Minnesota State Horticultural Society.

Annual report of the Minnesota State Horticultural Society for the year .. online

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gard to establishing an experiment station at Owatonna and
recommending that he be appointed as manager ; he wished to
say that if lightning should happen *^to strike'' in that direc-
tion that he wished to be in perfect harmony and accord witli
all the horticultural interests of the State. He hoped there
would be no rivalry among members except a laudable one — to
work for the best interests of the State. It was said that there
was a good deal of rivalry between the cities of St. Paul and
Minneapolis, but it was quite commendable in its way. He was



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STATE HOBTIOULTUBAL SOCIETY. 419

onder obligations to the Society for the action taken and for this
mark of confidence, and if there should be no practical result
from the action taken he was still under obligations to the So-
ciety which he should not soon forget.

Mr. J. M. Smith. Mr. President, I have 'been with you be-
fore — some years since — and I want to say that I never attended
a meeting of the Society with so good an impression of its power
and of its value to the public, not only to the people of Minne-
sota, but to the people of our own state, as I shall carry tHth me
when I take the night train this evening. The work you have
done here — a part of it — has put me in a position that I can go
home and know that I can root out one swindling establishment
that has been selling trees in my county. I have known that
the people were being robbed but I didn't know the entire facts
of the matter as I know them now. The action that you have taken
here in regard to these matters has put me in a position so that
I can go home and act; I propose to do so and reform that matter
80 far as our county is concerned, and to do it at once, or have
the men taken care of— that is all there is of it.

I think Mr. Hoxie and myself will both feel that we have
gained information that will enable us to assist in placing our
horticultural work in Wisconsin on a better basis than ever it
has been before. It has been an annoyance to me ever since I
have been president of our society to think that we could not
get hold of these men that were robbing our people, especially
▼hen I see car loads of stock coming in and know of its selling
at three or four times its value, and its value little or nothing
sometimes. I think this movement will end in something that
will put our horticultural work on a firm bisis — putting it on a
straight, square, honest business basis; so that men who wish to
engage in the business will meet with some encouragement in
ooaducting a business in that manner.

I want to thank the Society for their courtesies and kindness
to myself and to repeat the invitation extended by Mr. Hoxie to
attend the meeting of our society; we shall be glad to meet just
as many as see fit to come; we may not be able to teach you but
we will guarantee to have a good time.

President Elliott said he ought perhaps to say a word in clos-
ing this meeting. He had always tried to do that which he
thought to be for the best interests of the Society and of the pub-
lic at large. He was gratified with the harmony which had al-
ways prevailed. If there was anything that had arisen at this



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420 ANNUAL BEPOBT

meeting that looked as though they were trying to ignore one
class for the sake of advancing the interest of another he hoped
it would be looked upon with charity. We are all selfish beings
and we all have personal interests and tjiey sometimes clash to
some extent, but we are trying to accomplish the greatest good
to the greatest number. He was gratified with the words of en-
couragement received from Mr. Smith and to know that there
were others ready and willing to assist us in the good cause. We
have ha5d up-hill work in this calling of horticulture, but if we
persevere and press forward we shall yet be successful, and will
succeed in raising many fruits in Minnesota, that are considered
of doubtful value at the present time. If we can prevail upon
members of the legislature to look upon the interests we repre-
sent in a proper manner there will be no trouble in obtaining
such assistance as may be needed in carrying forward the work.
. In conversation with our governor recently he said we must not
be too modest in our demands, and we have in him one who is
willing to do all in his power to aid the producing classes. I
hope the members of our Society as they depart to their homes
will go with a determination to increase our membership and
extend our influence, to do what they can to establish and build
up a strong and efficient horticultural organization in our State.
Mr. C. L. Smith. I want to say that I feel gratified with the
action taken by this Society in regard to the sale of foreign-
grown nursery stock. While it may appear that some have been
persistent in pushing this matter, yet those who have been out
among the people on the prairies and have seen them snfifer loss
in time and money, will understand the reason. No act of the
Society, it seems to me, will have a greater influence for the in-
terests of the people than the action taken in regard to the fraud-
ulent selling of trees and shrubs. The influence of our Society
is growing and it is extending its influence into more homes and
communities than ever before. We are now changing from the
condition of pioneera, with our sod houses and straw sheds, on
our open prairie farms, to the more intensive system of forming.
These marks of the pioneers are giving way to more comfortable
dwellings and barns, with neat sheds, all surrounded with trees
and windbreaks. We have a better system of farming, better
breeds of stock, and the work upon the farm generally is carried
on more upon an intensive plan than formerly, more attention is
given to small fruit and vegetables. The State is ripe for the
work to be done by our Society; I believe the legislature will



