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IN 1836.















IN publishing the present work I feel that t
should be deficient in self-justice, did I not state
a few facts relatively to the numerous difficul-
ties with which I have had to contend during
its compilation.

The language of Turkey, in itself a serious
impediment from its total dissimilarity to every
European tongue, naturally raises a barrier be-
tween the native and the stranger, which is to
the last only partially removed by the interven-
tion of a third person ; who, acting as an Inter-
preter, too frequently fritters away the soul of
the conversation, even where he does not wil-
fully pervert its sense. But this drawback to a
full and free intercourse with the natives, irri-
tating and annoying as it is, sinks into insigni-
ficance, when compared with the myriad snares
laid for the stranger, (and, above all, for the
literary stranger) by party-spirit and political


prejudice. The liberal-minded and high-hearted
politician of Europe, even while he is straining
every nerve, and exerting every energy, to sup-
port and strengthen the interests of his country,
disdains to carry with him into private life the
hatreds, the jealousies, and the suspicions, which,
like rust on metal, mar the brightness of the
spirit that harbours them. He does not reject
a friend because his political tenets may be at
variance with his own ; nor overlook the amiable
traits of his character, to dwell only upon his
opposing prejudices and interests.

The height to which party-spirit is carried
in Constantinople ; or I should rather say, in
the Frank quarter of Constantinople, would be
laughable were it not mischievous. Even females
are not free from the malaria which hovers like
an atmosphere about the streets and " palaces"
of Pera ; and a traveller has not been domes-
ticated a week among its inhabitants, ere he
almost begins to believe that the destinies of the
whole Eastern Empire hang upon the breath of
a dozen individuals. With one party, Russia
is the common sewer into which are poured all
the reproach and the vituperation of indignant
patriotism with the other, England is the land-
mark towards which is pointed the finger of


suspicion and defiance. All this may be very
necessary, and very praiseworthy, as a matter of
diplomacy ; I suppose that it is both the one
and the other. I have no opinion to offer on the
subject. I merely venture to question the pro-
priety of suffering such anti-social feelings to
intrude into the bosom of private life ; and to
question the soundness of the judgment which
would universally create a bad man out of a
rival politician; and make the opening of one
door the signal for the closing of another. It is
said that the three plagues of Constantinople
are Fire, Pestilence, and Dragomen ; judging
from what I saw and heard while there, I should
be inclined to add a fourth, and to designate it,
Politics. Certain it is that the faubourg of
Pera always reminded me of an ant-hill; with
its jostling, bustling, and racing for straws and
trifles ; and its ceaseless, restless struggling and
striving to secure most inconsequent results.

That the great question of Eastern policy is a
weighty and an important one, every thinking
person must concede at once ; but whether its
final settlement will be advantageously accele-
rated by individual jealousies and individual
hatreds is assuredly more problematical. " He
who is not for me is against me," is the motto of


every European resident in Turkey ; for each,
however incompetent he may be to judge of so
intricate and comprehensive a subject, is never-
theless a loud and uncompromising politician.
And, if the temporary sojourner in the East be
resolved to belong to no clique, to pledge him-
self to no party, and to pursue a straight and
independent path, as he would do in Europe,
without lending himself to the views of either,
he is certain to be suspected by both.

These are the briars which beset the way-side
of the stranger in Turkey. He has not only to
contend with the unaccustomed language and
manners of the natives to fling from him his
European prejudices and to learn to look can-
didly and dispassionately on a state of society,
differing so widely from that which he has left
but when the wearied spirit would fain fall
back, and repose itself for a while among more
familiar and congenial habits, it has previously
to undergo an ordeal as unexpected as it is
irritating ; and from which it requires no incon-
siderable portion of moral courage to escape

Such are the adventitious and unnecessary
difficulties that have been gratuitously prepared
for the Eastern traveller, and superadded to


the natural impediments of the locality ; and of
these he has infinitely more reason to complain,
than of the unavoidable obstacles which meet
him at every step in his commerce with the
natives. That the Turks as a people, and par-
ticularly the Turkish females, are shy of making
the acquaintance of strangers, is most true ; their
habits and feelings do not lend themselves rea-
dily to a familiar intercourse with Europeans ;
nor are they induced to make any extraordinary
effort to overcome the prejudice with which they
ever look upon a Frank, when they remember
how absurdly and even cruelly they have been
misrepresented by many a passing traveller, pos-
sessed neither of the time nor the opportunity
to form a more efficient judgment.

