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.-•..■•-■^J<^>-



The physiological family physician



Calvin Cutter



Kti ^^as^



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1



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9



I am iearfally ud wondarfaHy made. Pa. oxxiuz



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THE

PHYSIOLOGICAL

FAMILY PHYSICIAMI



*1

4



DESIGNED FOR



FAMILIES AND INDIVIDUALS.



Bir CALVIN CUTTER, M. D.



WITH MOBE THAN 100 ENGSAVUfGS.



WEST BROOKFIELD:

MERRIAM AND COOKE, PRINTERS.

18 4 6.



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is



hti i^as^



COLLEGE






Entered aceording to Act of Coogrew, in the yoar 1840,

Bt CALVIN CUTTER,

In llie Clerk's Office of the Dktrict Coart of Mawachniette.



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INTRODUCTION



In presenting this work as a guide to t^
MoUier and others, whom duty compels to
treat the ^ ills that flesh i^ heir to;*' a f«if
words relative to its character may not be
ummportant. ^

The points of difference between this work
and others of a similar character, are these:

1st. The structure of 4ie different organs is
described, and their position illustrated by
many engravings — ^making the work one of
popular anatomy.

2nd. The functions (or uses) and laws of
the different organs of the system are familiar-
ly explained ; tllus, making it interesting and

profitable as a work on Physiology.

♦ •
3rd. The common diseases are explainec^ in

connexion with the anatomy and physiology of

the various organs of the system and the safe

and proper treatmmt detailed so clearly and

minutely as not to be mistaken^

By the combination of the structure^ fuac-
tiona^and diseases of the intern, the |p||p^
I* '\

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Tl INTROWrCTlON.

will be found of practical utility^ and may
correct maDy errors that now prevail in the
community.

The facts in this treatise have, been derived
from various sources embracing the opinions
4^ the first medical writers and practitioners
m our country.

f If this treatise is the means of directing
aright domestic or home medication, the ^orts
and earnest wish- of the writer have not been
in vain.



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CONTENTS.



Absorbents,

Adipose Ussne,
'* nuDora,

Air.
" tubes,
" resioles.

Almond water,

AlniD poaHioe,

Apple "
" .jelly,

Arterial system,



B



Page

27

14

27

27

128

121

121

193

207

197

196

147

138



17



Bathing,

Bandages, manner of prepar-
ing, 66, 67
•• " of applying, 67,' 68, 69
** of the instep,
«* -of kiiee.

Barley water,

Beef tea.

Blood, parity of^
" spitting,

stoppage of.



Boils,



■seof,
number of,
Stmctnre of,
composition of,
fracture of,
health of,
nUea of oetkui,



78
76
192
199
130
135
168
27
43
43
44
45
56
58
178
176



Brain, injuries of, 178

** influence on the lungs, 129

Bread poultice, 203

Bvms, 18



Calves feet jelly, 198

Capillary Yessels, 15

Carminative tea, 201

Caul, 81

Cellular tiisue, 26

Chest, eontractieii of, 117

** bones of, 50

Chicken water, 192

Chilblains, treatment, 21

Circulation, 138

Cholera motbuB, 103

Clothing, 16

'* manner of wearing, 16

" quantity of, 16

CoaU of the eye, 183

Coccyx, 68

Colds, 131

Colic, 100
Colon, ^ 88
Coloring matter of the skin, 18

Common laxative injection, 202

" poultiee, 208
Composition of the bones, . 66

Constipation, 106

Consumption, 184

Corns, 21

Costiveness, 100

Oooghs, 133
Oeam of tartar water, . 198

Cross eye, 183

Croup, ^

Cure of chnmk: diseases, 988



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nil



#0ifTdfT8«



Catiele»

CotitTera,

Cau,



14
9



D



D€tAie», 190

DeformHief, 40, 42, 66

DkrrliM, aente, 99

*< chronic, 100

«• treaUneot oC 99

Dig Cftive organs, 76

*• health of, 95

Digeation, proeesa, 66

Diioaaea of the heart, 162

Dblocatioos, 64

Drowned peraona, treatment, 187

DjsenCery, 100

Djapepaia, 104

E



Ear,


186


Enlargement of veina.


160


Eje,


181


'< coats of.


168


'* hamoQr8X>f,


184


" inflammation of,


186


«< akin of,


186


Eaaence of Beef,


200



F

Fainting,

Felona,

Fever,

•< ireatmcot,
•* aoarlet.



Fita.