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STATE HOBTICULTUBAL SOCIETY. 421

grant ns any needed assistance that may be asked at their hands.
It seems to me we have a bright future before us and we may
m^e our Society more useful in the future than in the past. I
am sure the people are well satisfied with the progress made and
the work we are doing.

Mr. Hoxie. I have sometimes thought we might accomplish
more by adopting the methods used by the Massachusetts society;
they hold weekly meetings and issue bulletins giving an outline
of their proceedings, thus getting their transactions before the
people at once. Farmers are eager to get these reports, and if
some such system could be adopted here, I think much benefit
would be derived from it.

Mr. Smith. At the meeting of our Hennepin County Horti-
cultural Society, this plan has been practiced to some extent-
Ooe of the city papers sent a shorthand reporter to write up the
proceedings, sometimes giving two or three columns in their re-
ports. The proprietors of the paper were well pleased with the re-
sult of that work. They found their readers appreciate the
enterprise. I understand these meetings are to be revived.

Mr. Harris. I think I speak the sentiments of all present
when I say this has been an interesting and profitable session
of the Society. There has been as good a degree of harmony as
ooald reasonably be expected in so large a company of men from
somaoy different portions of theState, pursuing so many diflferent
branches of horticulture. Itisfor our interest to work in harmony
with r^ard to the general objects had in view. I hope when we go
to our homes we may not forget the many lessons learned while
here, but be like the ministers who have been up to the general
assembly, that we may carry some of the spirit of our work
with us and make it a leaven that will work incur several neigh-
borhoods, encouraging our neighbors and friends to plant trees
and to give them proper cultivation, and eventually to become
active members and workers of this Society. It is one thing t^o
be a member, to pay in a dollar and receive the annual report of
the transactions, and quite another thing to make it the leading
aim and object of your life to carry forward the work in which
you have enlisted after once having identified yourself with this
organization.

I may say that I have to some extent made this a life work.
Our Society has been in existence for more than twenty yeare;
and I have often felt gratified that my name was at the head of
the list of names first enrolled of its members, and that I could



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422 ANNUAL REPORT

do something to encourage the people in horticultural pursuits,
and be a co-worker with those who would fill our homes with
fruits and flowers, and add their mite to make the State better
and more attractive for their having lived in it. I have tried to
add to the membership and to extend the influence of the Socie-
ty; if I have accomplished anything I am thankful for it, because
I feel that my ability is but little. But we have all more or less
influence. If we would all make it an object to encourage the
growing 9f flowers in and about our fiomes and beautifying the
grounds about our churches, and in our cemeteries, our lawns
and parks, we \^ould accomplish a great work for the State of
Minnesota and give it a more enviable name than it now has. It
seems to me the ''North Star State " is one of the finest states of
the Union. I have said before this that if we would follow the
advice of that venerable horticulturist the late Marshall P. Wil-
der who said, *• Plant the most mature and perfect seeds of the
most hardy, vigorous and valuable varieties, and as a shorter
process, insuring more certain and happy results, cross and hy-
bridize our finest kinds for still greater excellence," that the
time isnot distant when we should have a long list of fruits per-
fectly hardy, adapted to the climate of the Northwest. I believe
the time may yet come when Minnesota apples as well as other
fruits will be sought for in eastern markets and perhaps
across the great waters in Europe. If we work in harmony and
are persistent in our efforts we can at least promote the objects
sought and hasten the fulfillment of our plans.

