Minnesota State Horticultural Society.

Annual report of the Minnesota State Horticultural Society for the year .. online

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sily detected, but they come forth and fly about at evening, and
nambeis of them may be seen in the month of June and later
flitting about the apple trees.

By the most careful observations made by Pitch, Harris,
Riley, Le Baron and others and corroborated by my own, it is
generally conceded that they are two-brooded, or that two gen-
erations are produced each year. The parents of the first brood



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440 ANNUAL REPORT

have hiberDated during the winter in the larva state, in cocoons
which are concealed under the permanent scales or in the deep
fissures of the bark of the tree, on the fruit of which they have
been reared. They are also often taken into the cellar or fruit rooms
before they leave the apples, and after they crawl out conceal
themselves under the hoops of barrels or in the cracks of bins,
where the careful observer frequently finds and may destroy
them.

As the spring opens, the worms, which are hidden in crevices,
change to chrysalis and from that immerge perfect moths, ready
for the work of destruction. They first appear soon after the
trees blossom, and proceed at once to deposit their eggs, one at
a time, in the calix end of the newly formed apple. In about
one week there hatches from the egg thus deposited a small,
white worm, with shiny black head and neck. As they become
larger the body is a flesh color with the head and neck
tawny, and when fully grown they are nearly half an inch
in length. As soon as hatched the little worms immediately
begin to burrow in the apple, eating their way from the eye to
the core and through the apple in various directions. To get
rid of the refuse fragments of the food it enlarges the hole of
the entrance, or gnaws one through the side of the apple,
and thrusts them out of the opening. The growth is completed
in three or four weeks, when the insect allows the apple to com-
plete its transformation; this is usually when the apples are less
than half grown, at which time most of the infested fruit falls to
the ground. Now the worms leave the apple whether fallen or not
and creep into the chinks of the trees, or other sheltered places,
which they hollow out with their teeth to suit their shape. Here
each one spins for itself a cocoon or silken case, and unlike the
other brood, change into chrysalisimmediately after their cocoons
are made and turn into moths. In about two weeks they come out
and lay their eggs for a second generation and it is this gener-
ation that causes so much worm eaten fruit in the autumn.
This is the brood that hibernates through the winter in the
larva state and comes forth moths in early summer to deposit the
eggii for the first brood. We have necessarily been brief in our
history and description in order to sooner get to the practiciJ
remedies, all of which are simple and easily applied.



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STATE HORTIOITLTURAL SOCIETY. 441

REMEDIES.

irst is destroying the insects in their winter quarters,
picking the wormy apples from the trees and destroying
Phird, gathering the wormy apples from the ground or let-
js and sheep have the range of the orchard. Fourth, en-
g the worms in bands or other contrivances.
I we consider that every female moth is capable of laying
more eggs and that every worm of the first brood totally
» an apple, we will readily see the importance of de-
; the insects before they leave their winter quarters. For
cpose the careful orchardist will carefully search every
tiere there instinct would lead them to conceal them-
uring the winter. We will hunt for their cocoons under
c and in the crevices of trees and also in the hoops of
and in the cracks of bins in which fall and winter apples
en kept. I have seen the pieces of barrel heads and the
>f bins that were laid on top of each other, so completely
d together by the worms between them that a number
5 raised together by taking hold of the top one.
e young worms, soon after the apple begins to grow,
ut castings through the hole they made in entering, or
made in the side of the apple for the purpose, and a por-
lieres to the rough shriveled calyx, their presence is
detected. All of those within reach may be plucked by
d the remainder by means of a wire hook attached to a

the tree may first be jarred when many of them will
L may be caught on sheets spread beneath, and then go
i tree and remove the remainder. The fruit thus re-
(hould of course be fed to swine or burned, and if the
thoroughly done there will be but few left to propagate
>nd brood. Third, gathering the windfalls from the
or letting the swine and sheep have the range of the
. By the latter the fruit will be utilized, but it is not as
1 as the other because many of the worms escape before
le falls. Fourth, entrapping the worms under bands and
►ntri vances. The well-known habit of the Codling Worms
shelter, when about to transform into perfect insects un-
scales or bark upon the trees where they have been
has suggested the idea of entrapping them under some
,1 covers, and experience has proven that by following
bhod, in connection with the others, they can be nearly

