Mo.) Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904 : Saint Louis.

The greatest of expositions completely illustrated. Official publication; online

. (page 7 of 15)
Online LibraryMo.) Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904 : Saint LouisThe greatest of expositions completely illustrated. Official publication; → online text (page 7 of 15)
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OKLAHOMA BUILDING.

Hospitality is a trait that all Oklahomans possess and the territorial building seems to have been constructed with the one idea in view of having abundant room and comfort
for guests Two big verandas extend along the front Of the structure and in the cloistered recesses are all manner of chairs and couches inviting the tired to rest. On the first
floor is a wide reception hall with parlors on either side. A stairway leads to more rooms and a balcony on the second floor. Through an elliptical opening, surrounded by an orna-
mental railing one has a full view of scenes below. Displays of art and history are made in the decorations, one of the features being a series of portraits of all the Governors of
the Territory A register is kept for the signatures of visitors and in the same rooms is a file of Oklahoma newspapers, as well as facilities for writing letters. Natural woods have
supplied beautiful finishings for the interior and Oklahoma cement was used in the exterior work. The roof is of red tile, giving a touch of the Moorish to what would otherwise
be a Spanish style of architecture. The building is surrounded by sheltering trees and New York is Oklahoma's nearest neighbor on the east.

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STATE OF WASHINGTON.



VERMONT AND NEW HAMPSHIRE



Eight massive beams, each of which was hewn from a single tree and is ninety feet in length, surround the Washington State building. The structure is 114 feet high and
towers above surrounding structures. It is built entirely of wood and furnishes an impressive exhibit of the State's enormous timber resources. On the five octagonal floors are
displays of Washington products. It is situated near the United States Government building. It was in the original of Vermont's State building that the Constitution was first
written at Windsor and care was taken in the reproduction to preserve all of the historic surroundings possible. The main room is furnished in antique style and used for the
reception of guests. At the rear is a restaurant conducted similar to the old-fashioned dining room. It is near the Mining Gulch and south of the Michigan building. Daniel
Webster, the American statesman, was born in the original of the house which has been erected for New Hampshire's State building at the World's Fair and in furnishing the
rooms, many relics of early American history have been secured for exhibit. This old-fashioned Colonial homestead stands near the Vermont building on the Plateau of States.

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SOUTH DAKOTA BUILDING.

Shady trees invite attention to South Dakota's modest home, half hidden in the wooded section of Art Hill. It is a type of Spanish architecture resembling the old missions,
of which the California State building is the truest copy, but there is enough of the modern apparent to give the structure a touch of up-to-dateness and therein it is original. In
the center of the building is a large room, its ceiling extending to the roof line and forming a dome. Upon these walls the greatness of South Dakota is told in pictures made by
the masterful blending of the fruits of the field. Masterpieces of art are fashioned with grains of corn and wheat, and epic poems are written with blades of grass. The decorative
effect reaches a climax at the completion of the dome where the horn of plenty seems to have emptied its wealth. Four smaller rooms are on the first floor, one for the use of the
Commission, one as a writing room and the others for the convenience of guests. Above are living chambers for the custodian of the building and officials. The furnishings are of
the mission style and in thorough keeping with the surroundings. Photographic views of South Dakota cities and farms are displayed where opportunity affords.




ILLINOIS BUILDING.

The Illinois Building stands on a hill not far from the Observation Wheel and about equally distant from the Japanese Buildings. It is 198 by 144 feet in size, and cost
575,000. The whole effect is stately, and there is an air of comfort surrounding it. Passing through the main entrance, flanked by great statues of Grant and Douglas, one comes
to the mosaic floor over which rises the vaulted dome, three stories above. Beyond is a large state-room, with paneled ceiling, and with a pictorial frieze telling the history of
Illinois. Men's and women's rooms, apartments for tbe Commissioners and the Governor, hospital rooms and many other comforts and conveniences are housed beneath the ample
roof. The ornamentation, both inside and outside, is profuse. As the. nearest sister state, Illinois has provided a noteworthy representation at the Exposition, not only in this
French Renaissance building and its contents, but in many other parts of the Fair. Her contributions to the agricultural and horticultural displays are especially commendable.

