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Montana school library media centers : 1977 statewide study online

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2 7- %2 7?6 NOV 29 77

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MONTANA STAfE LIBRARY
930 East Lyndale Avenue
Helena, Montano 5960)



MONTANA

SCHOOL rlep:- '-''^

LIBRARY
MEDIA

CENTERS



PLEASE RETU



1977 statewide study



WIST APR ^9 '8t



MONTANA STATE LIBRARY

S 027.82786 P11m C.I

Montana school library media centers : 1 9



3 0864 00035923 5



BOARD OF PUBLIC EDUCATION



Governor Thomas L. Judge exofficio

Superintendent of Public Instruction Georgia Rice exofficio

Commissioner of Higher Education Lawrence K. Pettit ex officio



Mrs. Harriett C. Meloy, Helena Term expires Feb. 1

Mr. Richard C. Bennett, Great Falls (Vice Chairman) Term expires Feb. 1

Mr. Earl J. Barlow, Browning (Chairman) Term expires Feb. 1

Mrs. Marjorie W. King, Winnett Term expires Feb. 1

Mrs. Carolyn M. Frojen, Missoula Term expires Feb. 1

Mrs. Enid O'Leary, Havre Term expires Feb. 1

Mr. Allen D. Gunderson, Billings Term expires Feb. 1



1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984



MONTANA

SCHOOL LIBRARY MEDIA CENTERS

1977 STATEWIDE STUDY



Report of the School Library Study conducted by an ad
hoc committee appointed by the Superintendent of
Public Instruction as requested by the Board of Public
Education in March 1976.



The material in this report was prepared by an ad hoc
committee appointed by the Superintendent of Public
Instruction. However, the content of the report does not
necessarily reflect the position of the State Superinten-
dent and her staff and no official endorsement should be
inferred.



Distributed by

Office of Public Instruction

Georgia Rice, Superintendent

October 1 3, 1 977



SCHOOL LIBRARY STUDY COMMITTEE



Edna Berg, School Librarian, Bozeman Senior High School, Bozeman

Mabel Brewer, Head Librarian, Flathead County Library, Kalispell

Janis Bruwelheide, Assistant Professor of Library Science, Montana State University, Bozeman

Alene Cooper, Coordinator of Library Development, State Library, Helena

L. Thomas Eaton, Principal, Garfield County High School, Jordan

Cliff Harmala, Superintendent, Glendive Public Schools, Glendive

Eleanor Ivankovich, School Librarian, Anaconda High School, Anaconda

Pat Kennedy, Elementary Teacher, Browning Elementary School, Browning

Monica Kittock-Sargent, Committee Chairman, Office of Public Instruction, Helena

John Linn, Science Teacher, Billings West High School, Billings

James Longin, Principal, Highland Park School, Lewistown

Helen Maguire, Seventh and Eighth Grades, Miles City Junior High School, Miles City

Patti McGahan, School Librarian, North Side Elementary School, Wolf Point

Susan Nissen, School Librarian, Laurel Junior High School, Laurel

Mary Moore, Head Librarian, Glasgow City-County Library, Glasgow

Al Randall, School Librarian, Libby High School, Libby

Leonard Sargent, Executive Director, Montana School Boards Association, Helena

David Smith, Dean, School of Educatin, University of Montana, Missoula

John Smith, Superintendent, Lolo Public Schools, Lolo

Gladys Vance, President, Montana Congress of Parents and Teachers, Great Falls

Wallace Vinnedge, County Superintendent, Kalispell



LIBRARY STUDY STAFF

Monica Kittock-Sargent, Library Media Consultant, Office of Public Instruction
Janelle Fallan, Library Study Assistant, Office of Public Instruction



The Library Study was financed in part with Administrative Funds provided under the Elementary and Secondary
Education Act of 1965. (Public Law 89-10, Title II) Although this financing was made possible by the U.S. Office of
Education, the opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the U.S. Office of Education
and no official endorsement by the U.S. Office of Education should be inferred.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface iv

Acknowledgements v

Montana School Laws Pertaining to School Libraries vi

Definition of a School Library Media Center vii

Proposed Changes to the Standards for Accreditation of Montana Schools vlll

Other Recommendations xiii



Chapter 1 Review of the Rationale and Process for a Statewide Study of School Library Media Centers 1