Gentlemen, I wish you to extend a vote of thanks to our worthy
president. He is one who has always stood by the Minnesota
State Horticultural Society. When I was in such poverty that
I could not attend its meetings his purse was opened widely, and
he has rendered me and other members of this Society encour-
agement and help in building up the Society. He has ably pre-
sided at this meeting, and perhaps treated us with greater
courtesy than we deserve ; I therefore move a vote of thanks be
given him for his faithful service during the past year.

Mr. Smith suggested that the secretary be also included. The
motion was adopted.

The secretary responded briefly, returning thanks to the Society
for kindly assistance rendered him in conducting the duties of
the office which had again been intrusted to his hands, and for
this mark of their confidence and esteem. He had somewhat
reluctantly accepted the position of secretary for another term.



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STATE HOJBTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 423

as he feared a press of other duties wonld prevent his giving
such attention to the work as was properly demanded by the
Society. He hoped, however, any seeming lack in this regard
would be viewed with charity, as it would be his endeavor and
earnest desire to serve the Society as their secretary feithfiilly.

On motion of Mr. Bi*and, a vote of thanks was given Mrs. E.
J. Stager, of Sauk Rapids, for her constant attendance and the
interest manifested by her in the meetings of the Society.

The fruit list was then taken up for revision and adopted in
the form already given on a preceding page.

On motion, the meeting adjourned «me die.



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THE LAW EELATING TO THE PRINTING AND DIS-
TRIBUTION OF THE HORTICULTURAL
REPORTS.

Chapter 8, General Laws of 1883.

JlN act to amend chapter seventy-two (72) OF THE GEN-
ERAL LAWS OF ONE THOUSAND EIGHT HUNDRED AND
EIGHTY-ONE (1881), RELATING TO THE STATE HORTICUL-
TURAL SOCIETY.

Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Minneseta :

Section 1. Sections oue (1) and two (2) of chapter seventy-
two (72) of the General Laws of one thousand eight hundred and
eighty-one (1881) relating to the State Horticultural Society
shall be amended so as to read as follows:

Sec. 1. There shall be annually printed and bound thirty -five
hundred (35Q0) copies of th<^ annual report of the State Horti-
cultural Society, provided the number of printed pages of the
same shall not exceed five hundred (500); which report shall be
transmitted to the governor, and shall be distributed by the
State Horticultural Society, as follows:

One (1) copy to each of the State officers, members of the leg-
islature, judges and clerks of the supreme and district courts,
county auditors and members of the board of regents and faculty
of the State University; fifby (50) copies to the State Historical
Society; one hundred (100) copies to the State Board of Immi-
gration; one hundred (100) copies to the Stat« Agricultural So-
ciety in exchange for a like number of its annual reports; and a
sufficient number of copies to each county horticultural society
to supply one (1) copy to each of its members; provided, such
county society shall be in active existence, and shall have filed
with the secretary of the State Horticultural Society a list of its
officers and committees, and an abstract of its proceedings- for
the year preceding; and the remaining copies shall be distrib-
uted by the State Horticultural Society, in such manner as it
shall deem best, after retaining a sufficient number for its library
and to supply future members and exchanges.

Sec. 2. This act shall take effect and be in force from and
after its passage.

Approved February 28, 1883.



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SECRETARY'S PORTFOLIO,



DBFBBRED PAPERS, REPORTS, NOTES, EXTRACTS. ETO.



Introductory Note by the Secretary.

The following pages are presented in addition to tlie routine
report of proceedings at the summer and winter meetings of the
Society, embracing reports, additional papers, extracts, etc., of
more or less interest.

As will be seen upon inspection of the foregoing pages, in the
chscossions had at the various meetings, and in the papers read,
some effort has been shown to gain conciseness and brevity of
statement, while seeking to preserve the substance of the subject
or the matter had in view. There is a gratifying lack of need-
less repetition as well as lengthy, prosy papers, made up of meas-
ured words and sentences, which might be calculated more to
**lamber'' up the work than adding to the interest and real
value of the same.