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"MONTICELLO," THE VIRGINIA BUILDING.

"Monticello," the home of Thomas Jefferson, writer of the Declaration of Independence, second President of the United States and a party to the treaty with Napoleon which
resulted in the acquisition of the Louisiana territory, is reproduced as Virginia's State building at the World's Fair. Jefferson was his own architect and the replica is constructed
from his original plans. The life of the statesman being so closely linked to the event which the Exposition celebrates, his native State has appropriately provided its most valuable
Jeffersonian relics for exhibit in the new "Monticello." In the rotunda of the building is a life-sized statue of the Virginian, a creation in marble by Carrar, loaned, with a valuable
art collection, by the University of Virginia. Here may also be seen the very table upon which the Declaration of Independence was written and the chair occupied by Jefferson
when presiding over the Senate. Among interesting documents displayed here are letters penned by Jefferson during various stages of his career, original manuscripts of historic
articles and a genealogical chart of the Jefferson family. One of the ornaments of the building is a mantel clock which was in the Jefferson family prior to the Revolution,







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MONTANA.

Toward the northwestern part of the Plateau of States, not far from the Government Bird Exhibit, is the elevated site occupied by Montana's building, a handsome and
spacious structure, 124 by 90 feet, of modified Doric architecture. The interior is arranged for comfort and convenience, and decorated and furnished with much taste. The cost of
the building was about 820,000, exclusive of the cost of the furnishings. The State appropriation for Exposition participation was 850,000, and about 810,000 was contributed
from other sources. Exhibits are made in five of the great palaces— those of Mines and Metallurgy, Agriculture, Education, Horticulture, and Forestry, Fish and Game. The
display in the Palace of Mines is worthy of the great industries represented, and includes, among other things, a collection of gold nuggets valued at 840,000, besides a valuable
display of copper ingots, representing the most conspicuous of the mineral resources of the State. Noteworthy exhibits are made in the other departments mentioned, that in the
Palace of Forestry, Fish and Game being of especial interest in its exemplification of the fauna and flora of Montana.

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IDAHO BUILDING.

Idaho's home at the World's Fair stands in the western group of State buildings, not far from the Boer War exhibit. The building is in the Spanish Style, one story in
height with the inner court or patio, characteristic of the Spanish hacienda. The space is prettily planted with flowors, and the brick pavements under the porches are always
™nl Mission furniture is to be seen everywhere in the building, and the doorways and woodwork are quaint and massive. Indian basket-work and Indian blankets are effectively
nsed in decoration The whole picture, inside and out, is very pleasing. Here may be seen the silver trophy offered by Senator Clark for excellence in horticultural displays, and
«7nn hv Idaho The diSDlavs made by the State in the Palace of Horticulture show what her resources are in this direction, and her agricultural exhibit is a most creditable one,
showing the wonderful results of irrigation.

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Idaho's valuable mineral deposits are well illustrated in the Palace of Mines, where her opal exhibit attracts much attention.




NEVADA BUILDING.

Here is a wee bungalow with flowers in every window and its pretty rooms stuffed with sofa pillows — Nevada's cosy headquarters at the World's Fair. It is not too small
to limit the welcome extended to guests, but it would be crowded if all of the State's advantages were attempted to be told. Through the double door opening upon the shady porch
entrance is gained to the reception room where walls covered with pictures, a polished floor spread with rugs, and bowers of house-plants greet the visitor. Beyond this there is an
Oriental den in one corner and the office of the Commissioner in the other. A stairway leads to the floor above where living quarters are provided for the occupants. These rooms
front upon an open veranda, extending the full length of the building, where all manner of vines and flowers twine and blossom. Photographs of beautiful scenes typical of Nevada,
views of mining industries and illustrations of irrigation systems are displayed on the walls and in albums. Nevada has good company among the staid old States of Rhode Island,
Connecticut and Pennsylvania. Its building stands on Colonial avenue, between the Mining Gulch and Commonwealth boulevard.

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MICHIGAN BUILDING.