Chapter 2 Explanations for the proposed changes in Library Media Standards and other Recommendations . 5

Chapter 3 Small School Concerns 30

Chapter 4 Guidelines for Quality 33

Chapter 5 Survey Responses 35

Chapter 6 Repeated Questions 74

APPENDICES

A— Outline for School Library Study 79

B— School Library Bill of Rights 82

C— GRAPH— Response to Surveys by Group 83

D— GRAPH— Response to Surveys by School Size and Level 84

E — GRAPH — Distribution of Students by Percentage in Large to Small Schools in Montana 85

F— GRAPH— Cost Comparisons (Periodicals, Books, All Commodities) 86

G— Statewide Library Expenditures 87

H— Review of Compliance with Standards 1 976-77 89

I — Description of College and University Programs 90

Surveys and Cover Letters 97

jji



PREFACE



This report from the 1 977 Statewide Library Study is the result of combined efforts on the part of many concerned people
from all aspects of education. Students, parents, teachers, school administrators, school board members, university
faculty, county superintendents as well as school and public library personnel, were involved in the study. Nearly eight
thousand Montanans were asked to share their suggestions and opinions about school library media concerns. The
resulting data was compiled and recommendations for minimum standards for school library media centers were drawn
up in hopes of insuring every child in a Montana school an equal opportunity for access to instructional materials. These
recommendations were submitted for Board of Public Education consideration. A special effort was made to solve the
dilemma of the small school characterized by its isolation, over-extended staff and sparse resources. Quality service for
the small community will require creative and innovative efforts on the part of the total educational community.

The committee members are to be commended for their thoroughness and diligence in preparing their response to the
educational concerns expressed by Montanans in the area of library media services.




GEORGIA RICE
Superintendent



IV



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS



The Library Study and this resulting report were made possible because of the work and cooperation of many people who
were committed to its success. The Library Study Committee wishes to acknowledge the following people and agencies
for their valuable assistance.

Special commendation is due Monica Kittock-Sargent and Janelle Fallan, the director of the study and assistant. They
had responsibility for directing the committee, researching the data, and compiling the final report. In addition, special
thanks and appreciation are extended to staff members in the Office of Public Instruction, specifically:

Jean Green and her mail room staff for handling 8.000 surveys;

Marianne Hockema for overseeing all the printing of materials;

Bill Hubber and Janet Van Swearingen in Data Processing;

Bill Connett for research and statistical advice;

Bob Stockton and Steve Colberg for assistance in compiling fiscal data;

Alve Thomas. Jim Burk. Lyie Eggum. John Voorhis and Laurelee Wright for their presentations to the committee;

Bruce Mac Intyre, Library /Media Consultant;

Nelda Maykuth, Library Media Secretary, who so capably served as study secretary.

Cheri Bergeron and the Resource Center Staff;

the many secretaries who helped in crunch times with mailings, and typing.
Special thanks are in order to:

Maynard Olson. Superintendent, the administrators and teachers in the Helena School District who assisted m the
piloting of the surveys;

Alma Jacobs and the State Library Staff for the assistance in gathering data;

the staff of the Montana School Boards Association for their assistance in preparing the surveys for mailing;

the Lewis and Clark Public Library in Helena and Eastern Montana College in Billings for providing rooms for
committee meetings. Their hospitality was appreciated.

The committee also acknowledges the Association for Educational Communications and Technology for allowing the
use of selected questions from the draft edition of Evaluating Media Programs: District and School.

The committee wishes to express its gratitude for all the support and assistance offered during the process of this very
important project; especially to their respective employers, - the agencies, institutions and school districts, -that
provided the committee members with the time away from their assigned responsibilities to devote to study efforts.



SCHOOL LAWS PERTAINING TO SCHOOL LIBRARIES
TAKEN FROM REVISED CODES OF MONTANA, 1947



SECTION 75-7517.



SCHOOL LIBRARY REQUIRED. The trustees of each district shall establish and maintain a
school library in each school of the district. Each school library shall comply with at least the
minimum requirementsof the standards of accreditation adopted by the board of public education..



SECTION 75-7518.



TRUSTEES' POLICIES FOR SCHOOL LIBRARY. The trustees shall adopt those policies neces-
sary for regulating the use and operation of school libraries. These policies may provide for the
use of school libraries by the residents of the district; provided that such use does not interfere
with the regular school use of the library.