In this enlightened age, when knowledge is so much advanced
and spread abroad in all departments and avenues of trade, as
well as in the boundless realm of art and science, there is the
greater need for special training in varied lines of work. And
it is more imperative than ever heretofore that those who would
succeed in any avocation be specialists and thorough masters in
their chosen field of work. Horticultural science, too, is no ex-
ception to the rule; for he who would succeed and make the
most of opportunities within his easy reach must use those
means of gaining information which are alike most practical
and simple, and which may easily be understood and readily ap-
phed.
54



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426 ANNUAL BEPOBT

The Society's transactions, as well as other matters to be found
in this report, should be directed mainly, we presume, to that
which properly relates to Minnesota horticulture, and hence
there should be no desire to cumber our transactions with
foreign and extraneous matters, which would perhaps require
much space and at the same time be of little interest or real value
to the general reader. Our members much prefer, we apprehend,
that their report should be directed to the presentation of those
things which are most intimately joined with their mat.erial wel-
fare.

The Society is under obligations to Famiy Stock and Home
for use of cuts to illustrate papers on grape culture and graft-
ing.

We might here add that while there may be very many valuable
suggestions to be found in horticultural periodicals, as well as
in reports received from other kindred organizations, still lack
of space precludes the possibility of giving these a place or even
passing mention. We read all these With pleasure, and profit
from the many useful lessons to be found therein, and heartily
commend them to the thoughtful reader, since most of these are
in the easy reach of all.



REPORT OF DELEGATE TO WISCX)NSIK

The annual meeting of the Wisconsin State Horticultural
Society was held at Waukesha, Wis., Feb. 16, 17 and 18, 1887.

For many years the annual winter meetings of the society
have been held at Madison in the first week of Februaiy. The
annual conventions of the State Agricultural Society, State
Dairymens Association and State Amber Cane Association were
also held at the same time and place. It was found that where
so many conventions were being held at the same time and place
the stronger and greater attraction proved detrimental to the
others. Therefore, this year the horticulturists chose a lat-er
date and a new place for their meeting, which was held in the
thrifty town of Waukesha, situated about twenty miles w€fit
from Milwaukee.



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STATE HORTICULTURAL BOCIETY. 427

The program for the occasion was very complete, and the sub-
jects presented were such as would tend to instruct and enthuse
the members present. The attendance of Wisconsin horticul-
turists was very good, and included most of those who had been
prominent worker^ in the cause for many years. There were
present as delegates from other states, Messrs. J. V. Cotta, of
Illinois; C. G. Patten and J. Wragg, of Iowa; Chas. W. Garfield
and Prof. A. J. Cook, of Michigan; D. R. Maginnis and J. S.
Harris, of Minnesota.

The meeting was opened at 2 p. m., on the sixteenth, with an
address of welcome by Hon. Alexander Cook, of Waukesha, in
which he complimented the society upon its high and ennobling
aims, and the zeal with which it had fostered the highest and
most ennobling sentiments and inculcated them among the peo-
ple of Wisconsin, the love of the useful and beautiful iif nature,
and esi)ecially the love for fruits and flowers. He alluded to the
wonderful impetus that had been given to horticultural develop-
ment and progress in the Northwest in the last score of years,
through the earnest efforts of this society and kindred organiza-
tions in other states, and thought that we were now but standing
on the threshold of an era of expansion of horticultural knowl-
edge such as the world had never before conceived of.

Mr. B. F. Adams, of Madison, delivered an appropriate re-
sponse to the address of welcome, reviewing the work of the
society in the past and expressing the opinion that the present
outlook was very encouraging, and closed his remarks by saying
that the ''thoroughbred Wisconsin horticulturist possesses an
enthusiasm .that the coldest winds of winter or the strongest
heats of summer could not overcome.''

The remainder of the afternoon session was taken up with
the reports of the secretary and other officers, C/Ommittees, del-
^ates to other state meetings and the election of officers.

The secretary in his report made an urgent plea for an in-
cr^ised membership. Thought the free distribution of reports
tended to disex>urage membership and that the summer meetings
held at diflferent places in the State had added greatly to the
strength and usefulness of the society. He gave irresponsible
tree tramps some hard raps, but did not favor legislation on the
subject. Thought the education to be gained through more
meetings and farmers' institutes was the only available remedy.
They would flourish in spite of all laws as long as there was ig-
norance of horticulture among the farmers.



