, $2.

Sand Bouquet — William Lyons, [Minneapolis, first premi-
um, $2.



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STATE HOBTIOULTUBAL SOCIETY. 23

Collection of Fansies — Geo. 8. Woolsey, Minneapolis, first
premiam, $2; William Lyons, Minneajwlis, second, $1.

VEGETABLES.

Asparagus— J. T. Grimes, Minneapolis, first premiam, $1;
WiUianh Mackintosh, Langdon, second, fifty cents.

Beets — E3arly Egyptian, A. Bowe, Minneapolis, first premi-
um, $1.

Carrots — Henderson, A. Rowe, Minneapolis, first premium, $1

OiUons — Silverskin, J. 8. Gray, Minneapolis, first premi-
iun,tl.

QMage — A. Rowe, Minneapolis, first premium, $1.

OauUflawer — A. Eowe, Minneapolis, first premium, $1,

Green Peas — A, Rowe, Minneapolis, first premium, $1.

Cueumbers — A. Rowe, Minneapolis, first premium, $1.

The fruits on exhibition were appropriated for the pur-
poses of the picnic, which was spread upon ample tables, ar
ranged in a grove near the farm buildings. There was an abun-
dance of provisions for all, including strawberries and cream.

The meeting was called to order about 2 o'clock, p. m., by
President Elliot. After the reading of the list of awards made
hj the committees on premiums, the president announced the
discussion of the subject "8mall Fruits for Market and Home
Use.'' The discussion was opened by the following paper:



SMALL FRUITS FOR MARKET AND HOME U8E.
By J, 8. SarriSj La Orescent.

Mb. President: If I am to open this discussion upon the sub-
ject of fruit for market and home use, I will say in the first
place that I am one who has always firmly believed in having
an abundance of fruit for home use; I also think we should have
frdt to supply the market, enough to give away, fruit to send
crerywhere throughout the United 8tates, and fruits to send to
the foreign parts of the world. I have always said it would be
done some time — whichshows my " greenness, '' perhaps — but I
bare always said we could raise fruit in this country and we
were bound to do it. I believe the necessities of mankind are
8odi that they will have fruit. It it was not designed that man



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24 ANNUAL REPORT

wa8 to have fruit why was it that Mother Eve should be tempted
by that probably beautifully colored sour "crab, " give it to
Adam and cause him to bring toil and sweat upon the race.
There are a great many in Minnesota who do not believe we
can grow fruit, and there are those who have predicted that we
never would be able to grow apples successfully. But t^ere are
some here who have seen Minnesota grown apples. Still, admit-
ting that we have not made a perfect success in the growing of
the larger fruits as yet, we are making some progress in that
direction. And there are other fruits equally as important as
articles of commerce, as essential to health and happiness as the
larger fruit.

STRAWBERRIES.

Among small fruits the strawberry does, as it should, stand at
the head of the list. It ought to be grown by all i)eople who
have the land, in quantities sufficient for home use. Ko fruit is
so easily raised, or grows so universally in every part of the
world as the strawberry. It is found in the snowy regions of the
North, and the sunny plains of the South. It grows in the val-
ley and upon the hilltop, the forest or the meadow, and it is a
favorite with all races of men. In its season it is more eagerly
sought for in the market, and more largely used by all classes
but the farmer, than any other fruit, and farmers are every year
taking more interest in them. On suitable soil and with the
right management, strawberries are immensely productive.
Four hundred bushels are reported to have been taken from an
acre of ground in one season, and one hundi^ed and fifty bushels
ought to be only an average crop. They are fond of a moist rich
loam, somewhat sandy, and thrive best in seasons of frequent
showers, or where they have plenty of water.