There are few State buildings at the Exposition more advantageously situated than that of Michigan. Located near the United States Fisheries pavilion, it commands a great
sweep of the Plateau of States and affords a view of many of the great exhibit palaces. With its fine Ionic columns, its terraces and verandas, this building, viewed from the
exterior, produces a favorable impression that is confirmed by the interior. The large reception hall on the first floor communicates by a broad staircase with the roomy apartments
above, used chiefly by the Commissioners. On this floor there is a room devoted to the exhibit of Little Traverse Bay and the northern Michigan resorts, and the furniture here is
of special interest and beauty. All of the furniture of the building is lent for the season by the manufacturers who have made the State famous in their line of industry. The
Michigan building was erected at a cost of 814,000, and is peculiarly adapted to its purposes, for it is cool, airy, artistically simple and home-like. The State has exhibits of interest
and importance in the palaces of Varied Industries, Manufactures, Education, Agriculture, Mines and Forestry.

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NEW MEXICO.

The building erected by New Mexico stands on Constitution Avenue, near the eastern part of the Gulch, and is of Spanish Mission architecture. Mission furniture is in use
within its pleasant rooms, and here one may see what is considered the oldest bell in the United States, cast in 1355. On one wall is Gen. S. W. Kearny's proclamation setting
forth the fact that New Mexico had become the territory of the United States. The only turquoise exhibit at the Fair is made by New Mexico. In the Gulch one may see the
stones embedded in the rock, and in the Palace of Varied Industries the finished gems are displayed in profusion. In the Palace of Mines the Territory has a comprehensive exhibit
of its great mineral resources, including coal, iron, zinc, lead, copper, silver, gold, mica, gypsum, salt, sulphur, asbestos, onyx and building stones The displays made in the
departments of Agriculture and Horticulture are a revelation to many visitors, and show what can be done by irrigation and sunny skies. In the department of Anthropology
and in the Palace of Education New Mexico has extremely creditable displays, and in every department her representation shows the great advancement the Territory has made.

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DE FOREST WIRELESS TELEGRAPH STATIONS.

The DeForest Wireless Telegraph Company operates seven stations on the Exposition grounds, sending messages for visitors free, except from the long-distance station
shown in the left-hand illustration, situated on the hill near the Jerusalem Exhibit. The mast that carries the forty-foot cross-arm of this station is 210 feet in height, and the
instruments that send and receive the messages are housed in the small structure at the base. The central exhibit is made in the Palace of Electricity, where a wondering throng
always surrounds the operators. At the extreme end of the Plaza of Orleans, near the end of the Model Street, is the great tower, 300 feet high, shown in the right-hand picture.
An elevator carries visitors nearly to the top, whence a magnificent view of the Exposition and its surroundings may be had. Messages may be sent from this station and received
in the Palace of Electricity. Exposition news is also flashed from this tower to the down-town newspapers. These wonderful wireless instruments are operated by the simple
Morse code, and the speed' of sending is limited only by the skill of the operator.

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SECTION OF A GREAT RAILROAD TUNNEL.

In the Palace of Transportation is a full-size section of the Pennsylvania Railroad tunnel between Jersey City and Long Island, extending under the Hudson River, the City
of New York, and East River. The tunnel is an iron tube and when complete will be eight miles in length. Much of the construction through the river beds is through silt and the
problem of securing a safe foundation was solved by the use of huge piles made of steel and fashioned so as to screw into the silt, section by section, till the solid rock is reached.
The silt is then removed from the hollow pile and cement poured in, making a supporting column of steel and cement. The outer jacket of the tunnel is of cast-iron sections bolted
together and lined with concrete, and the space at the sides, near the tracks, is utilized for conduits for wires, imbedded in cement. The size of the tube is manifest when one
notes the figures of the two men and the full-size section of a passenger coach. To obviate the nuisance and danger of smoke and gases in this long tunnel, the third-rail electric
system is employed, as may be seen by reference to the illustration. Such an exhibit as this is really more instructive than the actual tunnel, for here one sees the details,

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AN ANCIENT EGYPTIAN AT DINNER.