When my father and myself left Europe, it
was with the intention of visiting, not only
Turkey, but also Greece, and Egypt ; and we
accordingly carried with us letters to influential
individuals, resident in each of those interesting
countries, whose assistance and friendship would
have been most valuable to us. And, for the two
or three first months of our sojourn in Constan-
tinople, while yet unwilling to draw deductions,
and to trust myself with inferences, which might,
and probably would, ultimately prove erroneous,

VOL. i. A


I suffered myself to be misled by the assertions
and opinions of prejudiced and party-spirited
persons, and still maintained the same purpose.
But, when awakened to a suspicion of the spirit-
thrall in which I had been kept, I resolved to
hazard no assertion or opinion which did not
emanate from personal conviction, and I found
that I could not prove an honest chronicler if I
merely contented myself with a hurried and
superficial survey of a country constituted like

To this conviction must consequently be attri-
buted the fact that the whole period of my so-
journ in the East was passed in Constantinople,
and a part of Asia Minor. But my personal disap-
pointment will be overpaid, should it be conceded
that I have not failed in the attempt of affording
to my readers a more just and complete insight
into Turkish domestic life, than they have hi-
therto been enabled to obtain.

Bradenham Lodge, Bucks,
May 1837.





The Golden Horn Stamboul in Snow The Sera'i Bournou Scutari
Galata First View of Constantinople St. Sophia and Solimanie
Pera Domestication of Aquatic Birds Sounds at Sea Caiques
Oriental Grouping Armenian Costume Reforms of Sultan Mah-
moud Dervishes Eastern Jews Evening Illuminated Minarets

Romance versus Reason Pain at Parting Custom House of
Galata The East versus the West Reminiscences of the Marseillois
Functionaries The British Consul at Marseilles The Light-house
at Syra The Frank Quarter Diplomatic Atmosphere Straw Huts
Care of the Turks for Animals Scene from Shakspeare Page I


Difficulty of Ingress to Turkish Houses Steep Streets The Harem
The Tandour The Mangal The Family Female Costume
Luxurious Habits The Ramazan The Dining-room The Widow
The Dinner The Turks not Gastronomers Oriental Hospitality

Ceremony of Ablution The Massaldjhe Alarm in the Harem
The Prayer Evening Offering Puerile Questions Opium
Primitive Painting Splendid Beds Avocations of a Turkish
Lady Oriental Coquetry Shopping Commercial Flirtations
The Sultana Heybetoullah A Turkish Carriage The Charshees
Armenian Merchants Greek Speculators Perfumes and Em-
broidery . . . . . . . 16


Turning Dervishes Appearance of the Tekie The Mausoleum
Duties of the Dervishes Chapel of the Convent The Chief Priest

A 2


Dress of the Brotherhood Melancholy Music Solemnity of the
Service Mistakes of a Modern Traveller Explanation of the Cere-
mony The Prayer The Kiss of Peace Appearance of the Chapel

Religious Tolerance of the Turks^- The French Renegade
Sketch oi" Halet Ettenc^the Founder of the Tekie . 40


Merchants of Galata Palaces of Pera Picturesque Style of Building
The Perotes Social Subjects Greeks, and Schismajjc
Ambassadorial Residences Entree of the Embassies The Carnival
Soirees Dansantes The Austrian Minister Madame la Baronne
The Russian Minister Madame de Boutenieff The Masked Ball

Russian Supremacy The Prussian Plenipotentiary The
Sardinian Charge d' Affaires Diplomacy Unhoused Society of
Pera 56


