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nor less than the irreligion of "the average enlightened
person who has been trained in the methods of contem-
poraneous thought and who accepts the conclusions of
modern science." He wanted to get the Socialists into

1 Engels.



SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 263

good company. In his surrejoinder he abandoned the
attempt, leaving his brethren naked, so far as the cloak
of science is concerned.

Although his assertion about the attitude of the Church
toward science is irrelevant to this debate, I cannot let
it pass without a brief refutation.

In the first place, neither he nor any one else can prove
that the Catholic Church has ever officially or semi-
officially condemned a principle or conclusion of science
which had already passed from the sphere of hypothesis
to that of established fact.

In the second place, his representation of the historical
events that he cites is grossly misleading. Copernicus
deferred the publication of his discoveries from fear,
not of "theological persecution," but of the "mathema-
ticians," that is, the philosophers of his time. That this
is the true explanation, we know from the letter in which
he dedicated the work to Pope Paul III. Neither this
Pope nor any of the nine who followed him in the
course of the next seventy-two years interfered in the
slightest with the discussion and spread of the Co-
pernican theories.

Galileo met with opposition from the authorities at
Rome only when he was no longer content to put forth
the heliocentric theory as a scientific hypothesis, but
insisted on dogmatically proclaiming it as an established
fact and interpreting the Scriptures accordingly. In
other words, he got into trouble because he was too
hasty, and because he went outside his province as a
scientist. Thomas Henry Huxley, who can scarcely
be accused of pro-religious bias, wrote to St. George
Mivart, November 12, 1885 :



264 SOCIALISM: PROMISE OR MENACE

"I gave some attention to the case of Galileo when
I was in Italy, and I came to the conclusion that the Pope
and the College of Cardinals had rather the best of
it."

It is not accurate to say that Pope Pius IX condemned
the Darwinian theory as a "heretic aberration." In
the first place, he never pronounced upon it officially;
in the second place, his informal criticism of it (in a letter
to a French physician) referred mainly to its denial of
the Creator.

Original Darwinism excluded God from the universe,
held that the human soul was evolved from matter, and
regarded the entire cosmos as the product of chance,
through natural selection and the survival of the fittest.
Apparently, Mr. Hillquit assumes that this discredited
system of philosophical speculation is identical with the
scientific theory of evolution. He does not seem to
know that, with the exception of a few materialists like
Haeckel, scientists of to-day reject the philosophical
elements of original Darwinism.

The other historical assertions of my opponent are
about as accurate as the three just criticised. Indeed,
Socialist history is no more reliable than Socialist eco-
nomics or Socialist science. It is antiquated, inaccurate,
and confused. It is based not upon facts and first-hand
authorities, but upon prejudice and popularizers. Mr.
Hillquit has taken the historical perversions that he
presents to us from Andrew D. White's "Warfare of
Science with Theology." Despite its pretentious char-
acter and its array of references and foot-notes, this
work is extremely misleading. It is fundamentally
unscientific, because its spirit, as perceived on almost



SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 265

every page, is not the spirit of truth seeking, but of anti-
religious bias.

One or two instances will give some notion of its un-
reliability. Dr. White intimates (and in this he is fol-
lowed by Mr. Hillquit) that Giordano Bruno was burned
at the stake because he propagated the theories of Coper-
nicus; but the records of his trial show that he was
executed on account of his peculiar theological opinions.
He had previously been excommunicated by the Cal-
vinists and the Lutherans. The account given by Dr.
White of the Church's attitude toward interest taking,
and of its consequences, will seem little better than a
caricature to any one who is acquainted with the authori-
tative works of economic historians, such as Professors
Ashley and Cunningham.

There is, however, one unexceptionable statement
in Mr. Hillquit's surrejoinder. He says that "there is
little likelihood of a hearty understanding and active
cooperation between the Socialist movement and the
Catholic Church so long as both remain what they are."
How could any man who knows and thinks expect any-
thing else? On the one hand, the Socialists will not
reject those philosophical, ethical, and religious doctrines
which make their system vastly more than an economic
theory and programme. On the other hand, the Catholic
Church realizes quite clearly the presence, the extent,
and the pernicious character of these non-economic ele-
ments in the Socialist system and the Socialist movement.
As the guardian of faith and morals, she must unceasingly
oppose an organization that propagates such false and
destructive doctrines.



INDEX



The references to Mr. Hillquit's chapters are designated by H ; the references
to Dr. Ryan's chapters are designated by R.



