Mo.) Congress of Arts and Science (1904 : Saint Louis.

Congress of Arts and Science : universal exposition, St. Louis, 1904 online

. (page 2 of 68)
Online LibraryMo.) Congress of Arts and Science (1904 : Saint LouisCongress of Arts and Science : universal exposition, St. Louis, 1904 → online text (page 2 of 68)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


Board and the aforementioned letter of Professor Miinsterberg's to
Mr, HoUs as a basis, and an adjournment taken until January 17
for the preparation of detailed recommendations.

The Committee on Plan and Scope again met, all members being
present, at the Hotel Manhattan on January 17, and arrived at
definite conclusions, which were embodied in the report to the
Administrative Board, a meeting of which had been called at the
Hotel Manhattan for January 19, 1903. The report of the Com-
mittee on Plan and Scope is of such historic importance in the devel-
opment of the Congress that it is given as follows, although many
points were afterwards materially modified : —



8 THE HISTORY OF THE CONGRESS

New York, January 19, 1903.
President Nicholas Murray Butler,

Chairman Administrative Board of World's Congress at
The Louisiana Purchase Exposition:

Dear Sir, — The imdersigned, appointed by your Board a committee on the
scope and plan of the proposed World's Congress, at the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition, have the honor to submit the following report: —

The authority imder which the Committee acted is found in a commxmication
addressed to its members by the Chairman of the Administrative Board. A
subsequMit communication to the Chairman of the Committee indicated that the
widest scope was allowed to it in preparing its plan. Under this authority the
Committee met on January 10, 1903, and again on January 17. The Committee
was, from the beginning, unanimous in accepting the general plan of the Admin-
istrative Board, that there should be but a single congress, which, however, might
be divided and subdivided, in accord with the general plan, into divisions, depart-
ments, and sections, as its deliberations proceed.

PLANS OF THE CONGRESS

As a basis of discussion two plans were drawn up by members of the Committee
and submitted to it. The one, by Professor Miinsterberg, started from a compre-
hensive classification and review of human achievement in advancing knowledge,
the other, by Professor Small, from an equally comprehensive review of the great
public questions involved in human progress.

Professor Miinsterberg proposed a congress having the definite task of bringing
out the unity of knowledge with a view of correlating the scattered theoretical and
practical scientific work of our day. This plan proposed that the congress should
continue through one week. The first day was to be devoted to the discussion of
the most general problem of knowledge in one comprehensive discussion and four
general divisions. On the second day the congress was to divide into several
groups and on the remaining days into yet more specialized groups, as set forth
in detail in the plan.

The plan by Professor Small proposed a congress which would exhibit not
merely the scholar's interpretation of progress in scholarship, but rather the
scholar's interpretation of progress in civilization in general. The proposal was
based on a division of human interests into six great groups : —
I. The Promotion of Health.
II. The Production of Wealth.

III. The Harmonizing of Human Relations.

IV. Discovery and Spread of Knowledge.
V. Progress in the Fine Arts.

VI. Progress in Religion.

The plan agreed with the other in beginning with a general discussion and then
subdividing the congress into divisions and groups.

As a third plan the Chairman of the Committee suggested the idea of a congress
of publicists and representative men of all nations and of all civilized peoples,
which should discuss relations of each to all the others and throw light on the
question of promoting the unity and progress of the race.

After due consideration of these plans the Committee reached the conclusion
that the ends aimed at in the second and third plans could be attained by taking
the first plan as a basis, and including in its subdivisions, so far as was deemed
advisable, the subjects proposed in the second and third plans. They accordingly
adopted a resolution that " Mr. Munsterberg's plan be adopted as setting forth



THE HISTORY OF THE CONGRESS 9

the general object of the Congress and defining the scope of its work, and that
Mr. Small's plan be communicated to the General Committee as containing sug-
gestions as to details, but without recommending its adoption as a whole."

DATE OF THE CONGEESS

Your Committee is of opinion that, in view of the climatic conditions at St. Louis
during the summer and early autumn, it is desirable that the meeting of this
general Congress be held during the six days beginning on Monday, September 19,
1904, and continuing until the Saturday following. Special associations choosing
St. Louis as their meeting-place may then convene at such other dates as may be
deemed fit; but it is suggested that learned societies whose field is connected with
that of the Congress should meet during the week beginning September 26.