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442 ANNUAL REPORT

exterminated. Paper bands are probably the cheapest in large
orchards, although bands of hay, rags or other substances may
answer. The paper bands are made and applied as follows:
Sheets of straw wrapping paper, say 18x30 inches, each sheet
folded twice, giving eight layers between two and three inches
wide. One of these are folded about every tree between the
ground and the lower limbs, and fastened in place by a carpet
tack. The band should completely encircle the tree, the lower
edge being loose enough to permit the worms to crawl under.
The object is to furnish the worms a hiding place which they
will accept to undergo their transformation. The bands should
be put on about the first of June, or before any worms escape
from the fruit, and kept on until October. But to be effectual
they will require taking off and destroying such insects as have
taken refuge under them every few days. The better way is to
burn the bands and replace them with new ones, but if they are
made of manilla paper, such as is used for flour sacks, they may
be run through a clothes wringer, and replaced, and will ordi-
narily last one season. Where but a few trees are to be
protected it might be economy to use cloth bands and at each
examination to dip them into boiling water to kill the worms
taken off, and lay away when the season is over and they would
last many years. Another safeguard against them is to remove
all worthless varieties of fruit trees from, the orchard.

Many of our farmers have planted largely of Siberians and
hybrids that no longer pay for gathering and marketing. The
fruit is allowed to remain where it falls upon the ground to de-
cay and form a hot bed for the propagation of various insects
and the breeding place of blight and fungus. While such re-
main, not much headway can be made in fighting the insects
upon the trees producing valuable fruit. Lastly, protect and
encourage the presence of insectiverous birds. The keen eye
of the downy woodpecker will detect the larvae in it smost secret
hiding places and the sharp bill is prompt to bring forth the
dainty morsel. The blue jay, blue bird, wren, and many others,
are always ready to lend the fruit grower a helping hand.



FEOM SECRETAEY HILLMAN.

The following letter from S. D. Hillman, Secretary of the State
Horticultural Society, was read by President Sias :



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STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 443

A. W. Skis, President Olmsted County Horticultural Society:

Dear Sir: — Your favor of recent date inviting me to be pre-
sent at your annual meeting is received. I hasten to reply, and
regret that a press of other duties will preclude the possibility
of meeting with you on the occasion mentioned.

I trust you will call attention to the near approach of our an-
nual meeting, and will extend to the members of your local
society a cordial invitation to attend the same and participate in
the discussions and deliberations. I have no doubt that some
matters of more than usual interest to horticulturists will be
presented.

One of the most timely subjects to be discussed and properly
considered at this time, is the method to be employed to secure
hardy varieties of fruit trees for Minnesota and the Northwest.
Our severe winters have had the effect of thinning out our or-
chards and nurseries, till there are very few varieties left that
can be relied upon with any satisfaction or degree of certainty to
produce a crop of fruit.

It is undoubtedly true that too little care has been exercised
with regard to the selection of hardy, vigorous stock and the
kinds that mature and ripen their wood early in the season, and
of late the question of how to obtain some of the better Eussian
varieties of apples has been a prominent subject at our meetings.
Experience has demonstrated the great value of many of these
sorts which have been propagated to some extent in this State
and in states adjoining. The experiments being made will surely
result in the bringing out of a few varieties, sooner or later, of
equal value with the well-known Duchess, so universally popular
with the farmers of the Northwest. By means of judicious
crossing with our native seedlings there will be an improvement
in the quality of the varieties to be produced.

Of late a method of crossing has been introduced with success
by using the pollen on such hardy winter trees as may be found
among our native sorts and fertilizing, or crossing, with such
Russian varieties as the Hybernal, Lieby, Ostrekoflf Glass, or
other true ironclads. It is found that the pollen may be even
sent in a letter, and after being kept for several days will germi-
nate. By using such means to obtain a stock of required hardi-
ness the crossed seedling will generally be found to follow the
characteristics of the parent tree. The method is receiving at-
tention from the fact that it is desirable to obtain choice winter
apples of proper hardiness for this climate, and as being consid-



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444 ANNUAL REPORT

ered a shorter road to success than experimenting with our seed-
lings and them alone.