The most ancient exhibits at the World's Fair are those of the Egyptian government in the department of Anthropology. The building is in the Administration group on the
north side of the main quadrangle. Here we may see objects known to be at least 6,000 years old and others of a prehistoric origin considerably older. The illustration herewith
represents a wealthy Egyptian of 2,500 years before Christ, at dinner. A musician and dancing girl are entertaining him and the slave with shaven head is waiting upon him.
The figures were modeled from the living Egyptians and the faces are exact reproductions of those found upon masks and monuments in ancient tombs. All of the articles of fur-
niture are exact reproductions from existing originals of that remote period. This group is one of three shown in the Egyptian section. Of the others, one represents a lady of the
same period at her toilet, with maid attending her. The third shows the process of making beer, which in those days was brewed from stale bread. Among the objects displayed
by Egypt are glass vases formed by fusing the glass over clay models before the art of glass blowing was known. There is also a granite sarcophagus 6,000 years old.

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EXHIBIT OF THE CATALPA SPECIOSA.

The reason why it happens that a special exhibit is given to the Catalpa Speciosa is that it has proven to be one of the most valuable of trees for replanting deforested lands.
No tree possesses so many valuable qualities. It is a rapid grower, naturally straight, very tough under breakage tests and looks well when made into furniture or used as an
interior finish It is probably the most resistent to decay of any American wood. For this reason a number of railroads have made large plantings of this particular variety of the
Catalpa with a view of insuring a future supply of railway ties and posts. The Catalpa Speciosa originated on the Wabash River in Indiana and the International Society of
Arboriculture, which makes this exhibit, has distributed hundreds of thousands 01 these trees to different parts of the United States and to different countries at its own expense.
The exhibit is near the southwestern corner of the Palace of Forestry, Fish and Game and is in charge of John P. Brown, of Connersville, Indiana. The average annual growth of
the Speciosa, under favorable conditions, is one inch diameter per year. Railroad ties made of this wood have remained sound 32 years. The tree grows as high as 150 feet,

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A POWERFUL FREIGHT LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE,

The Baldwin Locomotive Works' display in the Palace of Transportation comprises about a dozen locomotives, and the monster engine here shown, which stands near the
revolving turn-table in the center of the building, is the largest coupled engine ever built and successfully operated, representing the type used on the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe
System. This engine alone weighs 287,000 pounds, and with the tender about 450,000 pounds. As will be noted, this powerful locomotive has five pairs of driving wheels, with
a single pair of small wheels in front and another at the rear, an^ there is an arrangement of parts that enables the engineer to throw some of the weight from the small trucks to
the drivers for the purpose of increasing the traction in starting thetrain. With a steam pressure of 225 pounds, the engine will develop 2200 horse power, and a tractive force of
about 60,000 pounds under the best conditions. Such locomotives require a perfection and solidity of track unknown a few years ago, and represent an advance that was until
lately thought impossible.

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THE ROOSEVELT PRAIRIE CABIN.

The North Dakota exhibit in the Palace of Agriculture consists of two sections, one of which is a conventional booth designed to exploit the resources of the State. The
other is unique. It is the cabin, not a reproduction but the cabin itself, in which President Theodore Roosevelt lived from 1883 to 1886 while he was operating a cattle ranch in Northern
Dakota. It is an ordinary log cabin of two rooms and is substantially built. The only reminders of the famous man who once occupied it are two pairs of trousers, a hat and a
pair of high hunting boots that the ranchman wore almost a score of years before he became President of the United States. On the outer door of the cabin is a silver name plate
that was placed there by Miss Alice Roosevelt, eldest daughter of tl~e President, during her visit to the Exposition in the early part of June. On the roof and near the building are
some finely mounted specimens of the deer, eagle, owl and fox. On an inner wall is a robe that was tanned, dressed and painted by the Gros Ventre Indians of Fort Berthold
reservation. It represents a battle between their chiefs and a band of the Sioux in which the latter were defeated with great slaughter.

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LIBERTY BELL, PENNSYLVANIA BUILDING.