They may be set in the spring or autumn, but ordinarily, in
this State, the best success will attend setting in the spring.
Before setting a strawberry bed, the ground should be plowed or
dug deep and made mellow; and if not already rich enough to
bring a good crop of garden vegetables, should have some fine
compost worked in. I usually set them in rows three feet apart
and about eighteen inches in the rows. Rows of beets or bunch
beans may be grown between them the first season, but it is bet-
ter to keep eighteen inches of the centre between the rows open
to facilitate cultivating, and let the plants cover the balance of
the ground. Market gardeners often set what th«y term double



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STATE HOBTIOULTUBAL SOCIETY. 25

I

rows, fifteen or eighteen inches apart each way, then leave a
space three and one-half or fonr feet, and then set another dou-
ble row, and so on until the plantation is finished, and allow the
plante to fill the intermediate space and about one foot on each side.
ThiB allows much of the work to be done with a horse and cul-
tiyator. For setting, select nice thrifty plants of the previous
year's growth, and never set plants that have borne fruit.

It pays well to pick off all the blossoms the first season and
give the plant the entire strength and growth within itself. All
weeds should be kept down and the young plants encouraged to
their best. In the fall the spaces left vacant for cultivating
should receive a dressing of manure, and the plants are best to be
covered with leaves, clean straw from bottom of stack, bagasse
from cane miU, or brush from the woods. The latter, where con-
. venient, is the best protection of all. In the spring, after the
ground is done freezing and the plants have started, remove the
covering and go over the bed and destroy every weed and grass
that has heretofore escaped notice; and it will pay to scatter
over the bed a coating of fine manure, that of neat cattle be-
ing the best. Go over them frequently, to destroy all the weeds,
but disturb the roots as little as possible until after the fruit is
gathered.

After the fruit is gathered go through all the spaces that were
left vacant, and with spade or fork dig them deeply, rake down
level, putting them in fine condition for the runners to make
new plants, and with a spade dig out the old plants of last year,
leaving about two feet between what is left to facilitate passing
through and cultivating. If the weeds are kept out and an oc-
casional dressing of manure given, the bed will last about three
years, when the whole bed should be plowed under, and a crop
or two of something else should be taken oft before the ground
iB again used for strawberries. Unless this course is pursued it
win pay the former better to set a bed every spring in rows
about two feet apart, keep them clean and let them run at will,
and the next season after the crop is oft", dig or plow
them under. This method requires two plots, as it is too late to
set plants after the picking season. The first crop is always the
best, except with the Charles Downing, and old beds are usually
very troublesome to keep free from weeds and more liable to be
troubled with the "white grub.'' The hill system is not as
safe in this State, and not as well adapted for farmers.
4



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26 ANNUAL BEPORT



GBOWING FOB MARKET.



Where strawberries are to be grown principally for market
and on a large scale, I recommend planting in long rows three
to four feet apart, according to varieties; plants one to one and
a half feet in the row. Cultivate frequently to keep the weeds
down and the surface of the soil mellow, using for the purpose a
strong, sturdy horse and a level-headed driver, an adjustable
wheel hoe; or a cultivator frame, filled pretty thickly with one-
half inch steel drag teeth. After runners start, contract the
width of the cultivated space until it does not exceed fifteen to
eighteen inches, and all plants that appear in these spaces treat
as weeds, the covering and mulching to be the same as for home
use. In the spring remove the bulk of the covering from over
the plants, and unless the soil is very rich, give a dressing of
the manure and ashes mixture, but do not hoe or cultivate until
after the crop is harvested. If weeds or grass appear, pull them
out by hand.

I consider it most profitable for the market gardener to take but
one crop of fruit from the bed, and as soon as the last picking is
made, plow the vines under, which method necessitates making
a new plantation each spring. The market grower should in-
variably every spring set a bed of each variety that he intends
to grow, expressly for growing the plants for the next spring's
planting and keep them from fruiting, but always correctly
labled to prevent mistakes; by this method stronger plants are
secured and varieties are less liable to run out.

VARIETIES FOR HOME USE.

Downer's Prolific is on^ of the hardiest and longest enduring
varieties. Charles Downing is a larger and better flavored va-
riety, but not as productive. The Wilson, upon all rich,
loamy soils, is a great favorite. The Kentucky, Glendale and
James Vick are later varieties, and will prolong the season of
fruit. The earliest of all is the old Ironclad; hardy and pro-
ductive. All of the above produce perfect flowers. The Cres-
cent seedling is a female, or imperfect flowering variety, but
when properly fertilized is much more productive than any of
the perfect flowering varieties. The plants are hardy and
adapted to a great variety of soils.