Adams, Brooks, R 42

Adler, Victor, H 6

American Socialists, and religion, R 194,

iQS

American Tobacco Company, R 28
Anarchy, industrial, R 27, 32
Antagonism of Interests, R 33-35, 106-

109, I3S, 254
Authorities, Socialist, R n

Bax, Belford, R 148, 189

Bebel, August, H 6, 8 ; R 143, 148, 149,

188.
Bernstein, Eduard, H 131, 133, 212;

R 113, 114, 140-142.
Blatchford, R., R 189
Brandeis, L. D., R 60, 116
Bruno, Giordano, H 227; R 265
Buffon, George, H 228
Bureaucracy, see Liberty, R

Canal Zone, H 83

Capital, concentration of, R 112-117,
136, 253 ; contribution of to product,
109-111; management of under
Socialism, 49, 58-62 ; ownership of,
39, 41, 42, 107, 115, 136; sources of,
53, 54, 139, 140

Capitalism, arrogance of, R 246, 247 ;
breaking down, 41, 42; corrupting
influence of, 35-38; morality of,
167, 168; development of, H 101 ;
rise of, H 70

Capitalists, number of, R 137

Capitalist ethics, H 155

Capitalist system of wealth production,

HI3

Capitalist wealth denned, H 93
Catholic Church, H 3, 178, 204, 208,
209, 241



Catholic Socialism, H 3
"Catholic Telegraph," H 212
"Catholic Tribune," H 212
Chicago Convention, R 186, 187
Christian Socialism, H 3
Christianity, and economic conditions,

R 105, 106, 134, 196, 197 ; and

Socialism, 216; see Religion, Church
Christianity denned, H 202
Church, abandonment of by Socialists,

R 192, 193 ; and capitalism, 36, 37,

247, 248 ; and science, 263-265 ;

and Socialist irreligion, 220, 221;

development of the, H 206
Classes and class-struggles, H 19, 96,

122, 123, 125
"Class-struggle," H 92, 129, 131;

R 106-109, 121, 135, 138, 141, 254;

see Antagonism of Interests
Collective ownership denned, H 72
Commons, J. R., R 138
Communist Manifesto, R 57, 106, 112
Competition, necessity of, R 59, 60, 65
Concentration, of capital and wealth,

R 112-117, 136, 253; see Trusts,

Monopoly
Conduct, moral criterion of, R 145,

146, 152-154, 169, 170, 171, 260,

261

Confiscation, H73; R 52-55, 153, 249
Cooperation, R 42, 46, 50, 64, 65
Cooperative societies, H 82
Copernicus, Nicholas, H 226, 227;

R 219, 263

Corruption, political, R 35, 36
Crime, see Vice, R
Culture, of the masses, R 33



Darwinism, R 264
Despotism, see Liberty, R



267



268



INDEX



Determinism, economic, R 103-106,
i2i, 134, 144, 148, 149, 166-169,
195-197, 217, 218, 261, 262

Dewe, Rev. J. A., H 203, 204, 224,
225; R 217, 218, 261

Dietzgen, J., R 143, 188

Distribution of Wealth, H 17

Divorce, and love marriages, R 174,
257, 258 ; see Marriage

Divorces in modern society, H 181

Economic determinism, see Economic

Interpretation of History, H
Economic interpretation of history

explained, H 90, 99, 122, 129, 131,

225 ; R, see Determinism
Education, and economic conditions,

R 144; monopoly of, 69, 151, 174, 175
Education under Socialism, H 86, 163
Ely, R. T., R 29
Engels, Frederick, H 6, 7, 8; R n, 103,

104, 112, 143, 149, 188, 196, 197
English Wholesale Cooperative Society,

H82

Erfurt Programme, H 199; R 151, 186

Ethical evolution, H 158

Ethical Ideal, H 179

Ethics, see Conduct, Morality, Moral

law, R
Evolution, ethical, R 144, 146, 147,

170, 171, 257; social, 47, 103, 121,

2S3-2SS
Exaggeration, Socialist, R 27-39, i5,

106, 134, 246
Expediency, as criterion of conduct,

R 152-154, 175, 176, 259, 260; r&le

of hi Socialist ethics, H 164, 184, 236

Faith, see Determinism, Fatalism,
Materialism, Science, Utopianism, R

Family under Capitalism, H 161 ;
under Socialism, H 163, 184; see
Education, Marriage, Monogamy, R