The Liberty Bell is exhibited for the first time west of the Mississippi River at the World's Fair. Upon the occasion of its arrival in St. Louis the school children of the city
turned out by tens of thousands to receive the precious memento. The bell is in the rotunda of the Pennsylvania building and is the shrine of patriotic Americans who visit the
Exposition. The bell was cast a quarter of a century before it called the colonists to the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence, but it bore a prophetic inscription
from the first day of its existence, from Leviticus, xxv: 10, "Proclaim liberty throughout all the land and unto all the inhabitants thereof." The bell weighs 2,080 pounds, is four feet
in diameter at the lip and three feet high. The familiar crack in the bell occurred while it was being tolled for the funeral of Chief Justice John Marshall, July 8, 183S. The bell
was cast in -London in 1752 after the mold of "the Great Tom of Westminster." A month after it was hung in the state house at Philadelphia it was cracked and was re-cast on
the same mold and with the same inscription by an Ameiican firm.

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THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE DESK.

Among many remarkable pieces of furniture at the World's Fair the most impor-
tant one is the desk on which the Louisiana transfer was signed. It stands in the
great hall on the second floor of the Cabildo, Louisiana's historic building. Above the
desk hangs a painting of the Marquis Pierre Clement Laussat, colonial French Prefect
of Louisiana, seated at the very same desk. This interesting relic is in a perfect state
of preservation although it was by no means new when the Louisiana territory became
a part of the United States in 1903.



FLORAL AUTOMOBILE.

There have been many parades during the Exposition, Pike parades, water parades,
military parades; but the most beautiful of all was the Liberal Arts parade on the after-
noon of August<27. A special feature of this splendid pageant was the floral auto-
mobile prize contest. The prize for the most beautiful floral automobile entered by a
lady was carried off by little Miss Olivers, of St. Louis, whose great machine was
handsomely decked with chrysanthemums, palms and festoons of ribbon. She called it
the Floral Garden.




HISTORIC LOCOMOTIVE EXHIBIT.

The quaint little railroad train here pictured is a duplicate of the DeWitt Clinton train, the first to make a regular trip in the State of New York. It made its initial trip in
August, 1831, and thereafter maintained a regular schedule over the Mohawk & Hudson Railway between Albany and Schenectady, running at the astonishing speed of 15 to 17
miles an hour. The cars were in reality stage coaches, with space for six passengers inside and four on top. The engine, tender and three coaches constituted a full train. Barrels
of water and ricks of wood were carried on the open tender. Fourteen passengers ventured on the initial journey, with a feeling of trepidation that was not without reason, for
when the train was fairly started on its way the cinders, sparks and smoke threatened destruction to all. This pioneer train seems all the more primitive when contrasted with the
magnificent Empire State Express shown by the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad, which, in its daily flight from New York to Buffalo, follows the same route as the De-
Witt Clinton train of 1831. This is one of the swift and luxurious trains that give the United States first rank in railroad equipment and operation.

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ST. LOUIS.

The City of St. Louis was named by Pierre Laclede, the founder, in honor of Louis IX, King of France, the Crusader, who was canonized by the church and known in
history as St Louis. ' At the World's Fair this splendid statue, the Apotheosis of St. Louis, is the central ornament of the Plaza of St. Louis. The figure of the Crusader is clad
in Medieval armor with his crown and kingly mantle and he carries a cross in his right hand to signify his holy cause. The horse is also fitted out in partial armor and the much
decorated harness and draperies belong to the period. The figure is pronounced by artists and connoisseurs one of the finest achievements of Mr. Charles H. Niehaus, the sculptor.
It is the idea that the "Apotheosis of St. Louis" shall convey a fitting welcome to the visitor upon his entrance to the World's Fair, and at the same time remind hira of the
historical associations of the scene. Upon one face of the massive architectural pedestal is a group by Mr. Niehaus entitled "St. Louis and Her Guiding Spirits," also a very
chaste, beautiful and expressive work.
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STATUE OF DE SOTO, PLAZA OF ST. LOUIS.

Among the many excellent equestrian statues on the Exposition grounds, none is more generally admired than that of De Soto, which stands at the right of the Plaza of
St. Louis as the visitor faces Festival Hall. Raised on a massive pedestal, and with the green of splendid maples and the ivory white of the Palace of Varied Industries for a back-
ground, it is indeed a commanding figure. The daring Spanish explorer has reined in his restive steed and is doffing his cavalier's hat in welcome to the throngs who have


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Online LibraryMo.) Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904 : Saint LouisThe greatest of expositions completely illustrated. Official publication; → online text (page 7 of 15)