The sectional discussions of the Congress wiU then be continued by these
societies, the whole forming a continuous discussion of himian progress during
the last century.

PLAN OF ADDRESSES

The Committee believe that in order to carry out the proposed plan in the most
effective way it is necessary that the addresses be prepared by the highest hving
authorities in each and every branch. In the last subdivisions, each section
embraces two papers; one on the history of the subject during the last one hun-
dred years and the other on the problems of to-day.

The programme of papers suggested by the Committee as embraced in Pro-
fessor Miinsterberg's plan may be summarized as follows: —

On the first day four papers will be read on the general subject, and four on
each of the four large divisions, twenty in all. On the second day those four divi-
sions will be divided into twenty groups, or departments, each of which will have
four papers referring to the divisions and relations of the sciences, eighty in all.
On the last four days, two papers in each of the 120 sections, 240 in all, thus
making a total of 340 papers.

In view of the fact that the men who will make the addresses should not be
expected to bear all the expense of their attendance at the Congress, it seems
advisable that the authorities of the Fair should provide for the expenses neces-
sarily incurred in the journey, as weU as pay a small honorarium for the addresses.
The Committee suggest, therefore, that each American invited be offered $100 for
his traveling expenses and each European $400. In addition to this that each
receive $150 as an honorarium. Asstuning that one half of those invited to deliver
addresses wiU be Americans and one half Europeans, this arrangement wiU involve
the expenditure of $136,000. This estimate will be reduced if the same person
prepares more than one address. It will also be reduced if more than half of the
speakers are Americans, and increased in the opposite case.

As the Committee is not advised of the amount which the management of the
Exposition may appropriate for the purpose of the Congress, it cannot, at present,
enter further into details of adjustment, but it records its opinion that the sum
suggested is the least by which the ends sought to be attained by the Congress can
be accomplished. To this must be added the expenses of administration and
publication.

All addresses paid for by the Congress should be regarded as its property, and
be printed and published together, thus constituting a comprehensive work
exhibiting the unity, progress, and present state of knowledge.

This plan does not preclude the delivery of more than one address by a single
scholar. The directors of the Exposition may sometimes find it advisable to ask
the same scholar to deliver two addresses, possibly even three.



10 THE HISTORY OF THE CONGRESS

The Committee recommends that full liberty be allowed to each section of the
Congress in arranging the general character and programme of its discussions
within the field proposed.

As an example of how the plan will work in the case of any one section, the
Committee take the case of a neurologist desiring to profit by those discussions
which relate to his branch of medicine. This faUs under C of the four main
divisions as related to the physical sciences. His interest on the first day will
therefore be centred in Division C, where he may hear the general discussion of
the physical sciences and the relations to the other sciences. On the second day
he will hear four papers in Group 18 on the subjects embraced in the general
science of anthropology; one on its fundamental conceptions; one on its
methods and two on the relation of anthropology to the sciences most closely con-
nected with it. During the remaining four days he wiU meet with the represent-
atives of medicine and its related subjects, who will divide into sections, and
listen to four papers in each section. One paper will consider the progress of
that section in the last one hundred years, one paper will be devoted to the
problems of to-day, leaving room for such contributions and discussions as may
seem appropriate during the remainder of the day.

COOPERATION OF LEARNED SOCIETIES INVOKED

In presenting this general plan, your Committee wishes to point out the diffi-
culty of deciding in advance what subjects should be included in every section.
Therefore, the Committee deems it of the utmost importance to secure the advice
and assistance of learned societies in this country in perfecting the details of the
proposed plan, especially the selection of speakers and the programme of work in
each section. It will facilitate the latter purpose if such societies be invited and
encouraged to hold meetings at St. Louis during the week immediately preceding,
or, preferably, the week following the General Congress. The selection of speakers
should be made as soon as possible, and, in any case, before the end of the present
academic year, in order that formal invitations may be issued and final arrange-
ments made with the speakers a year in advance of the Congress.

CONCLUDING SUGGESTIONS

With the view of securing the cooperation of the governments and leading
scholars of the principal countries of Western and Central Europe in the proposed
Congress, it seems advisable to send two commissioners to these countries for this
purpose. It seems unnecessary to extend the opei'ations of this commission out-
side the European continent or to other than the leading countries. In other
cases arrangements can be made by correspondence.