Farley, Cardinal John M., H 203

Farms, ownership of, R 113, 114, 118,
136; see Concentration, Land

Fatalism and Socialism, H 237 ; R 121,
135, 141, 253-255; see Determin-
ism, Materialism

Ferri, E., R 189

Figures of Speech, R 28, 29; see
Exaggeration



Final Ethics, H 179
Fourier, Charles, H 98

Galileo, G., R 263, 264

Goethals, Col. George, H 83, 84 ; R 61,

250-252
Guesde, Jules, H 6

Half Truths, R 29-33 ; see Exaggeration
Happiness, as criterion of conduct,

R 152, 169, 171, 260, 261
Hardie, J. Keir, H 6
Hegel, G. F. W., R 120, 121, 254
Herron, G. D., R 143, 189
Hillquit, M., RSI, 143, 152
History, aprioristic, R22i; Socialist,

265, 266 ; see Determinism
Hourwich, I. A., R 137, 138
Hunter, R., R 29
Huxley, T. H., R 264
Hyndman, H. M., H 6

Ideal, Socialist, Ri2; see Conduct,
Happiness

Immediate Demands, in Socialist plat-
forms, R 44, 45

Immorality, see Morality, Vice, R

Incentive under Socialism, H 80 ; R 50-
65, 250-252

Incomes, excessive, R 39, 40, 46 ; see
Class Struggle, Concentration

Increasing Misery, theory of, R 112,
"3. 135, 141, 253 ; see Concentration

Individual Actions, ethics of, R 147,
148, 171, 172, 256

Individual h'berty under Socialism,
H 85, 87

Individual tool, H 70

Industries, management of under
Socialism, H 80

"Inevitability" of Socialism, H 237

Instruments of Production, see
Capital, R

Insurance, R 29, 31, 40

Interest, abolition of, R 46 ; justifica-
tion of, 54 ; see Capital

International Socialism, H 4 ; R 10, 1 2

International Socialist Bureau, H 4

Irreligion, of Socialism, R 218-220; of
science, 263

Jaures, Jean, H 6



INDEX



269



Kautsky, Karl, H 6, 122, 131, 133, 201,
225, 238, 242; R 50, 51, 68, 105, 134,
142, 143, 150, 196, 215, 216

"Labour" as employed in Socialist

economics defined, H 94; R, see

Product, Wage Earners
Labour Unions, R 40, in, 135
Laf argue, Paul, H 6; R 188
La Monte, R., R 143, 152, 259
Land ownership, Socialist view of, H

78
Land, tenure of under Socialism, R 48,

49, 56, 57, 249, 250; see Farms
Lassalle, Ferdinand, H 6, 7
Leaders, Socialist, and religion, R 187-

190
Leadership, industrial under Socialism,

R 58-62, 250, 251
Leatham, J., R 193
Leo XIII, Pope, R 55
Liberty, loss of under Socialism, R 32,

47, 58, 66-69, 251, 253; of religious

practices, R 221, 222
Liebknecht, Wilhelm, H 6, 200; R 69,

187, 216, 222
Literature, Socialist, and religion,

R 190-192

Loria, Achille, H 122, 242
Love-Unions, R 149-151, 172-174, 257,

258

Maison du Peuple, H 82

Manufactures, concentration in, R 1 14,
115, "8, 253

Marriage, and morality, R 257, 258 ;
and Socialism, R 148, 151, 172-174,
257, 258

Marshall, A., R 38

Marx, Karl, H 6, 7, 89, 90, 93, 94, 98,
130, 131, 238; R 103, 109, 112, 113,
139, 144. 149, 187

Marxism, fundamentals of, H 88

Materialism, R 103-105, 121, 143-145,
169, 196, 197, 255, 262; see Deter-
minism

Materialist Conception of history, H,
see Economic Interpretation of His-
tory

Meade, E. S., R 60, 116

Middle Ages, R 30, 248

"Middle Classes," defined, H 99;



R 112, 113, 137, 253; see Concentra-
tion

Minimum Wage, R 31, 40, 45

"Monogamy," R 148-150, 172, 173,
257 ; defined, H 181

Monopoly, R 40, 41,' 116, 117; see
Concentration, Trusts

Morality, and economic conditions,
R 105, 134, 143, 166-168 ; and Social-
ism, R 143-154, 166-176, 255-257;
see Conduct, Vice