Flaxaeedtea,
Food, amonnt of,

•« kind of,

«* timea of takng,

'« how taken,

** in acnte dia oaa ea,

^ lor the aick,
ffaetan of bonea.



179

68

180

181

24

26

179

200

.88

90

S9

96
1S2



Pag.



G



General



eral aocgeationa to
Ilea andothera,
Glanda, aaliYary,
of the m
** aweat,
gaatrie.
Grave),
Gam Arabic water,

H

HsBmorrhoidea,
Heart,

** atmctnre of the,

•« vaWeaof,

** diaeaaea of,
flemia.
Hip joint.
Hep ponltiea,
** baa or fomentation,
«« pilbw,
Hamoors of the eje.



fao^



Iceland oMiaa jellj.
Imperfect hearing.
Impaired vinon,
Indian meal poultice,
Injectiooo,

Inflammation of the eye,
Inteatioea,
Iriab moos jellj.



Jointa,
** dialecatwaa of.



K



Kidney,
Knee joint.



96

77
80
16
80
118
198



107
189
142
146
162
109
68
204
206
206
184



197
198
186
204
202
186
81
19$



61
61, 64



102



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(HMITWrt.



IZ



P^e



168
201

60
104
120
125

14



2S

mik of assaimtida, 201

Motire moaclea of the eye, 181

MMcalar ayatem, 28

" •• law of, 28, 88

Mwclea; office of, 81

" color of, SI

" development of, 84

Mwtard poultice, 206

Matton water, iBd



Laoefatad wonnda,
Lamonade,
I^gameata^
liver oomiHaiBta,

*« TolaaMof,
Lymphatic Yeaaela,

M



N



Ifaiia ^wing int
Near a^ghtedneaa
Nenrooa aystem,
Nenrouaneaa,
Nenrea,



o

Oatmeal jEmel,

" flitmmory^,
GSaophagoa,
Omen tarn,
Ckangaade,



P»hi in the aide,

Ptaado,

Ptoereaa,

Pericardiiim,

Pflea,



into the flesh.



22
180
160
176
170



194

195

77, 79

81

201



184
194
81
141
107



Pharynx, 77

PoUtoe flofluaery, 196

Poaltioea, 208
Position of liroba, in dreaaing

wooods, 159

PnrgatiTe injection, 202

Panctnred wonnda, 159



Quinsy,



R



Rectum,
Respiration,
Reto macosnm,
Ribs, movement of.
Rice Hammurt,
" grael, >

Rickets,
Ring.worms,

'' treatment,

Rnnronnd,
Rnptnre,
Rye meal poultice,

s



Salepf

Salivary glands.

Scalds,

Scarlet fever.

Schools, children at.

Sick rooms,

Skro,

Skull benes.

Sling for the arm.

Slippery Elm Jelly,
** *• Tea
" •« Poultice.

Sndoriferous glands.

Spice poultice.

Spinal disease,

•* *• cause of,
" remedy.



186



88

115

18

126

196

194

197

40

21

21

28

109

198



M4

195

77

18

24

89

179

18

44

75

197

200

205

15

206

lb.

40

41

42



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p»i«



Spiral of UieehMt,


^


Tamoars, Adipose,


27




70


Tonica conjonctiva.


186


" «« upper extremities, ib.






" « lower


72


V




Btareh, injection,


202




" poultice.


205







Stomftch,


78,79


Vegetable soup.


198


Stopping blood,


158


Venous system.


1^


Strabismus,


188


Ventilation of rooms,


128


Strangury,


118


Vertebra,


48,49


Syncope,




Vomiting,


l«l


T




w




Tamarind water.


193


WhHlow,


58


Tapioca Jelly,


196


Wounds,


155


Tlssae, odipose.


27






" cellQlar,


25






Tbigb Bones,


51


Y




Thoracic dact.


84






Toast water.


192


Yeast poultice,


206



LIST OF CUTS.



rSg. Page.