SECTION 75-7519.



SCHOOL LIBRARY BOOK SELECTION. School library books shall be selected by the district
superintendent, or a principal if there is no district superintendent, subject to the approval of the
trustees. In districts not employing a superintendent or principal, the trustees shall select the
school library books on the basis of recommendations of the county superintendent.



SECTION 75-7520.



REPORTING SCHOOL LIBRARY INFORMATION. The trustees shall report school library
information requested by the superintendent of public instruction, by the board of public education,
or, when there is no district superintendent or principal, by the county superintendent.



SECTION 75-7511.



STATE VISUAL, AURAL AND OTHER EDUCATIONAL MEDIA LIBRARY. A library of visual, aural
and other educational media shall be established and maintained by the superintendent of public
instruction. The media shall be selected by the superintendent of public instruction, on the basis
of their usefulness as teaching aids and resources for schools and other educational groups
within the state, and shall be made available to such schools and groups on a rental fee basis. The
rental fees for the use of the materials in the library shall be set by the superintendent of public
instruction and shall be deposited in a media library revolving fund. The superintendent of public
instruction may use these funds, as well as any other funds advanced by a legislative appropria-
tion to the library media revolving fund, for the operation, maintenance, enlargement and other
related costs of the library.



AMENDMENTS. The 1 974 amendment to Sec. 75-751 1 deleted "subject to the approval of the
board of education" after "superintendent of public instruction" in the second sentence; deleted
"either on a charge-free loan or" before "on a rental fee basis" in the second sentence; and added
the third sentence.



VI



DEFINITION OF A SCHOOL LIBRARY MEDIA CENTER

For purposes of this report "School Library" or "School Library Media Center" is defined as an
integrated resource center which is centrally organized, provides for the distribution of a wide
variety of current print and non-print educational media to students and staff and is managed in a
systematic manner in accordance with acceptable, contemporary library media practice by a
library media specialist.

A "library media specialist" is defined as a certified teacher holding a library endorsementforthe
appropriate grade levels served.



VII



PROPOSED CHANGES

TO THE

STANDARDS FOR ACCREDITATION OF MONTANA SCHOOLS

(Standards 231.3. 330 through 348.2)



The following section includes all of the proposed changes to accreditation standards as well as other recommendations
made by the Library Study Committee. Detailed explanations, rationale and fiscal impact are described in later sections.

The major changes in the proposed standards are as follows;

1 ) Elementary standards and junior high, senior high standards have been merged to form Library Media Services
K-12 standards.

(The committee felt that there should not be a distinction in the quality or quantity of services required for elemen-
tary and secondary schools.)

2) Minimal changes were proposed for library services at the secondary level.

3) The major change proposed for elementary schools was in the area of personnel. Quantitative requirements for
numbers of materials were left substantially unchanged.

4) Wherever possible, the standards were simplified and detailed quantitative requirements were dropped.

5) Recommendations for changes in budget were made to help library media centers catch up with the inflationary cost
of materials. The major change in budget was the recommendation to calculate library media expenditures accord-
ing to a percentage of the per pupil expenditure rather than a specific dollar amount per pupil.

6) A period of three to five years was recommended as time to comply with recommended changes that require addi-
tional expenditures.

The other recommendations, which follow the proposed changes in standards, are not necessarily directly related to
the standards but are a result of the collected data. A number of significant concerns were expressed which were not
appropriate to the standards; therefore, a separate list of recommendations was written.



VIII



PROPOSED STANDARDS

330 LIBRARY MEDIA SERVICES, K-12

331 All schools shall have centralized all the
instructional media in the school, exclusive of textbooks.
This collection shall include all the print and nonprint
materials as well as supporting audio-visual equipment
and shall be accessible to teachers and students.

This collection shall be organized according to ac-
cepted library practice and shall be readily available to
the students.

(Schools of 100 students or fewer may, by their very
nature, be forced to seek alternative ways of meeting
this standard. Where this occurs, the school shall
submit explanations delineating these alternative
measures.)

331 .1 Each school district shall have written policies
regarding selection and use of materials and services.
The selection and use of specific items of material, with
the advice of the staff, are the responsibility of the local
school board. Policies shall be reviewed annually by
the school board and shall be available to employees
and patrons of the school district.

For guidance in writing library policies, schools are
referred to the American Library Association's School
Library Bill of Rights.