It is the opinion of the Committee that an American of world-wide reputation
as a scholar should be selected to preside over the Congress.
All which is respectfully submitted.

(Signed) Simon Newcomb,

Chairman ;
George F. Moore,
John B. Moore,
Hugo Munsterberg,
Albion W. Small,
William H. Welch,
Elihu Thomson,

Committee.



THE HISTORY OF THE CONGRESS 11

The Administrative Board met on January 19 to receive the report
of the Committee on Plan and Scope which was presented by Dr.
Newcomb. Professor Miinsterberg and Professor John Bassett Moore
were also present by invitation to discuss the details of the scheme.
In the afternoon the Board went into executive session, and the
following recommendations were adopted and transmitted by the
Director of Congresses to the Committee on Congresses of the Expo-
sition and to the President and Executive Committee, who duly
approved them.

To the Director of Congresses : — •

The Administrative Board have the honor to make the following recommenda-
tions in reference to the Department of Congresses : —

(1) That there be held in connection with the Universal Exposition of St. Louis
in 1904, an International Congress of Arts and Science.

(2) That the plan recommended by the Committee on Plan and Scope for a
general congress of Arts and Science, to be held during the six days beginning on
Monday, September 19, 1904, be approved and adopted, subject to such revision
in point of detail as may be advisable, preserving its fundamental principles.

(3) That Simon Newcomb, LL.D., of Washington, D. C, be named for President
of the International Congress of Arts and Science, provided for in the foregoing
resolution.

(4) That Professor Miinsterberg, of Harvard University, and Professor Albion
W. Small, of the University of Chicago, be invited to act as Vice-Presidents of
the Congress.

(5) That the Directors of the World's Fair be requested to change the name of
this Board from the "Advisory Board" to the "Administrative Board of the
International Congress of Arts and Science."

(6) That the detailed arrangements for the Congress be intrusted to a com-
mittee consisting of the President and two Vice-Presidents already named, sub-
ject to the general oversight and control of the Administrative Board, and that
the Directors of the Exposition be requested to make appropriate provision for
their compensation and necessary expenses.

(7) That it be recommended to the Directors of the World's Fair that appro-
priate provision should be made in the office of the Department of Congresses for
an executive secretary and such clerical assistance as may be needed.

(8) That the following pajrment be recommended to those scholars who accept
invitations to participate and do a specified piece of work, or submit a specified
contribution in the International Congress of Arts and Science: For traveling
expenses for a European scholar, $500. For travefing expenses for an American
scholar, $150.

(9) That provision be made for the publication of the proceedings of the Con-
gress in suitable form to constitute a permanent memorial of the work of the
World's Fair for the promotion of science and art, imder competent editorial
supervision.

(10) That an appropriation of $200,000 be made to cover expenses of the
Department of Congresses, of which sum $130,000 be specifically appropriated for
an International Congress of Arts and Science, and the remainder to cover aU
expenses connected with the publication of the proceedings of said Interna-
tional Congress of Arts and Science, and the expenses for promotion of all other
congresses.



12 THE HISTORY OF THE CONGRESS

In addition to the foregoing recommendations, Professor Miinster-
berg was requested at his earliest convenience to furnish each member
with a revised plan of his classification, which would reduce as far as
possible the number of sections into which the Congress was finally
to be divided.

With the adjournment of the Board on January 19 the Congress
may be fairly said to have been launched upon its definite course,
and such changes as were thereafter made in the programme did not
in any wise affect the principle upon which the Congress was based,
but were due to the demands of time, of expediency, and in some
eases to the accidents attending the participation. The organization
of the Congress and the personnel of its officers from this time on
remained unchanged, and the history of the meeting is one of steady
and progressive development. The Committee on Plan and Scope
were discharged of their duties, with a vote of thanks for the
laborious and painstaking work which they had accomplished and
the thoroughly scientific and novel plan for an international congress
which they had recommended.

It was determined by the Administrative Board to keep the serv-
ices of three of the members of the Committee on Plan and Scope,
who should act as a scientific organizing committee and who should
also be the presiding officers of the Congress. The choice for President
of the Congress fell without debate to the dean of American scientific
circles, whose eminent services to the Government of the United
States and whose recognized position in foreign and domestic sci-
entific circles made him particularly fitted to preside over such an
international gathering of the leading scientists of the world. Dr.
Simon Newcomb, retired Professor of Mathematics, United States
Navy. Professor Hugo Miinsterberg, of Harvard University, and Pro-
fessor Albion W. Small, of the University of Chicago, were designated
as the first and second Vice-Presidents respectively.