1 Frontis piece - . ... 2

2 Different tissues of the skin • - - - 18
8 Lymphatic or absorbent vessels - - • - 14

4 Capillary tosmIs of veins and arteries - - - 15

5 Sudoriferous gland - - ... 16

6 Cellular membrane - ' . . . .26

7 Adipose membrane - - ... 28

8 Muscles of the back and side - . . - 29

9 Posterior muscles of the fore-arm - - . .82

10 Anterior " «« .«.«•«. _ ^ - 82

11 Muscles of the leg - . . . -86

12 Deformed chest . .... 40
18 Bones of a deformed chest - • . .42

14 Bones of the head - - ... 48

15 Section of the temporal bone - . - 46

16 Front view of the skeleton .... 46

17 Back Tiew of the skeleton . . . .47

18 Spiral column - .... 48

19 A bone of the spine - - - 49



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Litfr 0F CUTS. XI

SQ BeoM of a well formed chest - . . . 40

21 ArtienlatioQa oftbeelavtcle « - • -1^1

22 Vertical section of the thigh bone - - - -51
22 Hip joint - - • ... .53
24 Section of the knee joint - - . - 04
2K Frectored bones - - ... 58
W Elbow joints and its ligaments - - . - ^2

27 Bones of the wrist, anid their articulations - - . 62

28 Connexion of the bones of the hand by ligaments - . • 68

29 Bones of the foot and connecting ligaments - «* - 68

80 Difierent manners of rolling bandages - - - 66

81 Manner of roHinc a bandage .... 67

82 Manner of applying bandages - . . .67

88 Bandaging the le|( - - - - T ^
84 Spiral of the chest .... .;^ 69

86 Sinml of all the fingers or gaontlet - - - .70
96 Spiral of the upper extremities - - - - 71

87 Spiral of the lower extremity - - - > 72
$8 Bandage of the instep - - - - 78

89 Many tailed bandage - - - - - 74

40 LacM bandage for the knee -> - - - 75

41 Sling for the arm ..... 75

42 Salivary glands ..... 77
48 Liver, stomach, spleen and pancreas - - - 78
44 Small glands of the intestines .... 80
46 Gastric glands ...... 90

46 Mucus membrane of the stomach . - - - 81

47 Liver, stomach and caul - - - - 82

48 A portion of the intestines and mesenteric arteries - 88

49 (Esophagus and intestines - - - - - 84

50 Section of a contracted chest - - . - - 94

51 Section of a well developed chest - . . - 94
60 Position of beniia ..... no
51 Section of the kidney - - - - -^118
92 Position of the kidneys, bladder, &c. - - - 114
58 Skeleton of a deformed, contracted chest - - - 117

54 Skeleton of a well formed chest - - - 117

55 Positioo of the heart and lungs in the chest - - 119

56 View of the heart and lungs removed - - - 120

57 Bronchial tube, air vessels, and lung ... 121

58 Air cells of the longs magnified - - - 121

59 Two parts of the heart • - - - 189

60 Double circulation of man - - - - 140
•1 Heart, lungs, and arteries p>ing to the upper extremities - 141
62 Double heart of man showmg Uie direction of the passmg

of the blood 142

69 Right sideoftbe heart, showing its valves - - 148

64 PahDonary arterr and ri«ht ventricle ... 144

<5 Leftside oftbe bean and its valvcHi - - - 144

66 Seokilttnar values ; Aortaand left ventricles laid (^en - 145

61 Veins of the system - ... - 146
66 A veiD kid opes slMwiog its vahres - 147



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Xll LIST OP CVT8.

60 Artarietoftlie fjntaiii 148

70 Arteries going to the neck aod head - - 149

71 Arteries of the neck and brain .... 160

72 Vertebral arteries of the brain - - - - 162
78 Bradual artery and its branches .... 16S
74 Weond and manner of stopping blood - - - 164
76 Stoppmg bleediog of the femoral arterf ... 166

76 Manner of dressing wonnds - - - - 166

77 Manner of catting adhesiYO strips .... 167

78 Manner of removing strips from a womd * - - ib.

79 Bandage for Taricose Yeins .... 160

80 View ofthesaperiorsnrfaoeof the brem ... 161

81 Horizontal section of the brain .... 162

82 Vertical section of the brain, bones of the head and fiice 16S
88 View of the inferior surface of the brain - - 164
84 Vertical section of the head and spine ... 166

86 Portion of the spinal cord .... 166
SS Brain and nervous system .... 167

87 Nerves of the arm . - - - - 169

88 Nerves of the face - . . . -170

89 Nerves of the chest and abdomen ... i7i

90 Muscles of the eye ... . . .182

91 Coats of the eye - . . . - 188

92 Humoura of the eye ..... 184
98 Temporal bone ..... 187
94 Bones of the ear ..... 187
96 Semicircular canals and cochlea .... 188

96 Semicbcalar canals and cochlea divided . «. . 188

97 Internal arrangement of the ear ' - - - - 189

98 Organs of the ear . . - - - 190

99 Vertical section of the body, showing the natural position

of the abdominal oraans .... 209

100 Showing the position ofthe abdomhial oigans, when the

• muscles ara relaxed ..... 210

101 Front view of an adjusted supporter ... 214

102 Side view showing the application of the supporter •; 214



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PHYSIOLOGICAL

FAMILY PHYSICIAN.