The Greek Carnival Kassim Pasha The Marine Barrack The
Admiralty Palace of the Capitan Pasha Turkish Ships and Turkish
Sailors More Mistakes Aqueduct of Justinian The Sera'i The
Arsenal The " Sweet Waters " Th^ Ffflffir Interior of a Greek
House Courteous Reception Patriarchal Customs Greek Ladies
at Home Confectionary and Coffee A Greek Dinner Ancient and
Modern Greeks A Few Words on Education National Politeness
The Great Logotheti Aristarchi His Politics Sketch of his
Father His Domestic History A Greek Breakfast The Morning
after a Ball Greek Progress towards Civilization Parallel between
the Turk and the Greek ..... 65


Difficulty of Obtaining an Insight into Turkish Character Inconveni-
ence of Interpreters Errors of Travellers Ignorance of Resident
Europeans Fables and Fable-mongers Turkey, Local and Moral
Absence of Capital Crime Police of Constantinople Quiet
Streets Sedate Mirth Practical Philosophy of the Turks National
Emulation Impossibility of Revolution Mahmoudand his People
Unpopularity of the Sultan Russian Interference Vanity of the
Turks Russian Gold Tenderness of the Turks to Animals
Penalty for Destroying a Dog The English Sportsman Fondness
of the Turks for Children Anecdote of the Reiss Effendi Adopted
Children Love of the Musselmauns for their Mothers Turkish
indifference to Death Their Burial-places Fasts The Turks in the
Mosque Contempt of the Natives for Europeans Freedom of the
Turkish Women Inviolability of the Harem Domestic Economy of


the Harem Turkish Slaves Anecdote of a Slave of Achmet
Pasha Cleanliness of Turkish Houses The Keal Romance of the
East ....... 86


The Harem of Mustafa Effendi The Ladies of the Harem Etiquet-
tical Observances of the Harem Ceremonies of the Salemliek
Jealousy of Precedence among the Turkish Women Apartment of
the Effendi Eastern Passion for Diamonds Personal Appearance of
Mustafa Effendi The little Slave-girl Slavery in Turkey Gallant
Present The Dinner Turkish Cookery Illuminated Mosques
The liokshaliksThe Toilet after the Bath History of an Odalique
Stupid Husbands Reciprocal Commiseration Errors of a Modern
French Traveller Privacy of the Women's Apartments Anecdote
of the Wife of the K'iara Bey The Bairam BokshalikMy Sleeping-
room Forethought of Turkish Hospitality Farewell to Fatma
Hanoum Dense Crowd Turkish Mob Turkish Officers Military
Difficulty The " Lower Orders " Tolerance of the Orientals to-
wards Foreigners Satisfactory Expedient . . 109


Bath-room of Scodra Pasha Fondness of the Eastern Women for the
Bath The Outer Hall The Proprietress' Female Groups The
Cooling-room The Great Hall The Fountains The Bathing Wo-
men The Dinner Apology for the Turkish Ladies . 129


Cheerful Cemeteries Burial-ground of Pera Superiority of the
Turkish Cemeteries Cypresses Singular Superstition The Grand
Champs Grek Grave- yard Sultan Selim's Barrack Village of
St. Demetrius European Burial-ground Grave-stones The
Kiosk Noble View Legend of the Maiden's Tower Plague
Hospital of the Turks The Plague-Caique Armenian Cemetery

( 'iiriuus 1 1 >scriiit ii'ii TurkUh l'niri;il-|i!;u-e Distinctive Hi-ad- Atones

Graves of the JaTussaries Wild Superstition Cemetery of Scu-
tari Splendid Cypresses Ancient Prophecy Extent of Burial-
ground The Headless Dead Exclusive Enclosures Aspect of the
Cemetery from the Summer Palace of Hcybetoullah Sultane
Local Superstition The Damned Souls . . . 138


Character of the Constanliuopolitan Greeks The Greek Colony at the
Fanar Vogoride, Logotheti, and Angiolopolo Political Sentiment
Chateaubriand at the Duke de Rovigo's Biting Criticism Greek


Chambers " What's in a Name?" Custom of Burning Perfumes
The Pastille of the Seraglio Turkish Cosmetics Eastern
Beauty ....... 157