The work of the succeeding spring, with both the Organizing Com-
mittee and the Administrative Board, was devoted to the perfecting
of the programme and the selection of foreign scientists to be invited
to participate in the Congress. The theory of the development of
the programme and its logical bases are fully and forcibly treated by
Professor Miinsterberg in the succeeding chapter, and therefore will
not be touched upon in this record of facts. As an illustration of the
growth of the programme, however, it is interesting to compare its
form, which was adopted at the next meeting of the Organizing
Committee on February 23, 1903, in New York City, with its final
form as given in the completed programme presented at St. Louis
in September, 1904 (pp. 47-49). No better illustration can be given
of the immense amount of labor and painstaking adjustment, both
to scientific and to physical conditions, and of the admirable adapt-



THE HISTORY OF THE CONGRESS



13



ability of the original plan to the exigencies of actual practice. At
the meeting of February 23, 1903, which was attended by all of the
members of the Organizing Committee and by President Butler of
the Administrative Board, it was determined that the number of
Departments should be sixteen, with the following designations: —

A. NORMATIVE SCIENCES

1. Philosophical Sciences. 2. Mathematical Sciences.



B. HISTORICAL



3. Political Sciences.

4. Legal Sciences.

5. Economic Sciences.

6. Philological Sciences.



C. PHYSICAL



10. General Physical Sciences.

11. Astronomical Sciences.

12. Geological Sciences.



SCIENCES

7. Pedagogical Sciences.

8. :/Esthetic Sciences.

9. Theological Sciences.

SCIENCES

13. Biological Sciences.

14. Anthropological Sciences.



D. MENTAL SCIENCES
15. Psychological Sciences. 16. Sociological Sciences.



Indo-Iranian Languages.
Semitic Languages.
Classical Languages.
Modem Languages.
History of Education.
Educational Institutions.
History of Architecture.
History of Fine Arts.
History of Music.
Oriental Literature.
Classical Literature.
Modern Literature.
Architecture.
Fine Arts.
Music.

Primitive Rehgions.
Asiatic Religions.
Semitic Religions.
Christianity.
Religious Institutions.
Mechanics and Sound.
Light and Heat.
Electricity.
Inorganic Chemistry.
Organic Chemistry.
Physical Chemistry.
Mechanical Technology.
Optical Technology.
Electrical Technology.





SECTIONS




1.


a Metaphysics.


6.


, a




b Logic.




6




c Ethics.




c




d Esthetics.




d


2,


, a Algebra.


7.


a




& Geometry.




aa




c Statistical Methods.


8.


a


3,


, a Classical Political History of




6




Asia.




c




6 Classical Political History of




d




Europe.




e




c Medieval Political History of




f




Europe.




aa




d Modern Political History of




bb




Europe.




cc




e Political History of America.


9


. a


4


. a History of Roman Law.




b




6 History of Common Law.




c




aa Constitutional Law.




d




bb Criminal Law.




aa




cc Civil Law.


10


. a




dd History of International Law.




6


5


. a History of Economic Institu-




c




tions.




d




b History of Economic Theories.




e




c Economic Law.




f




aa Finance.




aa




66 Commerce and Transportation.




bb




cc Labor.




cc



14



THE HISTORY OF THE CONGRESS



SECTIONS — continued



10. dd Chemical Technology.

11. a Theoretical Astronomy.
6 Astrophysics.

12. a Geodesy.
h Geology.

c Mineralogy.

d Physiography.

e Meteorology.
aa Surveying.
hb Metallurgy.

13. a Botany.

h Plant Physiology.

c Ecology.

d Bacteriology.

e Zoology.

/ Embryology.

g Comparative Anatomy.

h Physiology.
aa Agronomy.
hb Veterinary Medicine.

14. Anthropological Sciences:
a Human Anatomy.

h Human Physiology.
c Neurology.



d Physical Chemistry.
e Pathology.
/ Raceomatology.
aa Hygiene.

hb Contagious Diseases.

cc Internal Medicine.
dd Surgery.

ee Gynecology.