Moral Law, R 143, 147, 160-171, 255-
257 ; see Conduct

Movement, Socialist, R 12, 119, 138,
139, 197-199. 221-224, 246, 261,
263, 265

Murder, and war, R 166, 167

Mutability of moral perceptions, H 158,
176

Nature, human, R 38, 42 ; see Incen-
tives; rational, as criterion of con-
duct, R 145, 146, 169, 171, 172

Obligation, moral, R 145, 147, 148, 172,

255, 256
Owen, Robert, H 98

Panama Canal, H 83, 84
Pannekoek, Dr. Anton, H 199
Pauperization, progressive, H 238
Philosophy, Socialist, R 10, 12, 13,

103-122, 134-142, 173, 244, 255
Pius IX, Pope, R 264
Platforms, Socialist, R 186, 187
Plekhanoff, Georges, H 6
Political corruption, H 20
Politics, and economic conditions,

R 105 ; see Corruption
Population of United States classified

by occupations, H 125
Poverty, causes of, H 25 ; in United

States, R 29
Prescription, R 55, 249; title by, H

77

Press, corruption of, R 36, 37 ; shack-
ling of, R 68, 69

Privilege, and capital, R 31

Product, of labour, R 109-111; see
Capital

Progres, H 82

Public grants, ethical aspect of, H 76



270



INDEX



Purification of Socialism, R 197-199,
223, 261

Rank and File, of workers under
Socialism, R 62-64, 251, 252

Rauschenbusch, W., R 194, 195

Reform, social, R 13, 31, 39-42, 44~47,
248, 249

Religion, defined, H 202 ; and economic
conditions, R 105, 144 ; and science,
H 205, 226; R 217-220; under
Socialism, H 213; R 187-198, 218,
261, 263

Revisionism, R 140

" Revisionistic" Socialism, H 131

Rights, natural, R 56, 259, 260

Savings Banks, R 113

Schools, and capitalism, R 37

Science, and religion, R 195, 218-220;
and Socialism, R 119-121, 253-255

Shaw, G. Bernard, H 7; R n

Simkhovitch, V. D., R 120, 134, 138

Social reform, the limit of, H 43

Social tool, H 70

Socialism, defined, H 8, 9, 70; and
agnosticism, H 204 ; and the church,
H 206 ; and the family, H 161 ; and
morality, H 154; and religion,
H 199; and religious tolerance,
H 210; and social reform, H 43, 234;
of the Chair, H 3

Socialist, authorities, H 5 ; ethics
defined, H 154; ideal, H 9; indict-
ment, H 14; programme, H 9, 26,
72, 99, 157, 232 ; State, H 9, 69, 82,
239 ; R 48-69

Spargo, John, R 49, 151, 153, 175, 189,
195, 260

Standard of Living, R 109, 1 10, 140



Standard Oil Company, R 28, 52

State Socialism, H 3

Streightoff, F. H., R 107, 115, 136;

H 124, 125
"Surplus value," defined, H 95, 122,

129; R 109, in, 120, 140
System, present economic, R 13, 29-35

Tactics, Socialist, R 186, 187, 216

Taussig, F. W., R 64, 116

Taxation, R 41

Trusts, R 28, 35, 115-117; social
effects of, H 1 6, 17; see Concen-
tration

United States Steel Corporation, R 52
Utopianism, R47, 121, 135

Vandervelde, Emile, H 6 ; R 188

Variable ethics, H 158, 160

Veblen, T., R 32

Vice, and economic conditions, R 105,

134, 144 ; see Morality
Violence and Socialism, R 153, 175, 176,

250
Vooruit, H 82

Wage Earners, R 29-31, 39, 118, 119;

number of, 137, 138
Wages, R 39, 40, 109-112, 140
Wallace, Alfred Russel, H 226
Walling, W. E., R 49, 52, 57, 190
War, and murder, R 166, 167
Wealth, distribution of in United

States, H 124; sources of, H 75
White, A. D., R 265
Women, and industry, R 173, 174, 258
Working Class, increase of, H 101

Zentral Verein, H 82



T



HE following pages contain advertisements of
books by the same authors or on kindred subjects.



W^here and

Public Ownership has Failed

By YVES GUYOT



Author of " Socialistic Fallacies "

Editor-in-Chief of the Journal des Rconomistes, President of the Societe
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Political and Social Science, Hon. Member of the Royal Statistical Society
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Translated from the French by

H. F. BAKER

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A glance at a few of the topics leading to these conclusions is a suffi-
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Socialism in Theory and Practice

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