The matter of growing grapes successfully here in Minnesota
is attracting some attention of late, and should receive greater
consideration at the hands of farmers generally. There has
heretofore been too little interest manifested in this direction.
I hav^ on my table a letter from T. T. Lyon, president of the
Michigan State Horticultural Society, in which he says: ^*I was
greatly interested, not to say surprised, in looking over the ex-
hibits of fruit from your State at the New Orleans exposition,
and especially to see among them well- ripened Catawbas — a
variety whose home proper is in the Ohio Valley, and which we
in Southern Michigan only ripen with certainty in our more fo-
vorable localities."

I may say here that in visiting the celebrated vineyards near
Cleveland, last fall, on the shores of Lake Erie, that the Catawba,
which is quite a favorite with many, was not very much ad vaneed
in its stage of ripening to that to be observed on the shores of
our own Minnetonka lake. It was evident that we could produce
the Concord, Moore's Early and Delaware even with equal cer-
tainty in our favorable localities.

Your experience in Olmsted county will bear me out in the
assertion that there is hardly a better county in the State for
fruit culture, and I am glad to know that your society there is
still interested in advancing the horticultural interests of the
county as well as the State at large.

Please send us a good delegation to our annual meeting. With
sincere wishes for your prosperity and begging to be excused for
this hasty note, I remain, very respectfully,

S. D. HiLLMAN, 8e(^y.

DISCUSSION.

Mr. Wayland Stedman inquired concerning the paper of Mr.
Harris, if the larvae of the moth when concealed under the bark of
the tree, could not be killed by the application of some wash.

Mr. Sias said he thought spraying the tree with Paris green
was the quickest way of exterminating the pests, and agreed with
Mr. Harris in the statement that insectivorous birds should be
encouraged to remain around the orchard as they are of great aid
to the fruit grower. He thought the best time to spray with Paris
green was just after the blossom had fallen.



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STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 445

Mr. M. J. Hoag, who has been for the past three or four weeks in
the South, gave a short description of the country. He said he
found good soil for fruit growing, it being a sort of clay loam. It
was much firmer than ours, the native soil being very hard. They
could not raise grapes there to compete with those of California
growing, but they were about the same quality as ours. He
never saw fruit trees grow so rapidly. He measured a pear tree
that had grown nine feet three inches in three years. About,
fifty per cent grow from cuttings. Their water was not considered
safe for drinking purposes unless boiled, and the majority drink
cistern water.

He also gave a short discription of the people and their ap-
pearance with i*egard to health, and also the cattle and the effect
of water and climate on them.

Mr. Hoag said, in regard to his experience in fruit growing,
that he started a few raspberry vines last year. He had covered
about half of them this fall. He said that he believed vines
should be covered in such a severe climate as ours. He didn't
believe in clipping them if they were to be covered, as it stiff-
ened them and they were liable to break when bent. He never
saw any blackberry vines that would live here unless covered.

Mr. I. D. Swain said that he didn't think it was a good plan
to bend the vines. He lost more vines that way than he gained
berries.

Mr. Sias said he used a potato fork in covering and finds it the
best, as one man can handle the vines. He thought the vines of
most varieties needed shelter.

Mr. Swain said there was little difference between thorough
cttltivation and mulching, mulching keeping the land cool, which
is what the vines want.

Mr. Sias said that on some soils it was unnecessary to manure
heavily.

Mr. Stedman said blueberries grew here wild about thirty
years ago, and he thought they could be grown here now.

Mr. Sias said he saw some bushes at the head of Bear creek
and he had planted a few in his garden and they bore well. He
believed they could be cultivated.

We insert here the address of President Cutler, at the annual
meeting of the McLeod County society.



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446 ANNUAL REPORT

PRESIDENT'S ANNUAL ADDRESS.

' By M, Cutler, Sumter,

Members of the McLeod County HorticuUuraX Society:

It gives me pleasure to meet with you again, and my greatest
.desire is that this may prove a profitable and interesting meet-
ing to all present, and that something may be done here today
that will cause others to take an interest in our society as well
as horticultural work for the health and happiness of their fom-
ilies.