// Ophthalmology.
gg Therapeutics.
hh Dentistry.

15. Psychological Sciences:
a General Psychology.

h Experimental Psychology.
c Comparative Psychology.
d Child Psychology.
e Abnormal Psychology.

16. Sociological Sciences:
a Social Morphology.

6 Social Psychology.
c Laws of Civilization.
d Laws of Language and Myths.
e Etlmology.
aa Social Technology.



It was also resolved, that the discussion of subjects falling under
the first four divisions should be held in the forenoon of each of the
four days, from Wednesday until Saturday, and those relating to
the three divisions of Practical Science in the afternoon of the same
days. The programme was thus rearranged by the addition of the
following: —

E. UTILITARIAN SCIENCES



17. Medical Sciences:
a Hygiene.

6 Sanitation.

c Contagious Diseases.

d Internal Medicine.

e Psychiatry.

/ Surgery.

g Gynecology.

h Ophthalmology.

% Otology.

j Therapeutics.

h Dentistry.

18. Practical Economic Sciences:

a Extractive Productions of
Wealth.



b Transportation.
• c Commerce.
d Postal Service.
e Money and Banking.
19. Technological Sciences:
a Mechanical Technology.
6 Electrical Teclinology.
c Chemical Technology.
d Optical Technology.
e Surveying.
/ Metallurgy.
g Agronomy.
h Veterinary Medicine.



, THE HISTORY OF THE CONGRESS 15

F. REGULATIVE SCIENCES

20. Practical Political Sciences: c Criminal Law.
a Internal Practical Politics. d Civil Law.

6 National Practical Politics. 22. Practical Social Sciences:
c Tariff. a Treatment of the Poor.

d Taxation. h Treatment of the Defective,

e Municipal Practical Politics. c Treatment of the Dependent.

/ Colonial Practical Politics. d Treatment of Vice and Crime.

21. Practical Legal Sciences : e Problems of Labor.

a International Law. / Problems of the Family.

6 Constitutional Law.

G, CULTURAL SCIENCES

23. Practical Educational Sciences: j Publications.

a Kindergarten and Home. 24. Practical Esthetic Sciences:

h Primary Education. a Architecture,

c Universities and Research — h Fine Arts.

Secondary. c Music.

d Moral Education. d Landscape Architecture.

e Esthetic Education. 25. Practical Religious Sciences:

/ Manual Training. a Religious Education.

g University. h Training for Religious Service.

h Libraries. "* c Missions.

i Museums. ' d Religious Influence.

The programme was again thoroughly revised at the meeting of the
Organizing Committee on April 9, 1903, at Hotel Manhattan, and as
thus amended was submitted to the Administrative Board at a meet-
ing held in New York on April 11. A careful consideration of the
programme at this meeting, and a final revision made at the meeting
of the Administrative Board at the St. Louis Club April 30, 1903,
brought it practically into its final shape, with such minor changes
as were found necessary in the latter days of the Congress due to the
unexpected declinations of foreign speakers at the last moment. The
continuous and exacting work done in perfecting the programme by
each member of the Organizing Committee and by the Chairman of
the Administrative Board deserves special mention, and was pro-
ductive of the best results by its logical appeal to the scientific world.
The programme as finally worked out in orderly detail, shortened in
many departments by various exigencies, may be found on pages 47
to 49 of this volume.

PARTICIPATION AND SUPPORT

The general plan of the Congress having been determined and the
programme practically perfected by May 1, 1903, two most import-
ant questions demanded the attention of the Administrative Board :
first, the participation in the Congress, both foreign and domestic;



16 THE HISTORY OF THE CONGRESS

second, the support of the scientific pubUc. At a meeting of the Board
held in New York City April 11, 1903, these points were given full
consideration. It was determined that the list of speakers both for-
eign and domestic should be made up on the advice of men of letters
and of scientific thought in this country, and accordingly there was
sent to the officers of the various scientific societies in the United
States, to heads of university departments and to every prominent
exponent of science and art in this country, a printed announcement
and tentative programme of the Congress, and a letter asking advice
as to the scientists best fitted in view of the object of the Congress
to prepare an address. From the hundreds of replies received in



Online LibraryMo.) Congress of Arts and Science (1904 : Saint LouisCongress of Arts and Science : universal exposition, St. Louis, 1904 → online text (page 2 of 68)