The skiD is composed of three parts, viz. the cuHcU
or epidermis sometimes called ibe scarf skiir; the rete
mucosum; and the curtis vera^ corion or true skia. These
combined form the animal membfane called the skia.

Fig. 2. .




1. The catide, or icarf-sluii. •

S. The reie mucosum, or colored stralu^i of the skin.

3. The papilla of the akin on the surface of the true fkin*

4. Cniis vera, or true skin,

5. The subcutaneous cellular tissue.

6. Some fibres of the cutaneous musde.

The CUTICLE has no nerves or blood vessels. If wound-
ed there is no pain experienced and no blood will ooze
from it. This membrane is thickened by friction, so that
the laborer can pursue his indurtrial employment without
suffering. It is useful in protecting the blood vessels and
nerves that are embedded in the true skin. It is likewise
Vseful in preventing the absorbents from conveying inju-
rious matter into the system.

The RETE MUcosUM called the mucous coat, lies im-
mediately beneath the cuticle. This is the coloring tis-
sue of the skin. In the African it is black; Mongolian,
yellow; Indian, copper colored; Caucasian, white. It
gives some protection to the blood vessels and nerves.
3

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14 FBYSIOLOOICAL FAMILY PHTSICIAN.

The CUTIS VERA called the true skin contains nerves^
absorbent vesseby arteries^ veins^ and sudoriferous or
sweating glands.

Tbe NERVES are spread over every part of the true
skin, but in some parts tbey are more abundant tban in
others. Tbey are more numerous in tbe upper tban low-
er extremities, in greater numbers upon tbe palm tban tbe
back of tbe band.

Fig. 3.

This engraving re-
presents a plexus of
Lymphatic or absor-
bent vessels in tbe skin
considerably magnified
from an injected pre-
paration.

Tbe office of the
absorbents is tbe tak-
ing up and conveying
in 4o the system, mat-
ter that comes in contact with their extremities. These
vessels act most efficiently under the following circum-
stances: — 1. When the system is not supplied with a
proper quantity of food. 2. When the skin is moist or
damp. 3. When tbe cuticle, is removed. In visiting
and watching with the sick, traveling through niarsby dis-
tricts at the South, working in rooms containing poison-
ous vapors, the skin and clothing should be kept dry,
the room well ventilated, the svstem supplied with a
proper amount of food, and the cuticle protected if
oroken.

The ARTERIES are tbe small tubes .or vessels through
which the blood that nourishes the skin passes.

The VEINS are tbe small vessels through which the
blood that is impure and dark is returned from the skin.
These vessels sometimes become enlarged. This is the
case when Toddy blossoms^ ^o called, are seen upon tbe
face and nose of Rum drinkers. The same is true in
some cases of other iliseases of the skin.

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OP THE SKIN.

Fig. 4.



A. A. arterial branches ; B. B. capUIarj or hair Kke vetMlt in which tha
larf^e branches terminate ; C. the venom trunk collecting the blood frvm tha
capdlartfls.

The SUDORIFEROUS or sweat glands, are minute organs
placed in the true ^ skin. The tube or duct that leads
from them opens under the cuiicle or scarf skin.

These glands exist in great numbers in the skin. By
their united action something like two pounds of decayed,
waste, and useless matter is carried from the system every
twenty four hours. This usually passes away in the form
of insensible perspiration. If it becomes perceptible it
18 called sweat.

These glands act most efficiently under the following
circumstances: — 1. When the system is adequately sup-
plied with food. 2. When the clothing is dry, porous,
and loosely worn. 3. When the air is clear and dry.
. That the skin be maintained in a healthy state, the
following conditions should be observed.

CLOTHING.

1. lo all cases, sufficient clothing should be worn to
prevent any sudden chills. 2. It should be worn loose
upon every part of the system. 3. It should be porous



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16 PHYSIOLOGICAL FAWLT PHYSICIAN.

Fig. 6.