While we have not as many members as we should like to
have, we must remember that small beginnings often produce
great results. We have as many members as the State Society
had during the first year of its existence. Still it is a great suc-
cess, and each year, through its members and instructive rei)ort8,
exerts an influence for good that cannot be counted in dollars
and cents. A large part of our people have migrated from lands
that produce apples and other fruits in abundance and
there is a longing desire to gather fruit from their own vine and
tree. How intense that desire is, is best shown by the readine^
with which they have parted with their hard-earned dollars
when the tree agent has appeared with his beautiful pictures
and nice stories of hardy fruits adapted to our climate, thereby
inspiring hopes to be blighted with the first blasts of winter.

The history of fruit growing in McLeod county presents a
dark and dismal record. Enough money has been worse than
wasted to make several fair fortunes, but we hope a better day is
coming. The perseverance of such men as Gideon, Tuttle and
a score of othei'S will, in a few years, solve the apple problem,
and our list of small fruits is being rapidly extended so that we
see no reason to doubt the realization of the hopes of these
old pioneers who have predicted that Minnesota would become
as famous for her fine fruits as for fine wheat. Let it be the ob-
ject of our society to inform the people of the merits of theSe
new fruits and warn them of the danger and risk in giving their
money to oily tongued st^^angers. With your permission I will
offer a few suggestions.

I think a committee should be appointed to attend the annual
meeting of the County Agricultural Society and if said society
will agree to banish fakirs, fortune wheels and all similar



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STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 447

schemes that rob and demoralize the people, make arrangements
with them to have liberal premiums offered for horticultural
products and make a joint exhibition. Such an arrangement has
met with success in some places, and I think would in this coun-
ty. Some plan should be devised for getting more members and
getting the reports of the State Society now on hand among the
people. I, therefore suggest that the next meeting be held at
Hutchinson some time during the winter. If we wish to have a
live society we must be full of enthusiasm. One or two can not
make of this-a successful society, but each must do well his al-
lotted task. I believe that when the people know what to plant
and how to care for them, the finest of small fruits will be found
in nearly every garden in the county. If one man can grow one-
hundred and twenty-five bushels of strawberries per acre, as was
done by a farmer near Winsted the past season, certainly others
should be able to grow enough for their own use. A few years
since a cultivated berry was seldom seen in our home markets.
Now, as soon as spring opens, they begin to arrive from the
south and continue to come until about the middle of June when
our own producers furnish an ample supply. Tastes are rapidly
changing and the old time pork diet is giving way to the beauti-
tiful and delicious fruits. We have the soil and climate for the
production of the most highly colored and best flavored fruits
grown, as soon as we solve the question what to grow.
Then, fellow members, let us hope that this meeting is only a
forerunner of many more to follow and that from our delibera-
tions great good may come to the people of this county.



FRUIT REPORT FROM WISCONSIN.

Menomonie, Dunn County, Wis., Mab. 22, 1887.
8, D. HiUmanj Secretary, etc.:

Dear Sir: Thinking that a report of trees, etc., from this sec-
tion might be of interest, I will state the following:

We did not have a very trying winter this year, although the
thermometer sank down to 40° and under and remained there
for about a week, but that is less than usual for three years.
I have just come in from examining the trees and I find the fol-
lowing, which I have growing in the nursery row, to be entirely
hardy: Lou, Florence, October, Martha (received from Peter M.
Gideon, Minnesota,) Whitney, Hibernal, Ostrokoff's Glass and



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448 ANNUAL REPOKT

Hyslop, Transcendent and Moringe Crabs. Then follow Duchess^
Tetofsky, Pringle, Gilman, Dean, Yellow Anis, Charlamoff and
Bepka Malenka, with the terminal bud and an inch of wood
slightly discolored. Next come Isham, Peach, Charlottenthaler,
Yellow Transparent, Prolific Sweet, McMahon White, Scott's
Red and Iowa Basset, with a trifling more discoloring. Then
come Iowa Blush, Wealthy, Alexander, Longfield, Child's and
Switzer, with yet more discoloring. La»t come Borsdorf, Wolf
River, Walbridge, Fameuse, Plumb's Cider, St. Lawrence and
Fall Orange — all of which I think are no good here.