331 .2 Each school district shall have in writing and on
file a policy and process for the evaluation of the library
media program. Evaluation should occur at least once
every three years.

(All new provisions of this personnel standard are to
be met by the 1981-1982 school year.)

332 PERSONNEL

Each school shall employ a full-time or part-time
library media specialist. The library media specialist
shall have a teaching certificate with a library endorse-
ment for the appropriate level.

332.1 Schoolsof 100 students or fewer may utilize the
services of a regional library media specialist provided
through the joint efforts of adjacent districts and/or
counties, or other alternative ways.

These schools may, by their very nature, be forced to
seek alternative ways of meeting this standard. Where
this occurs, the school shall submit an explanation
delineating these alternative measures.

332.2 A library aide or the equivalent services of a
adult volunteer shall be provided to work under the
supervision of the library media specialist.

RECOMMENDED

332.2 The library aide shall be employed full-time in
the library media center.



IX



332.3 In schools of 101 to 300 students, the library
media specialist shall spend a minimum of three hours
per day in the library media center providing service to
students and staff.

332.4 One library aide or the equivalent services of an
adult volunteer shall be provided at each school to work
under the supervision of the library media specialist.

RECOMMENDED

332.4 The library aide shall be employed full-time in
the library media center.

332.5 In schools of 301 to 500 students, a library
media specialist shall be employed full-time in the
library media center.

332.6 One library aide or the equivalent services of an
adult volunteer shall be provided at each school to work
under the supervison of the library media spcialist.

RECOMMENDED

332.6 The library aide shall be employed full-time in
the library media center.

332.7 Schools of more than 500 students shall have a
full-time library media specialist and additional library
media specialists in the following ratio:



Enrollment


Library Media Specialists


501 to 1000


V/2


1001 to 1500


2


1501 to 2000


IVi


2001 to 2500


3



332.8 One library aide or the equivalent services of an
adult volunteer shall be provided to work under the
supervision of each library media specialist.

RECOMMENDED

332.7 Schools of more than 500 students shall have
a full-time library media specialist and additional library
media specialists in the following ratio:

Enrollment Library Media Specialists

501 to 750 V/2

751 to WOO 2

1001 to 1250 2'/2

1251 to 1500 3

1501 to 1750 3'/2

1751 to 2000 4

2001 to 2250 4'/2

2251 to 2500 5



RECOMMENDED
332.8 The library aides shall be employed full-time in
the library media center.

Larger schools shall provide clerical assistance in suf-
ficient numbers to assure satisfactory service to stu-
dents and teachers.



333 BOOKS, REFERENCE MATERIALS AND
OTHER INSTRUCTIONAL ITEMS

333.1 Materials in the library media collection shall
be selected by the library media staff in cooperation
with the teaching staff.

Selection policies as well as professional publica-
tions shall be used as a guide for selection.

A balanced distribution of titles shall be maintained
in all classifications in keeping with the philosophy and
objectives of the schools and the interests of the stu-
dents, library media specialists, teachers and admin-
istrators who use the collection.

333.2 The minimum number of instructional items
shall be at least ten instructional items per student.
Schools with an enrollment of more than 500 shall
provide at least five additional instructional items per
student.

333.3 When determining the minimum number of
instructional items for the library media center,
textbooks and government documents are not to be
included in meeting the minimum requirement.

333.4 The centralized library media collection shall
include current dictionaries and encyclopedias in
numbers adequate to meet staff and student needs.

333.5 Periodicals shall be selected to represent, as
nearly as possible, all areas of the curriculum at the
appropriate reading level and interests of the students.

333.6 The minimum number of periodical
subscriptions requred is as follows:

Subscriptions



Enrollment


Elementary


Secondary


1 to 100


5


15


101 to 300


15


25


301 to 500


25*


30*


501 to 1000


35*


40*


1 001 to 1 500


45*


50*


More than 1500


55*


75*



'Duplication permitted

333.7 A minimum of two newspapers shall be
provided, including a local paper if available and at least
one daily paper. (This standard does not apply to K-3
schools.)



XI



334 BUDGET

After a school library has once assembled the
minimum collection, the annual expenditure for the
library media collection, exclusive of textbooks, shall be
determined according to a percentage of per pupil
operational cost at the following rate:
1978-1979:

.61% books & periodicals
.16% supplies
.08% media software

.85%

(Note: this is the same as the rate of expenditure for the
1976-1977 school year.)