The Kourban-Ba'iram Politeness of Mustafa Effendi Depressing
Recollections Unquiet Night Midnight March Turkish Coffee
A Latticed Araba The Mosque of Sultan Achmet Beautiful coup-
d'oeil Dress of the Turkish Children Restlessness of the Franks
The Festival of Sacrifice Old Jewish Rite The Turkish Wife
Sun-rise Appearance of the Troops Turkish Ladies Group of
Field Officers The Sultan's Stud Magnificent Trappings The
Seraskier Pasha The Great Officers of State The Procession
The Sultan Imperial Curiosity The Cheik-Islam Costume of the
Sultan Japanese Superstition Vanity of Sultan Mahmoud The
Hairdresser of Halil Pasha Rapid Promotion Oriental Salutations
Halil Pasha Said Pasha Unruly Horses The Valley of the
"Sweet Waters" Pera .... 171


The Military College Achmet Pasha and Azmi Bey Study of Azmi
Bey His grateful Memories of England and the English The Esta-
blishment The Lithographic Presses Extemporaneous Poetry
Halls of Study Number of Students Mathematical Hall The
Sultan's Gallery The Mosque The Mufti The Turkish Creed
The Imperial Closet The Gallery of the Imperial Suite The
Retiring-Room The Printing-Office The Hospital The Refectory
The Professor of Fortification Negro Officers Moral Condition
of the College Courtesy of the Officers Deficiencies of the Pro-
fessors The Turks a Reading People Object of the Institution
Reasons of its Failure Smiling Enemies Forlorn Hope Russian
Influence Saduk Agha Achmet Pasha Azmi Bey Apology for
my Prolixity . . . . . . 194


Invitation from Mustapha Pasha of Scodra The Caique, and the
Ca'iquejhes How to Travel in a Caique Hasty Glances Self-
Gratulation Scutari Imperial Superstition The Seraglio Point
Dolma Batche Beshiktash The Turning Dervishes Beglier-
bey The Kiosks A Dilemma A Ruined Palace An Introduc-
tion A Turkish Beauty A Discovery A New Acquaintance
The Buyuk Hanoum Fatiguing Walk Palace of Mustapha
Pasha The Harem Turkish Dyes Ceremonies of Reception
Turkish Establishment The Buyuk Hanoum Turkish Chaplets


The Imperial Firmau Pearls, Rubies, and Emeralds The Favourite
Odalique Heymine Hanoum A Conversation on Politics Scodra
Pasha Singular Coincidence Convenience of the Turkish Kitchen
Luxury of the Table Coquetry of the Uhibouk Turkish Mode of
Lighting the Apartments Gentleness towards the Slaves Inte-
resting Reminiscences Domestic Details Dilaram Hanoum A
Paragraph on Pearls A Turkish Mirror A Summons Scodra
Pasha Motives for Revolt The Imperial Envoy Submission
Ready Wit of the Pasha's Son The Reception Room Personal
Appearance of the Scodra Pasha Inconvenient Courtesy Conver-
sation on England Philosophy Pleasant Dreams The Plague-
Smitten ....... 216


Procession of Betrothal Preliminary Ceremonies The Mantle uf Ma-
homet The Palace of the Seraskier Pasha The Palace Square
Picturesque Groups An Interior Turkish Children Oriental Cu-
riosity Costume of the Turkish Children Military Music The
Procession Hurried Departure of the Crowd The Seraskier 's
Tower The Fire Guard Candidates for the Imperial Bride Impe-
rial Expedient Said Pasha Policy of the Seraskier An Audience
The Biter Bitten Ingenious Ruse Sublime Economy Bril-
liant Traffic The Danger of Delay -The Marriage Gifts An
Interesting Interview ..... 255


Fine Scenery The Coast of Asia Turkish Cemeteries The Imperial
Sera'i The Golden Horn Mount Olympus The Arabajhe The
Araba The Persian Kiosk The Barrack of Scutari The Mosque of
Selim III. The Slipper of the Sultana Valide The Imperial Guard
Military Material The Macaroni Manufactory Sublime Targets
A Major of the Imperial Guard Triumph of Utilitarianism The
Rise of the Vines The Holy Tomb Encampments of the Plague-
smitten The Setting Sun Return to Europe The Square of Topp-
banne ....... 276