I have also Clapp's Favorite, Flemish Beauty and Keifer Hybrid
pears growing in nursery row, all of which are frozen to the line
where covered by snow last winter. One Keifer Hybrid pear,
three years old (fromChas. A. Green, Rochester, N. Y.) that has
been drilled up M'ith snow every winter, made a splendid growth
last summer and set fruit buds to every inch of wood. Last fall
I took two big barrels, with ends knocked out, and placed them
around it — one barrel on top of the other — filled in and covered
with sawdust. That tree has come out sound, and I expect to
have some pears from it next summer.

The native plums received from Mr. Gideon made a very fine
growth and are entirely hardy. Moore's Arctic plums, from
Phoenix Nursery, Delavan, Wis., seem to have stood the winter
fairly well.

Strawberries and currants grow finely here. Raspberries and
blackberries must be covered every winter, then they fruit well
and pay well.

Very little fruit is grown here, but the market, in season, is
well supplied with wild fruit. Besides some strawberries and
currants, a few Duchess apples, Hyslop and Transcendent crabs
are seen. But as the country becomes settled, the wild fruit
will go, the demand for cultivated will increase year by year
and by that time, I think, we will have solved the problem of
successful fruit growing in the far Northwest.

Yours for further trial to grow fruit,

8. Running.



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STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 449

FRUIT GROWING IN THE NORTHWEST.

[A paper read at the meeting of the American Horticnltnral Society, at
Cleveland, Ohio, September 7th to lltb, inclusive, prepared by J. S. Harris,
of La Crescent, Minnesota.]

Mr. President and Gentlenhen of the American Horticultural Society •
The duties devolving upon me as a member of the State Board
of Agriculture of Minnesota, and the fatigue I feel from the
laborious work attendant upon our fair just closed, lead me to
r^ret that I have promised a paper for this occasion, and will
deprive me of the pleasure of meeting with you.

I can not give you a carefully prepared paper upon the sub-
ject your secretary' has assigned to me. The Northwest has
gradually receded before the march of civilization until it is
now known as the region embraced in the states of Wisconsin,
Minnesota, Northern Iowa, Dakota, and Montana; but it is still
an empire in extent, the fairest land the sun shines upon, and
there is no other section of this great country that to-day oflfers
such unsurpassed inducements to the farmer, mechanic, mer-
chant, professional man, and all others seeking new homes, to
come and settle within her borders. The climate is stimulating,
and well calculated to bring men and animals to their greatest
state of jMjrfection; the waters are as pure and as abundant as in
any inhabited country upon the globe; the soil is unequaled in
variety, fertility and natural adaptation to the growing, in its
greatest perfection, almost every fruit, vegetable and cereal re-
quired for the sustenance of civilized man, and it possesses a
purity of atmosphere that promotes health and vigor to man and
the products of the soil. Within its borders are found forests
of valuable timber, vast prairies ready for the plow of the hus-
bandman, and deposits of the richest minerals. These peculiar
advantages have brought within its borders a pioneer people
composed of the most intelligent and progressive from every
land, and the development of its resources is marvelous. A his-
tory of its horticulture, which is trying to keep pace with other
industries, would read like a romance; would tell of struggles
and trials, failures and triumphs, of men who had nerve and
hope enough to enable them to plant trees in opposition to pub-
be opinion and in the face of the difficulties attendant upon the
settlement of a new country, and in the face of almost certain
disaster. Fortunately a few of these early pioneers, scattered
here and there, were of a class who persisted in planting treef^,

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460 ANNUAL REPORT

making experiments and hanging on to a forlorn hope, until
they have gained the confidence of the multitudes and are now
regarded as heroes in horticulture.

THE PAST OF HORTICULTURE.

The first planting of trees and fruits by the early settlers of
this country was of such varieties as were favorites in their
former homes. The planters had but an imperfect knowledge
of the soil and climate of the country, and the hardiness and
adaptability of varieties; for a few years a great number of va-



Online LibraryMinnesota State Horticultural SocietyAnnual report of the Minnesota State Horticultural Society for the year .. → online text (page 42 of 89)