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I



STATE HOBTIOULTURAL SOCIETY. 27

FOE MABKET,

lliere is more money in the Crescent seedling than any other
Tiriety tliat has been thoroughly tested. Next to the Crescent,
mpon strong soils, stands the Wilson, then Downer's Prolific.

For a profitable plantation of Crescents, it is best to ose two
or more varieties for fertilizing, say the old Ironclad, Wilson,
Oaptain Jack, James Vick, or Glendale.

In marking the plantation, I usually set one row of x>6rfect
flowering, two to three of Crescents, one of perfect flowering,
and so on until the bed is full. The experience of the present
se^on lias shown that some varieties resist drought better than
others. Upon my place I find a new variety called the Hintgen
Seedling to stand the best; James Vick, second; Crescent, third;
Wilson, fourth.

HAEVESTING AND MARKETING.

The strawberry harvest makes a busy time, and no other fruit
» pushes the grower, or allows so little rest at night or day
while they last. After the berries begin to ripen rapidly they
dionld be picked every day, and care taken that no ripe fruit is
left upon the vines to work into the next picking and mould or
sour the package.

I have never found the common practice of having the berries
picked for a rate per quart to prove entirely satisfactory. The
expert picker will frequently make from two to three dollars per
day in the busy season, and then quit work as the berries become
thin. This tends to demoralize all of the pickers engaged, and
not onfrequently causes a strike or the acceding to demands that
are minous to the grower. The best plan, in my opinion, is to
engage enough pickers some time before they are wanted, agree-
ing to pay a certain per cent of the price weekly, retaining a
portion of the compensation to be forfeited by those who do not
remain the season through. Another good method would be to
pay a certain sum per hour or day of not exceeding eight hours.
Whatever method of employing pickers is adopted, every
grower should have a set of printed rules, of which each picker
ibould be furnished a copy, and every picker violating the rules
ihoold be discharged at once and kept from the field.

Women makie the best and quickest pickei-s, girls next, and
boys next; old men the poorest of all. It is well to have a fore-



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28 ANNUAL REPORT

man to saperiDtend the' picking, following close behind and see-
ing that each one picks clean and fills the boxes properly. Boys
and girls do not work well together. Old men are too slow to
make wages.

Every picker shonld be provided with a picking rack holding^
from four to nine fhll qnart boxes or baskets, and one box in each,
tray reserved for receiving the small and inferior berries. It
pays well to assort the fruit, even if the poorest is thrown away.
Then it is profitable to use only clean new boxes or baskets and
attractive crates, and have the name of the grower stamped upon
each box or crate. Two varieties should never be mixed to-
gether in the same box, and the grower's name should be a
guarantee that the top berries are no better than they run
through the box. There is no harm in placing the top berries
so that the stems and hulls are concealed, provided they are no
larger than they run through the box. The strawberry man
should have the privilege that others enjoy of showing his goods
to.the best advantage.

Snide boxes are used by some growers. To do so ought to be
a misdemeanor, and meet with prompt punishment. The law
requires that berries be sold by dry measure. Every fourth or
fifth quart is gained by selling in snide boxes, or by shoveling
them into quart cups with a shingle.

RASPBERRIES.

The raspberry ranks in importance next to the strawberry. It
delights in much the same soil and as it does very well in a par-
tial shade, it may, where grown only for family use, be planted
upon the north or east side of the garden fence. If the ground
is naturally good when the planting is made, the fertility, may
be kept up with mulching and hop dressings. The rows should be
set six or more feet apart, and the plants in the rows three to
four. Where grown for commercial purposes it is economy to
have long rows and use a horse in cultivating. Heavy mulching
saves in expense of cultivating and tends to keep the soil moist
and cool, which are favorable conditions for the raspberry. If
when the canes reach the height of three and a half to four feet
the top is pinched out it will make them grow more stocky and
save the expense of tying up. For the convenience of keeping
the fruiting canes upright and the fruit off the ground, a row of
stakes may be set each side of the rows of plants, say 16 to



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STATE HOBTICULTUBAJL SOCIETY. 29

20 feet apart and a No. 8 wire stretched along say 2i feet from the
ground, with short wire across between each hill. The canes
growing up between squares thus made obviates the necessity
for tying.