Turkish Superstitions Auguries The Court Astrologer The Evil
Eye Danger of Blue Eyes Imperial Firman The Babaluk The
Ceremony Sable Pythonesses Witchcraft . . 289


Imperial Invitation Disagreeable Adventure Executed Criminal
Efficacy of Wayside Executions Tardy Conversions Mistaken


Humanity Summary Mode of Execution The Palace of Asme
Sultane Entrance of the Harem Costume of the Slaves Nazip
Hanoum Ceremonious Reception The Adopted Daughter Cos-
tume of the Ladies of the Sera'i Beauty of the Slaves Extraordi-
nary Arrangement Rejected Addresses The Imperial Lover
Sacredness of Adoption in Turkey Romantic Correspondence
Ladies of the Household The Mother of the Slaves Perousse
Hanoum Crowded Audience The Imperial Odalique Music of
the Harem The J^ew Pet The Kislar-Agha The "Light of the
Harem " The Poetical Sultan Indisposition of the Sultana The
Palace Gardens The Imperial Apartments The Dancing Girl
Reluctant Departure Ballad by Perousse Hanoum . 298


Kahaitchana The Barbyses The Valley of the Sweet Waters Im-
perial Procession National Interdict Picturesque Scene The
Princess Salihe and her Infant Foibearance of the Sultan The
Toxopholites Imperial Monopoly Passion of the Sultan for Archery
Record-Columns The Odalique's Grave The Lost One Azme
Sultane Imperial Courtesy A Drive through the Valley 321


Easter with the Greeks Greek Church at Pera Women's Gallery
Interior of a Greek Church The Sanctuary The Screen Throne
of the Patriarch The Holy Sepulchre Singular Appearance of the
Congregation Sociability of the Ladies L'Echelle des Moris
Shipping Boats and Boatmen Church of the Fanar Ancient
Screen Treasure Chests The Sanctuary Private Chapels A
Pious Illumination Priests' House Prison Remedy against Ma-
homedauism Midnight Mass Unexpected Greetings The Pa-
triarch Logotheti Russian Secretaries Russian Supremacy in
Turkey Affinity of Religion between the Greeks and Russians
The Homage Pious Confusion Patriarch's Palace Lovely Night-
Scene Midnight Procession Serious Impressions Suffocating Heat
Dawn ....... 332


Feasting after Fasting Visit to the Patriarch Gorgeous Procession
Inconvenient Enthusiasm Indisposition of the Patriarch The Cere-
mony of Unrobing The Impromptu Fair The Patriarch at Home
The Golden Eggs ..... 353

High Street of Pera Dangers and Donkeys Travelling in an Araba


Fondness of the Orientals for their Cemeteries Singular Spectacle
Moral Supineness of the Armenians M. Nubar The Fair Ar-
menian Dance Anti-Exclusivos Water Venders Being i la
Franka Wrestling Rings The Battle of the Sects . 360


The Mosques at Midnight Baron Rothschild Firmans and Orders
A Proposition Masquerading St. Sophia by Lamplight The Con-
gregation The Mosque of Sultan Achmet Colossal Pillars Return
to the Harem The Cheik-Islam Count Bathiany The Party St.
Sophia by Daylight Erroneous Impression Turkish Paradise
Piety of the Turkish Women The Vexed Traveller Disappoint-
ment Confusion of Architecture The Sweating; Stone Women's
Gallery View from the Gallery Gog and Magog at Constanti-
nople The Impenetrable Door Ancient Tradition Leads of the
Mosque Gallery of the Dome The Doves The Atmeidan The
Tree of Groans The Mosque of Sultan Achmet Antique Vases
Historical Pulpit The Inner Court The Six Minarets The Mosque
of Solimanie Painted Windows Ground-plan of the Principal
Mosques The Treasury of Solimanie Mausoleum of Solyman the
Magnificent Model of the Mosque at Mecca Mausoleums in Ge-
neral Indispensable Accessories The Medresch Mosque of Sultan
Mahinoud at Topp-hanne .... 373