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428 ANNUAL REPORT

Mr. G. J. Kellogg's report as delegate to the Illinois meeting
showed that the apple question was but little nearer solved in
that state than in Wisconsin and Minnesota. He said: ''Half
of the orchards in Northern Illinois are on the wood pile and
the other half are leaning strongly that way.'' Nursery men
and tree peddlers are not helping the matter, although they are
profiting by the misfortunes of the planters.

Mr. A. G. Tuttle was the delegate to the Iowa meeting. He
thought Iowa was on the right track and making rapid advancee
in testing the adaptability of Eussian vaneties. He said: *' At
least twenty -six varieties of Russians will compare favorably
with the Duchess for hardiness and are as good in quality as an
equal number of American varieties." Numerous varieties were
being propagated at the agricultural experiment station at
Ames, and Prof. Budd had distributed trees to over six hundred
parties in Iowa, Minnesota and Dakota, to be tested and reported
upon.

The evening session wa8 opened with a paper on ''Ornamental
Trees," by A. L. Hatch, of Ithaca. He is a vigorous writer and
a very earnest horticulturist. He cautioned against overplant-
ing. Too close planting is a very general fault. Single speci-
mens with ample room for development give the best effect.
Harmony in form and color ought to be considered in all plant-
ing. Many planters crowd their grounds with such varieties as
a traveling agent recommends at exorbitant prices and overlook
the sugar maple, native white birch, American linden, hack-
berry and other beautiful natives that can frequently be had for
the digging.

Mrs. Huntley followed with a paper on "Plants and Flowers
for the Home." She said: "Our homes are what we make
them. The young farmer can plant a few trees and shrubs
when he sows his first crop. He can devote a little time to the
garden from the very start. The woman can give a little time
to the growing of flowers from the first. Their culture tends to
elevate and purify the mind, and gives the dusty walks of life
many a charm that can not be found where they are wanting, and
they will afford relaxation from indoor labor." No other class
of workei'S have so good an opportunity for ornamenting their
homes as the farmer. The little beginnings made at the start
will grow and expand into beautiful surroundings of a happy
home. It is a misfortune for children to be reared in a home
where there is no adornment. It is criminal in the parents to



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STATE HORTICULTUKAL 80CJBTY. 429

n^lect to beautify the surroandings of the home, and it tends
to x>overty. The lawn should always be as fresh and green as
grass can make it. The v^etable garden will yield its fruits
in a few short months. The strawberry bed will give its ripe
fruit in fourteen months from planting, and the raspberry only
a month later. She knew one farmer who plants a few trees
upon the birth of each child,' and they are that child's trees.
Why should not all do likewise t And then our children would
be a generation of horticulturists. Horticulture has always
made the world more beautiful, home happier and human life
better.

An interesting discussion followed the reading of the paper.
The points brought out were heartily approved, with the sug-
gestion that the house plants should be our plants instead of
"my wife's plants."

At this x>oint Chas. W. Garfield, secretary of the Michigan
Horticultural Society, and of the American Pomological Society,
was introduced, and spoke at length of the workings of the Mich-
igan Society, and advocated the encouragement of local and
county societies and the establishment of experimental stations.

The next paper read was on the '^Slaughter of the Birds," by
Mrs. Ida E. Tillson, of West Salem, in which was shown in a
happy manner the blessing of birds, to the agricalturist and
horticulturist, as their food consisted principally of injurious
insects. She alluded to the principal causes that tended to
diminish the number of birds and threatened the extermination
of some of the most useful species. It was not enough that the
electnc lights killed them by thousands, and the town boys —
** embryo hunters," armed with deadly shot guns — roamed far
and wide and from pure wantoness slay all they can find and
rob the nests of such as escape, so that in the neighborhood of
our villages the quails, larks, blue jays, orioles and other sum-



Online LibraryMinnesota State Horticultural SocietyAnnual report of the Minnesota State Horticultural Society for the year .. → online text (page 40 of 89)