All red varieties propagate by sackering from the roots and
all surplus suckers must be kept down by treating them as
weeds, or the plantation will soon become unfruitful.

BIAOKOAPS.

There is more money in the Doolittle Improved, taken one
year with another, than any other variety I have tiested. The
fruit of the Gr^g is large and showy, but the plants are not
hardy enough for this climate unless winter protection is given
them. The Turner is the hardiest variety among the reds; the
fruit ]& superior in flavor and apx>earance and a favorite in the
market and at home, is also very early. The Philadelphia is
more productive when given winter protection, but the fruit is
not as salable. The Cuthbert is promising to take the lead as a
late berry. The fruit is large and showy and ships very well,
while the quality is second only to the Turner. I have not tested
Uie newer varieties sufficiently to recommend them.

BLAOKBKRBTES.

The cultivation of the blackberry is beginning to assume an
important place in the horticulture of Minnesota.

As I commenced the preparation of this pax>er last night, I
did not have time to complete it, and I wish to say a few words
farther in regard to blackberries. Their culture is attracting
the attention of farmers throughout the State, and is more par-
ticularly attracting the attention of market gardeners, who
are finding it to be a fact that they can be grown as successfully
here as iu any other state. Like the raspberry, they should be
put on rich soil. They should be pinched back when they are
to the proper height. Keep them in hills, and do not allow
them to spread over the ground, keeping all superfluous shoots
trimmed out. The plants should be given protection by cover-
ing in the fall. A spadeful of earth may be removed on one
side of the plant, bending the plants down till the top touches
the ground, then fastening down with a little earth, and pass to
the next hill- The canes may then be covered with earth, corn



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30 ANNUAL BEPOKT .

fodder, brush, or anything most convenient. Where they are
put downin this way, the blackberry has proved to be a successful
crop to raise in Minnesota. I have never heard of a single failure.
It is very prolific; its fruit comes at a time when our Southern
friends are enjoying the luxury of peaches, and which, when
they send up here, smell so strong of money that we can not af-
ford to enjoy very many of them.

It is said that a crop of blackberries may be covered at a cost
of from five to eight dollars per acre and that they can be grown
about as cheaply as an acre of corn. The. profit upon an acre of
the fruit would be great, because the lowest prices we could ex-
pect to get would be, say, eight to ten cents a quart, and the
profits should amount to from two to four hundred dollars per
acre; therefore it must be a crop that will pay commercial gar-
deners to grow. It will pay them, at least until so many get to
raising them as to bring down the price.

MARK YOUR BOXE8.

An important matter in growing fruit is to mark your boxes,
so that when a person gets a quart of your berries, he will want
to buy of you again. One thing that has hurt the market gar-
deners and the fruit dealers is, that they have not stood up to
law and reason. They allow a man to come into the market,
whom you might call a ''shark," or a ''pirate" (that is a better
name), who will take the berries that are shipped in from a dis-
tance and place them in boxes among the berries that you have
brought in to sell, with your name on the boxes. The customer
is thus imposed upon, and it hurts your reputation the whole
season. There ought to be a pretty severe penalty attached for
a man's using his neighbor's boxes without his consent.

Another thing is, a great many dealers purchase good, honest
quarts in these boxes, and immediately dump the berries out
and measure them in quart cups. Now, I will venture there
isn't a legal quart cup in use in Minneapolis or St. Paul that
will hold the quantity of berries contained in a legal strawberry
box.

These are two things that should be changed: The taking of
poor berries to market, and letting them be sold in honest men's
boxes, and the shoveling them up with a shingle into quart cups;
both tend to bring the price of strawberries down; that is to say,
the retail dealer gets his berries a great deal cheaper, and the



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STATE HOBTICTLTUBAL SOCIETY. 31

coDsoiner does not get the benefit. It is a fraud upon the grow-



Online LibraryMinnesota State Horticultural SocietyAnnual report of the Minnesota State Horticultural Society for the year .. → online text (page 2 of 89)