Antiquities of Constantinople Ismael Effendi The Atmeidan The
Obelisk The Delphic Tripod The Column of Constantine The
Tchernberle Tasch The Cistern of the Thousand and One Columns

The Boudroum The Roman Dungeons Yere-Batan-Sera'i
The Lost Traveller Extent of the Cistern Aqueduct of Justinian
Palace of Constantino Tomb of Heraclius The Seven Towers

An Ambassador in Search of Truth Tortures of the Prison A
Legend of the Seven Towers .... 405


Baloucle TheNew Church Delightful Road Eyoub The Cemetery
The Rebel's Grave The Mosque of Blood The Hill of Graves
The Seven Towers The Palace of Belisarius The City Walls

Easter Festivities The Turkish Araba The Armenian Car-
riage Travellers Turkish Women Seridjhes Persians Irregu-
lar Troops The Plain of Baloucle Laughable Mistake Extraor-
dinary Discretion The Church of Baloucle The Holy Well
Absurd Tradition The Chapel Vault Enthusiasm of the Greeks



A Pleasant Draught Greek Substitute for a Bell Violent
Storm . . . . _, . 434


Figurative Gratitude of the Seraskier Pasha Eastern Hyperbole
Reminiscences of Past Years A Vision Realized Strong Contrasts
The Marriage Fetes Popular Excitement Crowded Streets
The Auspicious Day Extravagant Expectations The Great Ceme-
tery Dolma Batche The Grand Armoury Turkish Women
Tents of the Pashas The Bosphorus Preparations Invocation
The Illuminated Bosphorus A Stretch of Fancy A Painful Recol-
lection Natural Beauties of the Bosphorus The Grave -Yard
Evening Amusements Well Conducted Population . 446


Repetition The Esplanade The Kiosk and the Pavilion A Short
Cut Dense Crowd A Friend at Court Curious Coup d'CEil The
Arena The Orchestra First Act of the Comedy Disgusting
Exhibition The Birth of the Ballet Dancing Boys Second Act
of the Drama Insult to the Turkish Women The Provost Marshal
Yusuf Pasha, the Traitor Clemency of the Sultan Forbearance
of an Oriental Mob Renewal of the Ballet Last Act of the Drama
Theatrical Decorations Watch-dogs and Chinese Procession of
the Trades Frank Merchants Thieves and Judges Bedouin
Tumblers Fondness of the Pashas for Dancing The Wise Men of
the East ....... 460


Succession of Banquets The Che'ik Islam and the Clergy Sectarian
Prejudices The Military Staff The Naval Chiefs The Imperial
Household The Pashas The Grand Vizier Magnificent Proces-
sion Night Scene on the Bosphorus The Palace of the Seraskier
Pasha Palace of Azme Sultane Midnight Serenade Pretty Tru-
ants The Shore of Asia Ambassadorial Banquet War Dance
Beautiful Effects of Light . 478


Monotonous Entertainments Bridal Preparations Common Interest
Appearance of the Surrounding Country Ride to Arnautkeui
Sight-loving Ladies Glances and Greetings Pictorial Grouping
The Procession The Trousseau A Steeple-Chase . 488


The Bridal Day Ceremony of Acceptance The Crowd The Kislar


Agha and the Court Astrologer Order of the Procession The
Russian Coach The Pasha and the Attaches The Seraskier
Wives of the Pashas The Sultan and the Georgian Slave . 500


A New Rejoicing Scholastic Processions Change in the Valley
The Odalique's Grave The Palace of Eyoub The State Apart-
ments Return to Pera . . . 509




Chapel of the Turning Dervishes . Frontispiece.

The Maiden's Tower . Vignette Title-page.

Military College . . . . .196

Palace of the Sweet Waters . . . .324

A Street in Pera . . . . .361

Column of Constantine and Egyptian Tripod . . 407

Online LibraryMiss (Julia) PardoeThe city of the Sultan, and, Domestic manners of the Turks in 1836 (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 30)