This engraving represents
sudoriferous or sweat gland y
from the palm of the band
magnified, 40 diameter, a.
a. contorted tube composing
tbe gland and uniting with two
excretory ducts b, 6. which
uniting one form spinal canal
tliat perforates the epidermis
at c,y and open on its surface
at d. The glands are embed-
ded in fat vesicles which are
seen at e. e.



like woolen and cotton cloths. 4. It should be fre-
quently changed and kept clean. 5. If it becoroeswe
or merely damp by free sweating, by the dampness
of evening or by exposure to showers, it should be chang-
ed. 6. In these cases tbe skin should be wiped dry, and
troartly rubbed before putting on dry fresh clothing.



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or THE SDIf. 17

7. Ev^ry person needs an additional garment when leav-
ing a warm room and going into the open air. These
simple rules should be obserred by every man, woman
and child.



BATHING.

The insensible perspiration or sweit that is separated
from the blood is composed of water, salt, oil, rust of
iron and some other articles. The water will evaporate
or dry oflT, leaving the salt, oil and other substances as re-
sidual matter upon the skin. This forms a species of
varnish that will obstruct the ducts of the sudoriferous
glands. To remove this residual matter, daily ablution
is needed. The warm, the vapor, and the cold bath are
useful for this purpose. By bathing frequently the circu-
lation of the skin is maintamed in a healthy condition and
the waste matter steadily eliminated from the system.

After bathing, wipe dry, and rub the skin with a
coarse towel, ny so doing, there is. no danger of con-
tracting a cold. If^the skin be dry and inactive in acute
or chronic disease, bathins and friction are of vast im-
portance. Many cases oi disease can be removed with-
out medicine by attention to bathing. In all cases after
bathing, exercise is important, and should not be omit-
ted, when it can be taken. If a cold bath leaves a chill
upon the system, use the tepid, warm or vapor bath in
its place. The following from the Boston Morning Post,
is the od rem.

^^ The cheapest and best bathing apparatus — a small
tub, a wash bowl, a sponge, and a coarse towel. Our
correspondent, Experience, takes a shower of ice water
like a hero, many will think, but to him it is a luxury.
Many constitutions cannot bear the shower ; such may
profit by the sponge and friction. Many again cannot
bear cold water — take warm water, then. But, at all
events, bathe ! If possible, use cold water. There
is the virtue in it that was in the pool of Stloam.^'
8*



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18 raVSIOLOOIGAL VAXaS FSTSICUJr.



BURNS AND SCALDS.

These injuries, in the first stage, are generally treated
by the mother, or some female friend, and it is necessary
that they have definite information as to the treatment of
them. It is common to see these injuries treated by the
application of acids, alkalies, anodynes, and irritants,
applied either hot or cold. These diverse articles are
applied in all ways, and in all quantities. Those who
advise these articles, and who apply them, will assert
that the results of the use of the advised article are the
best, and that such has always been known to be the
case. Now if the anodyne is the proper remedy, the
acid cannot be; and so of the other-nanoed articles.
These articles are usually recommended and applied for
two reasons. 1st. They are good to take out the fire.
2d. They are excellent to heal the parts. Some ques-
tion whether it is needful to apply any thing for euher
of these purposes. What evidence is there, that fire
exists in burns or scalds ? The fact that the scarf-skin
has been removed, is no evidence, as it proves too
much. For this part of the skin may be removed by a
mustard paste, or by friction, or by acids, asi readily as
by hot water. In these cases, no one will pretend there
is any fire to take out, — ^yet the evidence from the scarf-
skin being removed, is as conclusive in favor of ex-
tracting the fire in these instances, as in the other. Some
assert, that so long as the smarting continues, so long
is there fire in the parts. There is smarting in all instan-
ces where the scarf-skin is removed, more or less in-
tense. If smarting is an evidence of fire, we can prove
that the subtile destroyer has a hand in all the instances
in which the skin is removed, — the nervous system t>e-
ing in a healthy state. The cause of the severe smart-
ing in scalds, is the effect of the heat of the water ex-
citing an increased flow of blood to the nerves, and the
sentient extremities being exposed to the unaccustomed
stimulus of the air and heat. If the heat was applied in
a gradual manner, the smarting would be much less.



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BUKNS AND 8CALDfl« " 19

' This is also true in the application of irritating stiimilus
to the skin; the nerves and vessels adapt themselves to
the action of the stimulus, tbustlie pain is diminished.

Many things are applied on account of their liealing
properties. We will now examine the manner in which
any wound of the skin is healed. It is not by any ex-
ternal application, but by the blood vessels throwing out


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Online LibraryMontana State Water Conservation BoardWater resources survey: Hill County, Montana (Volume 1967) → online text (page 1 of 15)