1979-1980: 1980-1981:

.75% books & periodicals .80% books & periodicals

.20% supplies .22% supplies

.15% media software .23% media software



1.10% 1.25%

335 RECORDS

All library media materials belonging to the school
shall be adequately inventoried and cataloged in the
library media center.

336 FACILITIES

336.1 The library media center shall provide seating
space for 10 per cent of the student body.

336.2 Provision shall be made for storage of
periodicals, work areas and individual study areas for
viewing, listening and recording.

336.3 The library media center shall be open on all
instructional days for student and teacher use during all
periods of the school day as well as immediately
preceding and following regular school hours and the
lunch period.

337 INSTRUCTION

Library media staff, planning cooperatively with
teachers, shall provide students with systematic
instruction in the use of library media materials.

231.3 No teacher shall have more than 28 clock
hours of assigned student responsibility per week.

The number of students assigned a teacher per day
shall not exceed 160. . .Library, guidance and study
hall are assigned student responsibilitis; however, in
cases where a teacher is assigned full time in guidance
and study hall, the assignment may be for the entire
school day. Library media specialists shall have the
equivalent of one period per day free for preparation
and conferences.

xii



OTHER RECOMMENDATIONS

As was indicated in the original intent of the study (see Appendix A for study outline), the library study committee was
to review collected data not only for the purpose of reviewing accreditation standards but also for the purpose of review-
ing library media development in Montana.

Some of the following recommendations relate directly to standards; others do not, but do have impact on school library
media programs in Montana.

The school library study committee recommends action be taken in the following areas:

1 ) THE CONCEPT OF INTERLOCAL AGREEMENTS AND/OR REGIONAL SERVICES OR INTERMEDIATE EDUCATION
DISTRICTS SHOULD BE ENCOURAGED BY THOSE RESPONSIBLE FOR SERVING THE SMALL SCHOOLS

2) SCHOOL/PUBLIC LIBRARY COOPERATIVES SHOULD BE ENCOURAGED, BOTH IN SMALL AND LARGE COMMU-
NITIES

3) TEACHING EXPERIENCE SHOULD BE A PREREQUISITE FOR A SCHOOL LIBRARY MEDIA SPECIALIST

4) UNIVERSITY AND COLLEGE PROGRAMS PREPARING SCHOOL LIBRARY MEDIA PERSONNEL IN MONTANA
SHOULD BE REVIEWED

5) STATE FUNDING SHOULD BE REESTABLISHED FOR THE STATE AUDIOVISUAL LIBRARY

6) MICROFICHE AND COPYING FACILITIES SHOULD BE USED WHERE POSSIBLE



XIII



Chapter One

Review of the Rationale and Process for a Statewide Study of School Library Media Centers

Chapter Two

Explanations for the Proposed Changes in Library Media Standards and Other Recommendations

Chapter Three

Small School Concerns

Chapter Four

Guidelines for Quality

Chapter Five

Survey Responses

Chapter Six

Repeated Questions



There was a school librarian named Sue

whose anathema was books overdue.

She said, "To save trouble

I'll fine students doublel"

and now she looks for users anew.

by Cliff A. Harmala



CHAPTER 1

REVIEW OF THE RATIONALE AND PROCESS

FOR A

STATEWIDE STUDY OF SCHOOL LIBRARY MEDIA CENTERS

September 1 973 — It became the policy of Montana's Board of Public Education to review state standards for accredi-
tation of public schools on a biennial basis each even-numbered year. The Board determined that
the first such review would occur in 1 976 and agreed that the Superintendent of Public Instruction
should establish the schedule and procedures for the review process.

September 1 974-April 1 975 — Organizations and individuals were invited in each issue of Montana Schools to submit
suggestions for changing current standards (those in effect as of April 10, 1973). Suggestions
were to have been stated as specifically as possible, accompanied by the rationale for the
suggestion and an estimation of its potential fiscal impact. The deadline for submitting
suggestions was April 1, 1975.

April 1, 1975 — Fifty-eight recommendations for change in the school library standards were submitted. Although

the suggested recommendations clearly indicated a serious concern for improving library media
services, many of the recommendations were redundant and did not include the necessary fiscal
impact.

December 1975 — After the responses from the public hearings were evaluated, it was soon evident that the recom-


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